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20th Century Edition, 





Copyright, 1903, by A. J. Holman & Co. 



The Bible, strictly speaking, is not a book, but a library of brief writings, some of which contain histories, some 
codes of laws, some prophecies, some collections of religious songs and proverbs, and some epistles. 

This library is divided into two parts, the one containing records of the history and religious development of the 
Jews before the time of Christ, — the other the distinctive Christian literature produced by the followers of Our 
Lord during the first century after His appearance on earth. 

Compared with all other literary productions, the Bible stands singularly and peculiarly alone. The earliest part 
of it is the oldest record in the world which lays any claim to being a trustworthy history. It traces that history 
back to its very beginnings, and develops it from the religious standpoint, throwing a Divine light upon it all. As 
a whole it bears the impress of Inspiration, by which its authors were divinely guided to tell the Divine shaping 
of events. 

The Jews were the chosen people of God. From the very earliest times, He was in constant communication with 
them. Individual and tribal responsibilities were the ever-present and dominating ideas ; and while all were not 
invested with the prophetic gift, He chose, from among them, such as were fitted to receive the Divine communi- 
cation, and they became the real teachers of the race. 

This process of revelation culminated in Jesus, in whom the indwelling of the Divine Spirit was perfect, 
unchecked by any sin or imperfection of His own being, so that every act and word of this Light of the World 
became a word of God to men, and His whole being was the Word of God. 

The proof that this collection of literature is the Word of God is that it possesses the qualities and powers that 
belong to such a Word. It is true ; and being true, it appeals to our sense of the truth, and approves itself to us. 
The truth that the Bible conveys being of the highest order, it kindles the minds that speak it to high and great 
expression ; and the minds that receive it, to respond to its greatness. But above all, being moral and spiritual 
truth coming from God Himself, it is an instrument by which the Spirit quickens those " dead in trespasses and 
sins," and imparts spiritual life to men. 

It tells its own story best when it says : — " God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past 
unto the fathers by the prophets, hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son." 

In this new edition of the large type Holman Self-Pronouncing quarto Bible, the same plan of syllabification 
and accentuation has been carried out which caused our Sunday-School Teachers' Bibles to be so universally popular. 
Every proper name in the text is syllabified and accented, and the many variable vowels and consonants are dia- 
critically marked according to the most reliable modern standards of pronunciation. 

The large, readable type, the clearness of the page, the admirable arrangement of its myriads of references, its 
size, convenience, and durability, combine to render it superior to all other editions of the Sacred Word for handy 
reference and daily use. 

The text used conforms to that of the edition of 1611 commonly known as the Authorized or King James Ver- 
sion. Although this translation has now been before the people well-nigh three hundred years, and though the 
language and spelling have changed, it still possesses an undeniable charm for the great majority of English-speak- 
ing people, which no subsequent rendering has been able to obliterate. 

Neither time, labor, nor expense has been spared to render this edition worthy of the confidence of the people ; 
and it is our earnest hope that many a one who has not hitherto found attractions in the pages of the Bible will 
be able to say, " Thy word is a lamp unto my feet, and a light unto my path." 






The books composing the Holy Bible were written in 
different ages, from Moses to John (b. c. 1650 to A. D. 
90 — a period of more than seventeen hundred years), 
by men who were specially prepared for the work by 
direct inspiration from the Divine Source of all know- 

The several books bear a uniform and unvarying 
testimony in support of each other by quotations, by 
the express recognition of the prophets, evangelists, 
apostles and the Lord Jesus himself, thus convincing us 
that in all ages, from that of Moses to the present, the 
best men have believed in its Divine origin, and have 
acted accordingly. 

The Hebrews were exceedingly careful about these 
writings, as an examination of their very complete sys- 
tem for their preservation and interpretation will show. 

There are references to the writing and reading of 
the law in the Old Testament, in every age, beginning 
with Moses. It was read for instruction publicly in the 
desert of Sinai, at Kadesh, at the crossing of Jordan, at 
the great assembly on Ebal and Gerizim, at Shiloh, at 
the dedication of Solomon's temple, the reform under 
Hezekiah, and more particularly in the case of the col- 
lection of the whole Old Testament by Ezra, who ar- 
ranged it in the order that is still preserved. 

This settlement of the canon in its present form is 
dated from the close of the captivity in Babylon. 

While the Hebrews were in Assyria, captives, their 
language fell into disuse, being neglected for the Chal- 
dsean in popular use. This made it necessary to appoint 
teachers of the law of Moses, whose duties were to pre- 
serve a knowledge of the Scriptures and the language 
in which they were written. Ezra was the chief of 
this class in the later years of the captivity. He re- 
turned to Jerusalem from Babylon with the exiles, 
where he completed his great work of compiling, or 
rather arranging in chronological order, the sacred 
books, for which service he was called the second Moses, 
and was dignified with the title of Scribe (in Hebrew 

When Nehemiah formed the Great Synagogue, the 
Scribes were recognized as a distinct order in the na- 
tion, and seats were given to a number of them in the 
general assembly among the ruling elders. 

The work of this body of learned and devout men 
was : 1. To make the only copies of the sacred Scrip- 
tures that were allowed to be used ; 2. To count the let- 
ters in every book, and the number of times that each 

letter occurred in each book and in all the books ; 3. To 
read the " law " in public on the Sabbath and festival 
days ; 4. To lecture to their disciples (students of the 
law) on the meaning of the Holy Scriptures ; 5. To ar- 
range the liturgy for public worship ; 6. To form the 
traditions ; 7. To protect the law by by-laws which di- 
rected how to copy, keep and interpret the holy writ- 
ings ; 8. To correct any accidental errors in the ori- 
ginal text ; and 9. To add to the sacred canon the books 
of the prophets and of the poets. 

The writings were not added to the text of the 
Scriptures, but were put on the margin, near the text 
which they explained or corrected. 

Their rules may be judged of from two specimens : 
1. Except every one do keep them (the Scriptures) 
whole and undefiled, without doubt he shall perish ever- 
lastingly ; and 2. Except a man believe them faithfully, 
he cannot be saved. 

This order of learned and devout men continued as a 
distinct class from b. c. 458, the end of the captivity in 
Babylon, to B. c. 300, when the order became extinct at 
the death of Simon the Just. 

A parallel historical witness is found in the sect of 
the Samaritans, who separated from the Jews after the 
captivity (being composed of Jews and Chaldseans), built 
a temple on Mount Gerizim, made a new creed, and 
copied the Pentateuch only out of the law for their own 
use. The mutual hatred between the Samaritans and 
Jews rendered it impossible to suppose that there could 
have been a collusion between them to add to or change 
a single word or letter of the sacred writings, and both 
parties strove to convince the world that their particu- 
lar copy of the law was the more ancient. They differ 
but in a very few particulars, which may all be accounted 
for chiefly as errors of the copyists. 

Succeeding the Scribes were certain teachers of the 
law, who were called Sages, Wise Ones, Elders and Doc- 
tors (Tanaim). Their duties were almost identical with 
those of the Scribes whom they succeeded. 

So from age to age, as society changed or new cir- 
cumstances arose, the interpretations of the Scriptures 
were changed to suit the new state of things. The writ- 
ings of the Scribes were explained by the Doctors, and 
these by later teachers, when a vast mass of writings 
accumulated, which formed what is called the Talmud. 
The Talmud is composed of two parts, the Mishna, 
which is the oral law, and the Gemara, the traditions. 

The Doctors were very important and influential in 


the nation. It was among them that Joseph and Mary- 
found the child Jesus explaining the simple truth of the 
Scripture in contrast to the misty and almost blind 
superstition of the commentators. The order of the 
Doctors continued as a distinct body from B. c. 200 to 
A. d. 220. 

The Pharisees were a sect of patriotic and devout 
Jews, whose idea was to make Israel a nation of priests 
in fact, as well as it was in their law as written by 
Moses, and it was the duty of each member to strive, by 
religious study and preparation for the office of a Rabbi 
(teacher), to become a priest in spirit, although not of 
the house of Levi, believing that " God had given to all 
men alike the kingdoms, priesthood and holiness." They 
assumed the duty of special guardians of the Holy 

The Essenes were simply intensified Pharisees, add- 
ing to their duties and professions the self-denial of a 
life of celibacy, and their example and influence were 
most beneficial to the nation. They also were jealous 
custodians of the Scriptures. 

These various orders of learned men cared for the 
Holy Books during a period of more than seven hundred 
years, ending about three hundred years after Christ. 
Since that time the Jews have continued the care of 
their sacred writings with the same zealous watchful- 
ness, believing that the Messiah has not yet appeared, 
and that his coming may possibly be near at hand. 

These writings so carefully preserved were in the 
Hebrew tongue, and it is interesting to know how they 
have been translated into other languages, and espe- 
cially into English. 

The first translation from the Hebrew into any other 
language, that is recorded, was in Chaldee, which was 
made at the time the law was read to the king of Per- 
sia. The original of this has been lost. The oldest 
which has been preserved is that which was made at 
Alexandria in Egypt, B. c. 260, and is called the Septua- 
gint, from a supposition that it was made by seventy 

The next in order of time was made by Onkelos, in 
Chaldee, A. D. 150. The same author, whose name in 
Greek was Aquila, also translated the Old Testament 
into Greek, a.d. 160. This work was evidently intended 
to correct the errors of the Septuagint, which was made 
by several persons, some of whom were not equal to the 
task ; besides, the state of public opinion at that period 
permitted the translators to give the general sense of 
the original instead of following the literal text. 

The Septuagint was also corrected by Theodotion, and 
about the same date (second century) Symmachus made 
a version in Greek for the use of the Ebionites, which is 
correct, pure and elegant in style and diction. 

In the time of the Apostles there were many copies 
of the Gospels for the use of the Church in the differ- 
ent cities, in the languages of the localities — Greek, 
Latin, Hebrew, Syriac, Coptic, Ethiopic and Arabic — 
but the authors of these works are now unknown. 

The Ethiopic version was written in the sacred Jeez, 
the dialect of Axum, in the fourth century. The Coptic 
and Memphitic versions were made soon after, and the 
Coptic is now in use in Egypt. 

The Syriac (called Peshito, single, literal) was made 
from the Hebrew and Greek about A. D. 200, and had 
become almost obsolete as early as the fourth century. 
The work included the whole Bible, with the Apocrypha. 

Paul of Tela made a version of the Septuagint at 
Alexandria, a.d. 617, which was extremely literal, every 
Greek word being rendered by one in Syriac. 

The Thebaic version in the common dialect of Egypt 
was made in the third century, but soon fell into disuse, 
especially among scholars, who preferred the more ele- 
gant Coptic. 

The Gothic version was finished about A. D. 370 by 
Jdlshop Ulphilas. Of the original 330 leaves, compris- 
ing the four gospels, 177 are still in existence and are 
preserved in the Museum in the University of Upsala, 

The great works of Origen consumed twenty-eight 
years of his life, and consist of homilies and commen- 
taries, written with every evidence of scholarship and 
untiring research, extended into all Bible lands. He 
first arranged four versions on the same page for com- 
parison of the text of each with the others as to 
correctness, as follows : — 

1. Septuagint ; 2. Aquila ; 3. Symmachus ; 4. Theo- 
dotion. Afterward he added two others, making what 
is known as the Hexapla (six parts). Some portions of 
the Gospels were in eight versions. The whole work 
comprised nearly fifty volumes folio, of which only a 
very few pages are in existence now. 

The Veneto Greek version is dated A. D. 875. 

The extensive influence of the Scriptures in the early 
ages may be gathered from the remark, so often re- 
peated, that the whole Bible could be gathered from the 
writings of the early centuries, so copious were their 

The great scholar who above all others succeeded in 
making the most valuable version of the Scriptures in 
the Latin tongue was Jerome, whose name as written 
in Latin was Eusebius Hieronymus Sophronius (born 
A. D. 329 at Stridon, died 420 at Bethlehem). He was 
a student and a traveller from his youth, and a patient 
gatherer of knowledge serviceable in his great under- 
taking in all parts of the Christian world. His version 
was for more than eight centuries the great bulwark of 
the Church in the west of Europe, as the Septuagint 
was of the Church in the east. His work has not come 
down to us entire, for the present Vulgate (Douay 
Bible) has in it the work of many hands. 

The translation of the Bible in Germany was begun 
by Otf ried of Weissenburg about the year A. D. 860, in a 
metrical version of the Life of Jesus, the Psalms, Can- 
ticles and Genesis. 

Luther's version was made by the assistance of Me- 
lancthon, Aurogallus, Bugenhagen, Jonas and Creuzi- 
ger, although the greater part of the work was done by 
himself, from A. D. 1522, when the New Testament 
appeared, to 1534, when the whole Bible, including the 
Apocrypha, was published. 

There are also versions in Low German (1533), Danish 
(1550), Swedish (1526), Icelandic (1540), by Thorlak 
Skuleson (1644), Dutch (1648) and Pomeranian (1588). 

The Reformed Church of Switzerland published a 



translation in the Swiss dialect of all the canonical 
Books of the Old and New Testaments as early as 1531 ; 
another in 1665, and the Synod of Dort one in 1637. 

The Vulgate was translated into German at Leipsic in 

Christopher Sower printed a Bible in German at Ger- 
mantown, Pa., in 1743, which was the first Bible printed 
in America next to Eliot's Bible in the Indian language. 

The first recorded translation of the Bible in the Eng- 
lish tongue was the work of Csedmon, who rendered the 
whole Bible, from Genesis to Revelation, into allitera- 
tive verse, A. D. 680. Soon after this Aldhelm, Bishop 
of Sherborne, rendered the Psalms into verse. Bede 
translated John's Gospel (a. d. 735), and Alfred the. 
Great (died A.D. 901) wrote or published the four chap- 
ters of laws from the book of Exodus, because he de- 
sired that "all freeborn youth of his kingdom should 
be able to read the English Scriptures " (as well as be 
educated generally). He had a book of extracts from 
the Psalms and other books made for use in his family. 

The oldest version of the Anglo-Saxon Gospels is 
called the Durham Book, of which a specimen copy is 
now extant, dated A. d. 688. 

The Normans were no friends to education in the 
English tongue, and did not translate the Scriptures, 
but tried to educate the people in religious matters by 
the use of miracle-plays and pictures. Only a few works 
on the Scriptures are dated in their age, of which we 
have still remaining three versions of the Gospel, and 
the Ormulum, a metrical paraphrase of the Gospel his- 
tory in alliterative verse. 

In the thirteenth century there occurred a religious 
revival, when the Bible was translated into Norman- 

The reformer Wycliffe (born 1324, died 1384) ren- 
dered into English almost the entire Bible, " So that for 
Cristen men may some dele know the text of the Gos- 
pel, with the corny n sentence of olde holie doctores." 
This great work was an important element in opening 
the way for the Reformation. 

Tindale devoted his whole life and his great learning 
and eminent abilities that "a boy that driveth a plough" 
might know more of the Scriptures than the great body 
of the clergy then knew (a. d. 1520). He said that 
''The properties of the Hebrew tongue agree a thousand 
times more with English than with the Latin." This 
work of translating the Bible into English was bitterly 
opposed by the Roman Catholics as long as they had 
any power in England or influence in Europe, and their 
wishes were seconded by King Henry VIII., who threw 
Tindale into prison, when, after several years of con- 
finement, he was condemned to death by the Emperor 
Charles V., and was put to death at Villefort, near 
Brussels,, in 1536, and his body burned to ashes. 

Tindale's idea was that every part of the Scriptures 
had one sense only, and he kept that always in view, 
translating from the original Hebrew and Greek. Even 
his enemies have admitted that his work was excellent. 
Its language is pure, appropriate and clear to the under- 
standing. Evidences of great learning and research 
give it a pre-eminent position among the enduring mon- 
uments of human intelligence and skill. Tindale has 

been justly honored with the title of the father of our 
English authorized version. 

It is mournfully interesting to record in memory of 
his learned and faithful assistants that one of them, 
John Fry, was burned at the stake for heresy, on account 
of his share in this work of translation, at Smithfield, 
London, in 1552, and another, the Monk William Roye, 
was put to death for the same offence, in Portugal, in 
1553, while a third, Miles Coverdale, a priest, barely 
escaped death, and even while in prison, for this same 
matter, edited an edition of the Bible in 1535, which 
was dedicated to the king of England. In his preface 
Coverdale declared that he " had not changed so much 
as one word for the benefit of any sect, but had with a 
clear conscience purely and faithfully translated out of 
the foregoing interpreters, having only before his eyes 
the manifest truth of Scriptures." This was the first 
edition of the entire Bible that was printed in English, 
and was also the first authorized version. It was pub- 
lished in six volumes, folio, with marginal notes and 
cross-references, and illustrated with many wood-cuts. 

Lord Cromwell, secretary to Henry the Eighth, vicar- 
general in church affairs, favored this edition, and by 
the king's authority published a decree, commanding, 
"Every person or proprietary of every parish church 
within the realm should, before the first of August, 
1536, provide a book of the whole Bible, both in Latin 
and English, and lay it in the choir, for every man that 
would to look and read therein." 

Tindale's version was edited by the martyr John 
Rogers, who prudently assumed the name of Thomas 
Matthewe as a disguise, because of the enemies of Tin- 
dale, whose intimate friend he was. This edition fol- 
lowed Tindale's version as far as the end of Chronicles, 
and that of Rogers for the rest. Many wood-cuts em- 
bellished both the Old and New Testaments, the book of 
Revelation having one to each chapter. 

Cranmer presented a copy of it to Lord Cromwell in 
1558, asking his intercession with the king for the 
royal authority, which was granted. A royal proclama- 
tion also informed the people that it had pleased the 
king to permit and command that the Bible, printed in 
the English language, should be used for instruction in 
every parish church. 

The Roman party still opposed the printing of the 
Bible in English with all their might, and especially its 
free distribution and use by the people, but the friends 
of the Reformation were encouraged, and the people all 
over England attended in crowds to hear the book read. 

Henry the Eighth sanctioned an edition, and asked 
permission from Francis the First to print it in France, 
and this having been granted, the work was forwarded 
under the care of Coverdale, until the enterprise was 
defeated by the Inquisition, and the whole edition of 
2500 copies was ordered to be burned. A few copies 
were saved, with the type and presses, and the work 
was completed in England in 1539. 

Henry the Eighth's supremacy and freedom in church 
matters from the Pope of Rome was settled by Parlia- 
ment in 1534, the year in which the Church of England 
was established, and from that time the work of trans- 
lating and printing the. Bible in the English language 



has been a powerful aid in the work of the great Re- 

Although the Roman party, led by Gardner, Bishop 
of Winchester, opposed the measure, both in public and 
in private, yet the king favored it, on account partly of 
the great influence of Queen Ann Bullen. An edition 
was printed by Whitchurch and Grafton, with a frontis- 
piece of great beauty, designed by Holbein. 

A corrected reprint of Matthewe's Bible was issued 
by Richard Taverner in 1539, under the patronage of 
Lord Cromwell, to whom the king granted the exclusive 
privilege of printing English Bibles for five years. 

After the death of Lord Cromwell, in 1540, the Ro- 
man party gained such strength that Parliament was 
influenced to pass a law abolishing Tindale's version, 
because it was said to have been " full of errors and to 
produce many evils, heresies and mischiefs, destructive 
of the harmony and peace of the realm." Under this 
act Grafton was imprisoned, fined a large sum, and re- 
leased only under a heavy bond that he would not print 
or sell English Bibles. 

The king's proclamation also prohibited the having or 
reading Wycliffe's, Tindale's and Coverdale's versions. 

Under Edward the Sixth the restrictions against hav- 
ing and reading the Bible in English were removed, and 
it was ordered that parsons and others in the church 
service should have read Scriptures in both Latin and 
English, with the paraphrase of Erasmus in English, 
and also that the mass should be said in English. 

The Liturgy was completed and established by act of 
Parliament in 1549. 

Romanism was restored to power by law under Queen 
Mary in 1553, John Rogers was burned at the stake, 
and many Protestant scholars and divines were driven 
into exile, when they went to Geneva, where they en- 
tered into the spirit of translation with an increased 
vigor in 1539. 

An edition of the whole Bible (omitting the Apocry- 
pha) was printed at Geneva in 1560, in English, which 
is called the Geneva Bible, and it held the popular favor 
for sixty years, giving way only to the authorized ver- 
sion of King James. A Bible Dictionary was added to 
it in 1578. A curious feature in it was an attempt to 
give the Hebrew names of persons in English letters, as 
Heva for Eve, Izhak for Isaac, Jeremidhu for Jeremiah. 

Matthew Parker, Archbishop of Canterbury, published 
the "Bishop's Bible" in 1568, in one volume folio, in 
which there were a number of wood-cuts, maps and cop- 
per-plate engravings of interesting places and things, both 
in the Old and the New Testaments, and the Apocrypha. 

At length, in 1582, the Roman Church yielded to the 
popular demand for the Scriptures in English, and is- 
sued the Douay (doo-a) version, translated from the 
Latin Vulgate, and not from the original Greek. The 
historian Fuller said that "the Douay Bible was a trans- 
lation which needed to be translated," and also that 
" its editors by all means labored to suppress the light 
of truth under one pretence or another." 

The Old Testament was translated by William Allen 
(Cardinal), Gregory Martin and Richard Briston, and 
published at Douay in 1610, the New Testament having 
been published at Rheims in 1582. The notes were 

supplied by Thomas Worthington, and the whole has 
continued until the present time in favor and authority 
in the Roman Church as its standard version in English. 

King James the First, in 1604, on the motion in 
Hampton Court Conference having been made by Dr. 
John Reynolds, a Puritan, selected fifty-four scholars 
and divines, of whom forty-seven served in making a 
new translation. 

There were among them men of various parties, as of 
the High Church, Andrews, Barlow, Montague, Overal and 
Saravia ; of the Puritans, Reynolds, Chaderton and Livlie ; 
and of those who were of no church party, Henry Saville 
and John Boyse. These men were all distinguished for 
piety and eminent learning in Oriental languages. 

There were no records of the meetings of the trans- 
lators preserved, so far as known, but their rules for 
proceeding with their work were published. 

When each company had met together to examine 
and agree upon the readings of the text, " one of the 
party would read the translation, while the others held 
in their hands some version of the Scriptures in either 
one of the learned tongues, and if any error or fault 
was noticed they spoke ; if not, he read on." The work 
was completed in three years. The introduction and 
argument of each book were written by Thomas Bilson, 
Bishop of Winchester, and Dr. Smith. The preface was 
the work of Dr. Miles Smith, who was afterward Bishop 
of Gloucester. In this he says, " We, building upon 
their foundation that went before us, and being holpen 
by their labors, do endeavor to make better that which 
they left so good, no man, we are sure, hath cause to mis- 
take us. They, we persuade ourselves, if they were alive, 
would thank us." And he also said that "it was their 
aim, not to make a new translation, nor yet to make of 
a bad one a good one, but to make a good one better, or 
out of many good ones one principal good one." 

The work was completed and published in 1611, with 
the following title : — 

" The Holy Bible, conteyning the Old Testament and 
the New, newly translated out of the Originall Tongues, 
and with the former Translations diligently compared 
and revised by his Majestie's Speciall Comandement. 
Imprinted at London, by Robert Barker, Printer to the 
King's most excellent Majestic 1611." 

The only pay these men received for their long and 
faithful service was thirty pounds to each one of the 
six editors who made the last revision, by the Company 
of Stationers. The king would not pay out of his own 
treasury, and only gave a shadowy promise of 1000 
marks (about $4000), by an invitation to the archbishops 
and bishops to collect money from those willing to con- 
tribute ; but nothing came of it. 

The Authorized Version, published under the sanction 
of King James the First in 1611, from which this Bible 
is a copy, without change, except in a few cases of or- 
thography, such as original for "originall," as it stands 
in the title of 1611, has been everywhere commended 
for its faithfulness to the original Hebrew and Greek 
Scriptures, its pure and forcible English, its plain but 
dignified forms of expression, and its idiom, true to the 
genius of our tongue, as all that can be desired. 

Its chief value to the English-speaking world is its 


pure English, which dates from a time before the intro- 
duction of the vast number of words from the modern 
languages, which more often obscure the meaning than 
help to a clear idea of what is in the mind. Addison, 
the eminent critic, says, "The translators of the Bible 

were masters of the English style, far fitter for that 
work than any we see in our present writings." The 
best writers, from that day to this, have, clothed their 
choicest thought in its pure idiom, so that its influence 
may be traced all through English literature. 


Prior to the Revolutionary War the English Bibles 
used in this country were obtained in Europe, and at 
the time of American independence but two editions in 
any language had been printed in the United States. 

The first Bible published in this country was a trans- 
lation into the Natick Indian dialect by the Rev. John 
Eliot, a missionary, and printed by Samuel Green and 
Marmaduke Johnson at Cambridge, Mass., in 1663. 
The book was a small quarto, and five years were re- 
quired to print the first edition. The tribe of Indians 
for whom this translation was made has long been ex- 
tinct, and of course the language is dead. It is claimed 
that there is no one now living who can read it. The 
very few copies of this Bible in existence are in the pos- 
session of the larger American and European libraries. 

The first Bible printed in this country in a European 
language was that published in the German by Chris- 
topher Saur, at Germantown, Pa. (now a prominent 
section of the city of Philadelphia), in 1743. Luther's 
translation was used for copy, and it was printed in 
large quarto size from type obtained in Germany. 
Nearly all the sheets of the third edition were de- 
stroyed during the battle of Germantown. Copies of the 
first edition of the Saur Bible are now extremely rare, 
and are held at a very high value by their possessors. 

According to Isaiah Thomas, a publisher in Worcester, 
Mass., about the time of the Revolutionary War, the first 
edition of the Bible in English published in America was 
printed about 1752, with great privacy by Kneeland & 
Green, in Boston. It was printed for Daniel Henchman, 
and had the London imprint on the title-page, to avoid 
detection by the officers of the Crown. It was an unlaw- 
ful enterprise, as Great Britain did not allow the Bible 
to be printed either at home or in the colonies, except 
by royal license. 

The first Bible printed in America in the English 
language was published in a small duodecimo form and 
brevier type by Robert Aitken, at Philadelphia, in 1782. 
The paper was made in Pennsylvania, and the printing 
and binding were done in Philadelphia. These Bibles 
are now hard to find. 

The first folio edition, and also the first royal quarto 
edition, of the Bible in English published in America 
came from the press of Isaiah Thomas, Worcester, 
Mass., in 1791. 

A King James Bible, in quarto size, was published by 
Isaac Collins, Trenton, N. J., in 1791. This Bible was 
bound in two volumes, and the first edition consisted of 
three thousand copies. 

Hodge & Campbell, New York, published in 1792 a 
self-interpreting Bible, by Rev. John Brown, in forty 
numbers folio. The name of George Washington, Presi- 
dent of the United States, heads the list of subscribers. 

. Matthew Carey, Philadelphia, published his first edition 
of the quarto Bible in 1801. This was known as the 
"Standing Edition," from the fact that Carey had suffi- 
cient type to set up the entire Bible at once. 

Samuel Etheridge published a quarto edition of the 
Bible, with engravings, in Charlestown, Mass., in 1803. 

In 1805, Gottlieb Yungman issued at Reading, Pa., 
a German edition of the Bible, in quarto size, that in 
typography and general appearance was a counterpart 
of the Saur Bible. 

Kimber, Conrad & Co., Philadelphia, later Kimber & 
Sharpless, were extensive publishers of Bibles. Their 
first Bible was printed in 1807, and in 1823 a quarto 
Bible was published, which they continued to reissue for 
twenty-one years, when the plates were sold to Jesper 
Harding. Their first edition of the Bible in German 
appeared in 1827, and its publication was continued 
through nearly a quarter of a century. 

In 1808, Jane Aitken (a daughter of Robert Ait- 
ken) published, in four volumes octavo, a version of the 
Bible in English, translated from the Greek by Charles 
Thomson, the secretary of the first Continental Con- 

Ezra Sargent, New York, published in 1811 a quarto 
edition of the Bible, " with a Commentary and critical 
notes, designed as a help to the better understanding of 
the Sacred Writings, by Adam Clarke, LL. D." This 
was the first edition with Clarke's notes that appeared 
in the United States. 

The first Bible printed in this country from stereo- 
type plates cast in the United States came from the 
press of D. & G. Bruce, New York, in 1815. 

In 1819, Johann Baer published at Lancaster, Pa., a 
German Bible in folio that was probably the first folio 
edition in German printed in the United States. 

An 8vo edition of the Bible, " with amendments to the 
language by Noah Webster," was published by Durrie & 
Peck, New Haven, Conn., in 1833. 

Jesper Harding, Philadelphia, afterward succeeded by 
his son, William W. Harding, published his first edition 
of the quarto Bible in 1843, and continued to publish 
edition after edition, with and without illustrations, for 
more than thirty years. 

In 1872, the first edition of the Holman quarto Bible 
appeared, published by A. J. Holman & Co., Philadel- 
phia, who succeeded to the Bible-publishing business of 
William W. Harding. The first Holman Bible issued 
became immediately popular, and the success attained 
has been increased by the addition of new electrotype 
and stereotype plates from time to time, until at pre- 
sent the Holman Bibles are printed from fifteen differ- 
ent styles of type, including editions in the German, 
Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, and Finnish languages. 



The oldest version in any language of which there 
is a record is the Septuagint, written in Greek, at Alex- 
andria, Egypt, B. c. 286-280. The oldest known copy 
of this version is written on thin vellum, contains the 
whole Bible, and is dated in the fifth century ; now in 
the British Museum, and is called 






TTAP A.lNo\cToir~ro 

This specimen is from a copy in the library of Trinity College, Dublin, a palimpsest, and belongs 

, j. Q ^ e sixth century. It is from the Gospel of Mat« 

thew, xix. 26. „ 

This specimen is from a copy of the Book of Genesta, 
written for Origen, in Greek, A. D. 185 to 255, and shows 
a very neat and clear text, as well as all the others. 

The Codex Alexandrinus. 


The Codex Vaticanus is a manuscript in the Vatican 
Library, Borne ; contains the whole Bible, except a few 
lost leaves, and belongs to the fourth century. 





The oldest He- 
brew MS. known is 
dated A. d. 489 ; is a 
roll, and was found 
in the Karaite Syna- 
gogue in the Crimea. » 

The specimen given V £ 

here is from a Pentateuch, written originally on a roll of leather, preserved in Odessa, and was 
brought from Darbend, in Daghestan. It was corrected in A. d. 580, and was therefore written before 
that time. The text is from Malachi iv. 6. 


As a specimen of the ancient Hebrew letter used about the time that Paul was a pupil of Gama- 
liel, here is a copy from a gravestone in the 

Crimea, of the year A. D. 6. This style of letter 
is like that on the coins of the Maccabees, B. c. 
139, and other coins down to A. d. 130. 

The Cod-ex Sinaiticus was found in the Convent on 
Mount Sinai, and belongs to the sixth century, but is a 
copy of one of an earlier date. Besides the Old and 
New Testaments, it has the Gospel and Epistles of Barnabas and the Epistle of Hermas, 
Fragments of the Gospel are contained in a palimpsest MS. in a library at Wolfen-buttel, 

■; : 

Germany, where the ancient Greek letters have been scraped off, and a modern text written 

> 'ri p. errfPAV 1^ T- r 
oA; U..p *\J> U *>. V '•>' ~ ■*-*& 




fli\ .A\ it A\ I h\ ,»*V. i/ (: 

is n 




over them, but not entirely obliterating the ancient writing. The first speci- 
men is from Luke i. 6. The next is one which was found at the Convent on 
the Natron Lakes, Egypt, and is Luke xx. 9, 10, with a work of Severus of 

'papers? & i. 

^ 1*1^ *1 ^ % V ^1^1 {On a gravestone at Sim* 
. |/ I— X j I J J | §\ | pheropol, Crimea.) 

))tVl1 n/T^" J^ ' "This is the grave of 
« |» IJ«J,pi |^ IJ Buki, son of Isaac, the 

hfcV*- ft\)]W* iTlt^ priest ; may his rest be in 

•VU;.jllylU. ily Paradise! [Died] at the 

1 W (I HI £Y . S'SA time of the deliverance of 

r* w / f Israe1 ' in the year 702 of 

iJ/^SV) D^ICy our captivity" (i.e.A.D. 6). 

Antioch over it. It is dated A. D. 550. Both the specimens of writing are 
fine examples of the art. The great price of writing material, skins, parch- 
ment, vellum or cloth and papyrus, caused the loss of many old books, whose 
letters were erased to make room for some new work. 

The oldest printed Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) was Issued at Soncino, 
Italy, A. D. 1487_, in folio. The Complutensian Polyglott was published at the 
expense of Cardinal Ximenes in 1514-1522, in 6 vols, folio, and sold at fifteen 
dollars. The last specimen on this page is Greek, from the text of John i. 1, 2, 
and is dated a. d. 995. The initial letter is in blue and red colors, and is very 

f AHA K/Jl Jg. T nXQ - 




-» f y 

finely "illuminated." The first book printed was the Bible, in Latin; and 
the splendid pages of the Mazarin Vulgate, printed by Gutenberg and Faust 
in 1455, at Mainz, are not surpassed at this day as specimens of typography. 
And the style of the letter has not been improved upon since that time for 
elegance of shape or distinctness. 



(From " Explorations in Bible Lands during the 19th Century," by H. V. Hilprecht, Ph. D., LL. D., D. D., Clark Research Professor of 
Assyriology, and Scientific Director of the Babylonian Expedition, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.) 

(Copyright 1903, By A. J. HOLM AN & CO.) 

The early Babylonians, who excelled all other ancient 
nations of the same period in their lofty religious concep- 
tions, in the depth of their sentiment and in the scientific 
character of their investigations, did not suffer anything 
in their schoolrooms that would tend to distract the 
minds of the pupils and to interfere with their proper 
occupation. The temple library of ancient Nippur was 
eminently a place of study and a seat of learning, where 




Surveyed and drawn by Geere 
A, B. Excavated groups of rooms and galleries 

1,2, 3, Rooms with clay ledges which produced especially 
large numbers of cuneiform tablets 

4, 5. Tirra-cotta drains belonging to late graves 

the attention of all those who assembled for work was 
concentrated upon but one subject, — the infusing or 
acquiring of knowledge. In accordance with an ancient 
Oriental custom even now universally prevailing in the 
East — in the great Mohammedan university of Cairo 
as well as in the small village schools of Asia Minor — 
we should imagine the Babylonian students of the time 
of Abraham being seated on the floor with crossed legs, 
respectfully listening to the discourses of the priests, 
asking questions, practising writing and calculating on 
clay tablets, or committing to memory the contents of 
representative cuneiform texts by repeating them in a 
moderately loud voice. 

The " books " required for instruction, reference and 
general reading as a rule were unbaked clay tablets 
stored on shelves, or sometimes deposited in jars. The 
shelves were made either of wood, — as ordinarily was 
the case also in the business houses on the western side 
of the Chebar, — or of clay, for which rooms Nos. 1-3 
on the accompanying plan of the " Northeast Portion of 
the Temple Library " offer appropriate examples. These 
clay ledges were built up in crude bricks to a height of 
nearly twenty inches from the apparent floor level, and 
on an average were about one and a half feet wide. Two 
of the rooms (Nos. 1 and 3) yielded tablets and frag- 
ments by the thousands, and are among the largest thus 
far excavated in " Tablet Hill." To preserve the fragile 
" books " from dampness, the clay shelves were probably 
covered with matting or with a coating of bitumen. 
According to the report of the architects, traces of the 
last-mentioned material seem to have been disclosed on 
the ledge of the large hall (No. 1). 

To judge from the contents of more than twenty-four 
thousand tablets hurriedly examined, it is almost certain 
that the vast complex of houses buried under the trian- 
gular mound was used by the Babylonians for at least 
two distinct purposes. Though literary tablets in small 
numbers occurred almost everywhere in the hill, the 
large mass of them was found within a comparatively 
small radius in and around the central rooms of the 
northeast portion. On the other hand, there was not 
a single business document unearthed in that general 
neighborhood, while more than one thousand dated con- 
tracts, account lists and letters came from the south- 
west rooms of the mound. It would therefore seem 
natural to conclude that in view of the doubtless large 
traffic carried on by boats on the Chebar, the business 
and administrative department of the temple was estab- 
lished on the bank of " the great canal," and the edu- 
cational department — the school and the technical 
library — in the rooms nearest to the temple. Tablets 
were doubtless frequently taken out of the one section 
and placed temporarily in the other, while certain works 
of reference seem to have been deposited in both. 

The character of the northeast wing as a combined 
library and school was determined immediately after an 
examination of the contents of the unearthed tablets 
and fragments. There is a large number of rudely fash- 
ioned specimens inscribed in such a naive and clumsy 
manner with old-Babylonian characters, that it seems 
impossible to regard them as anything else but the first 
awkward attempts at writing by unskilled hands, — so- 
called school exercises. Those who attended a class evi- 
dently had to bring their writing material with them, 



receiving instruction not only in inscribing and reading 
cuneiform tablets, but also in shaping them properly, 
for not a few of the round and rectangular tablets 
were uninscribed. The contents of these interesting 
" scraps" of clay from a Babylonian " waste basket " are 
as unique and manifold as their forms are peculiar. 
They enable us to study the methods of writing and 
reading, and the way in which a foreign language (Su- 
merian) was taught at Nippur in the third pre-Christian 

The very first lesson in writing that the children 
received is brought vividly before us. I refer to sev- 
eral large tablets comparatively neatly inscribed. They 
contain the three simple elements of which cuneiform 
signs are generally composed, in the order 
here given and repeated again and again 
over three columns. Or I mention a much 
smaller table showing nothing but the 
last given wedge dozens of times inscribed in horizontal 
lines upon the clay. When the first difficulties had been 
mastered by the student, he had to put those three ele- 
ments together and make real cuneiform signs. As we 
do in our Assyrian and Babylonian classes to-day, the easi- 
est and most simple characters were selected first. The 
pupil was then told to group them together in different 
ways, generally without regard to their meaning, simply 
for the sake of fixing them firmly in mind. There are 
a good many specimens preserved which illustrate this 
" second step " in the study of Babylonian writing. We 
have, e. g., a large fragment with two identical columns, 
in which every line begins with the sign ba: 1. ba-a, 
2. ba-mu, 3. ba-ba-mu, 4. ba-ni, 5. ba-ni-ni, 6. ba-ni-a, 
7. ba-ni-mu, etc. Another fragment deals with more dif- 
ficult characters placed alongside each other in a simi- 
lar manner : 1. za-an-tur, 2. za-an-tur-tur, 3. za-an-ka, 
4. za-an-ka-ka, 5. za-an-ka-a, 6. za-an-ka-mu. A frag- 
ment of the easier sort of exercises offers, 1. an-ni-si, 
2. an-ni-su, 3. an-ni-mu, etc. A fourth one is of addi- 
tional value, because it contains no less than four mistakes 
in a comparatively small space. Let me correct the ex- 
ercises of this young Babylonian who lived prior to Abra- 
ham and transliterate what he has to say : 1. shi-ni, 
2. shi-ni-mu, 3. shi-ni-da-a, 4. shi-tur, 5. shi-tur-tur. It 
would be interesting to know how such apparent care- 
lessness or stupidity was dealt with by the professors in 
the great Bel college and university of Calneh. 

But it is impossible for me to go through the whole 
prescribed " college " course, which possibly even at 
those early times lasted three years, as it did in the days 
of Daniel (Dan. 1 : 4, 5). After the student had been 
well drilled in writing and reading the simple and more 
complicated cuneiform signs, he began to write words 
and proper names. At the same time lists were placed 
before him from which to study all the difficult ideo- 
graphic values which the Sumerians associated with 
their numerous characters. These syllabaries and lexi- 
cographical lists are of the utmost importance for our 
own scientific investigations, and will greatly help us in 
extending and deepening our knowledge of the Sumerian 
language. I remember having seen hundreds of them 
among the tablets which I cleaned and examined in 
Nuffar and Constantinople. Even in their outside ap- 

pearance, as a rule, they are easily distinguished from 
tablets dealing with other subjects. They generally are 
long but very narrow, rounded on the left edge and also 
at the upper or lower end, or both at the same time. 
The right side, on the contrary, is always flat, as if 
cut off a large tablet, which while wet was divided into 
several pieces. 

There are also grammatical exercises, exhibiting how 
the student was instructed in analyzing Sumerian ver- 
bal forms, in joining the personal pronouns to different 
substantives, in forming entire sentences, in translating 
from the Sumerian into the Semitic dialect of Babylonia 
and vice versa. His preparations look pretty much like 
those of the modern student who excerpts all the words 
unknown to him from Caesar's " Gallic Wars " or Xeno- 
phon's Anabasis for his work in the class room. 

Special attention was paid to counting and calculating. 
Even instruction in drawing, and surveying lessons were 
offered. There are a few tablets which contain exer- 
cises in drawing horizontal and inclined parallel lines, 
zigzag lines, lines arranged in squares, lozenge forms, 
lattice-work and other geometrical figures. 

The course in art led gradually up to free-hand draw- 
ing from nature, and probably included also lessons in 
clay modelling and in glyptics and sculpture (seal cylin- 
ders, bas-reliefs and statues). Several fragments of 
unbaked tablets exhibited portions of animals and trees 
more or less skilfully incised in clay. One bird was ex- 
ecuted very poorly. A lioness, two harnessed horses 
and a chariot — the latter two pieces doubtless from the 
upper strata — showed decided talents on the part of 
those who drew them. Ground plans of fields, gardens, 
canals, houses, etc., were found more commonly. As 
according to my knowledge the horse appears in Baby- 
lonia first shortly before the middle of the second mil- 
lennium, without hesitation we can fix the date of the 
drawing of those harnessed horses as being about a 
thousand years later than the school exercises previously 
treated. That art in general was greatly esteemed and 
cultivated by the priests of Nippur may be inferred from 
the considerable number of clay figurines, terra-cotta 
reliefs and even fragments of sculpture discovered in the 
ruins of the temple library. Apart from several new 
mythological representations of the earlier time, I refer 
briefly to two fine identical reliefs of the later period 
made from different moulds and exhibiting a hog, the 
animal sacred to the god Ninib, son of Bel ; or to an 
exquisitely modelled buffalo walking slowly and heavily, 
and holding his mouth and nose upward in a manner 
characteristic of these animals. There is another well 
executed bas-relief which shows Beltis adorned with a 
long robe. In her left hand the goddess has the same 
symbol which we often see with Bel, while with her right 
hand she leads a richly dressed worshipper to her shrine. 
Lastly I mention a much earlier terra-cotta relief de- 
picting a somewhat poetical pastoral scene. A shepherd 
playing the lute has attracted the attention of his dog, 
who is evidently accompanying his master's music by 
his melodious howlings, and . another unknown ani- 
mal (sheep ?) is likewise listening attentively. The 
whole scene reminds us of certain favorite subjects of 
the classical artists. 








Genesis 17 50 

Exodus 57 40 

Leviticus 91 27 

Numbers 115 36 

Deuteronomy 150 34 

Joshua 179 24 

Judges 199 21 

Ruth .218 4 

I. Samuel 221 31 

II. Samuel 246 24 

I. Kings 268 22 

II. Kings 293 25 

I. Chronicles 317 29 


II. Chronicles 340 36 

Ezra 367 10 

Nehemiah ........ 376 13 

Esther 387 10 

Job ... ., 393 42 

Psalms 414 150 

Proverbs 464 31 

Ecclesiastes 481 12 

The Song of Solomon .... 487 8 

Isaiah 490 66 

Jeremiah 529 52 

Lamentations 573 5 

Ezekiel 577 48 


Daniel 617 12 

Hosea . . . 629 14 

Joel . . 634 3 

Amos 636 9 

Obadiah 641 1 

Jonah 642 4 

Micah 643 7 

Nahum. 646 3 

Habakkuk 648 3 

Zephaniah 649 3 

Haggai 651 2 

Zechariah 652 14 

Malachi 659 4 



Matthew 3 28 

Mark 28 16 

Luke 45 24 

John 73 21 

The Acts 93 28 

The Epistle to the Romans . 120 16 

I. Corinthians 130 16 

II. Corinthians ...... 141 13 

Galatians 147 6 


Ephesians 151 6 

Philippians 154 4 

Colossians 157 4 

I. Thessalonians 159 5 

II. Thessalonians 161 3 

I. Timothy 163 6 

II. Timothy 165 4 

Titus 167 3 

Philemon 169 1 


To the Hebrews 169 13 

The Epistle of James . . . .177 5 

I. Peter 180 5 

II. Peter 182 3 

I. John 184 5 

II. John 187 1 

III. John . 187 1 

Jude 188 1 

Revelation 189 22 






Creation 1 

Formation of Man 2 

The Fall 3 

Death of Abel 4 

Generations of Adam 5 

The Ark 6 

The Deluge 7 

Waters assuaged 8 

Death of Noah 9 

Noah's generations. ... 10 

Babel built 11 

Call of Abram 12 

Abram and Lot 13 

Battle of the kings 14 

Abram's faith 15 

Departure of Hagar 16 

Circumcision 17 

Abraham and the angels 18 

Destruction of Sodom 19 

Abraham denies Sarah 20 

Isaac is born 21 

Isaac offered up 22 

Death of Sarah 23 

Isaac and Rebecca meet 24 

Abraham's death 25 

Isaac blessed 26 

Jacob and Esau 27 

Jacob's vision and vow 28 

Jacob marries Rachel 29 

Birth of Joseph , 30 

Departure of Jacob 31 

Jacob and the angel 32 

Jacob and Esau meet 33 

Shechemites slain 34 

Jacob's altar at Beth-el 35 

Generations of Esau 36 

Joseph sold by his brethren 37 

Judah's incest 38 

Joseph and his mistress 39 

Pharaoh's butler, etc 40 

Pharaoh's dreams 41 

Joseph's brethren in Egypt 42 

Joseph entertains his brethren 43 

• Joseph's policy to his brethren 44 

Joseph known to his brethren 45 

Jacob goes into Egypt 46 

Joseph presents his brethren 47 

Joseph goes to his father 48 

Jacob blesses his sons 49 

Death of Joseph 50 


The Israelites oppressed 1 

Moses born 2 

The burning bush 3 

God's message to Pharaoh 4 

The bondage of the Israelites 5 

G od's promise renewed 6 

Moses goes to Pharaoh 7 

Plague of frogs S 


Plrgues continued 9 

Plagues continued 10 

The Israelites borrow jewels 11 

Passover instituted 12 

Departure of the Israelites 13 

Egyptians drowned 14 

The song of Moses 15 

Manna and quails sent 16 

Moses builds an altar 17 

Moses meets his wife and sons 18 

God's message from Sinai 19 

The ten commandments 20 

Laws against murder 21 

Laws against theft, etc 22 

Laws against false witness, etc ... 23 

Moses called into the mount 24 

Form of the ark 25 

Curtains for the ark 26 

Altar of burnt-offering 27 

Aaron and his sons made priests. . . 28 

Priests consecrated 29 

Ransom of souls 30 

Moses receives the two tables 31 

Golden calf. Tables broken 32 

God talks with Moses 33 

Tables renewed 34 

Free gifts for the Tabernacle 35 

Workmen receive the offerings 36 

Ark, Mercy-seat, etc 37 

Sum of the offerings 38 

Holy garments made 39 

Tabernacle anointed 40 


Burnt-offerings 1 

Meat-offerings 2 

Peace-offerings 3 

Sin-offerings 4 

Trespass-offerings 5 

Trespass-offerings 6 

Law of Trespass-offerings 7 

Aaron and his sons consecrated .... 8 

Aaron's sin-offering 9 

Nadab and Abihu slain 10 

Unclean beasts 11 

Purifications 12 

Law of leprosy 13 

Law for the leper 14 

Uncleanness of issues 15 

Sin-offerings 16 

Blood forbidden 17 

Unlawful marriages 18 

Repetition of laws 19 

Denunciations for sins 20 

Priests' qualifications 21 

Nature of sacrifices 22 

Feasts of the Lord 23 

Shelomith's son 24 

The Jubilee 25 

Obedience required 26 

Nature of vows 27 


The tribes numbered 1 

Order of the tribes 2 

Levites appointed priests 3 

The service of the Kohathites 4 

Trial of jealousy 5 

Law of the Nazarite 6 

Offerings of the princes 7 

Levites consecrated 8 

Passover commanded 9 

The Israelites' march '. 10 

The Israelites loathe manna 11 

Miriam's leprosy 12 

Delegates search the land 13 

The people murmur at the report . . 14 

Sundry laws given 15 

Korah, Dathan, etc., slain 16 

Aaron's rod flourisheth 17 

Portion of the priests and Levites . . IS 

Law of purification 19 

Moses smiting the rock 20 

Brazen serpent appointed 21 

Balak sends for Balaam 22 

Balak's sacrifices 23 

Balaam's prophecy 24 

Zimri and Cozbi slain 25 

Israel numbered 26 

Death of Moses foretold 27 

Offerings to be observed 28 

Offerings at feasts 29 

Vows not to be broken 30 

Midianites spoiled 31 

Reubenites and Gadites reproved. . 32 

Journeys of the Israelites 33 

Borders of the land appointed 34 

Cities of refuge appointed 35 

Gilead's inheritance retained 36 


Moses rehearses God's promise. ... 1 

Story of the Edomites 2 

Moses prays to see Canaan 3 

An exhortation to obedience 4 

Ten Commandments 5 

Obedience to the Law enjoined .... 6 

Strange communion forbidden 7 

God's mercies claim obedience ... 8 

Israel's rebellion rehearsed 9 

The Tables restored 10 

An exhortation to obedience 11 

Blood forbidden 12 

Idolaters to be stoned 13 

Of meats, clean and unclean 14 

Of the year of release 15 

The feast of the Passover 16 

The choice and duty of a king 17 

The priests' portion 18 

Cities of refuge appointed 19 

The priest's exhortation before 

battle 20 

Expiation of uncertain murder.... 21 


Of humanity toward brethren 22 

Divers laws and ordinances 23 

Of divorce 24 

Stripes must not exceed forty 25 

Of the offering of first-fruits 26 

The law to be written on stones ... 27 

Blessings and curses declared 28 

God's covenant with his people .... 29 

Mercy promised to the penitent .... 30 

Moses giveth Joshua a charge 31 

The song of Moses 32 

The majesty of God 33 

Moses views the land and dies. ... 34 


Joshua succeeds Moses 1 

Rahab conceals the spies 2 

The waters of Jordan divided 3 

Twelve stones for a memorial 4 

Manna ceases 5 

Jericho besieged and taken 6 

Achan's sin punished 7 

Joshua takes Ai 8 

The craft of the Gibeonites 9 

The sun and moon stand still 10 

Divers kings conquered 11 

Names of the conquered kings. ... 12 

Balaam slain 13 

The inheritance of the tribes 14 

The borders of the lot of Judah ... 15 

Ephraim's inheritance 16 

The lot of Manasseh 17 

The lot of Benjamin 18 

The lot of Simeon 19 

Cities of refuge, etc 20 

God giveth Israel rest 21 

The two tribes and half sent home . 22 
Joshua's exhortation before his 

death 23 

Joshua's death and burial 24 


The acts of Judah and Simeon .... 1 

The Israelites fall into idolatry. ... 2 

The nations left to prove Israel .... 3 

Deborah and Barak deliver Israel. 4 

The song of Deborah and Barak. . 5 

The Israelites oppressed by Midian. 6 

Gideon's army 7 

The Ephraimites pacified 8 

Abimelech made king- 9 

Tolah judges Israel 10 

Jephthah's rash vow 11 

The Ephraimites slain 12 

Samson born 13 

Samson's marriage and riddle 14 

Samson is denied his wife 15 

Delilah's falsehood to Samson 16 

Micah's idolatry 17 

The Danites seek an inheritance. . . 18 

The Levite and his concubine 19 



The complaint of the Levite 20 

Benjamin's desolation bewailed. ... 21 


Elimelech driven into Moah 1 

Ruth gleaneth in Boaz's field 2 

Boaz's bounty to Ruth 3 

Boaz marries Ruth 4 


Samuel born 1 

Hannah's song 2 

The Lord calls Samuel 3 

Eli's death 4 

Dagon falls before the ark 5 

The ark sent back 6 

The Israelites repent. 7 

The Israelites desire a king- 8 

Samuel entertains Saul 9 

Saul anoin ted 10 

The Ammonites smitten. 11 

Samuel's integrity 12 

Saul reproved 13 

Saul's victories 14 

Saul spares Agag 15 

Samuel anoints David 16 

David slays Goliath 17 

Jonathan's love to David 18 

Saul's jealousy of David 19 

David and Jonathan consult 20 

David feigns himself mad 21 

Nob destroyed 22 

David rescues Keilah 23 

David spares Saul 24 

The death of Samuel 25 

David finds Saul asleep 26 

David flees to Gath 27 

Saul consults a witch 28 

Achish dismisses David 29 

Amalekites spoil Ziklag 30 

Saul and his sons slain 31 


David laments Saul 1 

David made king of Judah 2 

Joab kills Abner 3 

Ish-bosheth murdered 4 

David's age and reign 5 

Uzzah smitten 6 

God's promise to David 7 

David's officers 8 

David sends for Mephibosheth 9 

Hanun's villainy 10 

David's adultery 11 

Nathan's parable 12 

Aninon and Tamar 13 

Absalom's return 14 

Absalom's policy 15 

Shimei curses David 16 

Ahithophel hangs himself 17 

Absalom slain by Joab IS 

Shimei is pardoned 19 

Sheba's revolt 20 

Saul's sons hanged 21 

David's thanksgiving 22 

David's faith 23 

David numbers the people 24 


Solomon anointed king 1 

David's death 2 

Solomon chooses wisdom 3 


Solomon's prosperity 4 

Hiram and Solomon agree 5 

The building of the temple 6 

Ornaments of the temple 7 

The temple dedicated 8 

God's covenant with Solomon 9 

The queen of Sheba 10 

Ahijah's prophecy 11 

The ten tribes revolt 12 

Jeroboam's hand withers 13 

Abijah's sickness and death 14 

Jeroboam's sin punished 15 

Jericho rebuilt 16 

The widow's son raised 17 

Elijah obtains rain 18 

Elisha follows Elijah 19 

Samaria besieged 20 

Naboth stoned 21 

Ahab seduced 22 


Moab rebels 1 

Elijah's translation 2 

Moabites defeated 3 

The widow's oil multiplied 4 

Naaman cleansed 5 

A famine in Samaria 6 

Plenty in Samaria 7 

Ben-hadad killed 8 

Jezebel eaten by dogs 9 

Prophets of Baal slain 10 

Jehoash anointed king 11 

The temple repaired 12 

Elisha's death 13 

Amariah reigns 14 

Azariah's leprosy 15 

Ahaz's wicked reign 16 

Ten tribes taken captive 17 

Rabshakeh's blasphemy 18 

Hezekiah's prayer 19 

Hezekiah's death 20 

Manasseh's iniquity 21 

Huldah prophesies 22 

Josiah destroys the idolaters 23 

Judah taken captive 24 

The temple destroyed 25 


Adam's line to Noah 1 

The posterity of Israel 2 

The sons of David 3 

The posterity of Judah 4 

The line of Reuben 5 

The sons of Levi 6 

The sons of Issachar 7 

The sons of Benjamin 8 

The genealogies of Israel and Judah 9 

Saul's overthrow and death 10 

David made king' of Israel 11 

The armies that helped David. .... 12 

David fetches the ark 13 

Hiram's kindness to David 14 

David brings the ark to Zion 15 

David's psalm of thanksgiving ... 16 

Nathan's message to David 17 

David's victories 18 

David's messengers ill-treated ..... 19 

Rabbah taken and spoiled 20 

The plague stayed 21 

Preparation for the temple 22 

Solomon made king 23 

The order of Aaron's sons 24 

The number of the singers 25 

The division of the porters 26 


The twelve captains 27 

David's exhoitation 28 

David's reign and death . . 29 


Solomon's offering 1 

Solomon sends to Huram 2 

The building of the temple 3 

The vessels of the temple 4 

The temple finished 5 

Solomon blesses the people 6 

Solomon's sacrifice 7 

Solomon builds cities S 

The queen of Sheba visits Solomon 9 

Rehoboam made king 10 

Judah strengthened 11 

Rehoboam's reign and death 12 

Abijah overcomes Jeroboam 13 

Asa destroys idolatry 14 

Asa's covenant with God 15 

Asa's death and burial 16 

Jehoshaphat's good reign 17 

Micaiah's prophecy 18 

Jehoshaphat's care for justice 19 

Jehoshaphat's fast and prayer 20 

Jehoram's wicked reign 21 

Ahaziah's wicked reign 22 

Joash made king 23 

Zechariah stoned 24 

The Edomites overcome 25 

Uzziah's leprosy 26 

Jotham's good reign 27 

Ahaz's wicked reign 28 

Hezekiah's good reign 29 

The passover proclaimed 30 

Provision for the priests 31 

Hezekiah's death 32 

Manasseh's wicked reign 33 

Josiah's good reign 34 

Josiah slain in battle 35 

Jerusalem destroyed 36 


The proclamation of Cyrus 1 

The people return from Babylon.. 2 

The altar erected 3 

The decree of Artaxerxes 4 

Tatnai's letter to Darius 5 

The temple finished 6 

Ezra goes to Jerusalem 7 

Ezra keeps a fast 8 

Ezra's prayer 9 

Ezra's mourning 10 


Nehemiah mourns for Jerusalem . . 1 

Artaxerxes encourages Nehemiah . . 2 

The names of the builders 3 

Nehemiah appoints a watch 4 

Reformation of usury 5 

Sanballat's practices 6 

Hanani and Hananiah's charge .... 7 

The reading of the law 8 

A solemn fast appointed 9 

The points of the covenant 10 

Who dwelt at Jerusalem 11 

The high priest's succession 12 

Divers abuses reformed 13 


Ahasuerus's royal feast 1 

Esther made queen 2 


Haman despised by Mordecai 3 

The mourning of the Jews 4 

Esther obtains the king's favor. ... 5 

Mordecai's good services 6 

Haman is hanged 7 

The rejoicing of the Jews 8 

Haman's ten sons hanged 9 

Mordecai's advancement 10 


Job's losses and temptations 1 

Job smitten with biles 2 

Job curses the day of his birth 3 

Elipliaz reproves Job 4 

Afflictions are from God 5 

Job wishes for death 6 

Job excuses his desire of death .... 7 

Bildad shews God's justice 8 

The innocent often afflicted 9 

Job expostulates with God 10 

Zophar reproves Job 11 

God's omnipotence maintained .... 12 

Job's confidence in God 13 

The conditions of man's life 14 

Eliphaz reproves Job 15 

Job reproves his friends 16 

Job's appeal to God 17 

Bildad reproves Job 18 

Job's complaint of his friends .... 19 

The portion of the wicked 20 

The destruction of the wicked 21 

Job accused of divers sins 22 

God's decree is immutable 23 

Sin goes often unpunished 24 

Man cannot be justified before God. 25 

Job reproves Bildad 26 

The hypocrite is without hope 27 

Wisdom is the gift of God 28 

Job bemoans himself 29 

Job's honor turned to contempt .... 30 

Job professes his integrity 31 

Elihu reproves Job 32 

Elihu reasons with Job 33 

God cannot be unjust 34 

Comparison not to be made with 

God 35 

The justice of God's ways 36 

God's great works 37 

God's wisdom is unsearchable 38 

God's power in his creatures 39 

Job humbles himself to God 40 

God's power in the creation 41 

Job's age and death 42 


Happiness of the godly 1 

The kingdom of Christ 2 

The security of God's protection . . 3 

David prays for audience 4 

David's profession of his faith 5 

David's complaint in sickness 6 

The destruction of the wicked 7 

God's love to man 8 

God praised for his judgments 9 

The outrage of the wicked 10 

God's providence and justice 11 

David craves God's help 12 

David boasts of divine mercy 13 

The natural man described 14 

A citizen of Zion described 15 

David's hope of his calling 16 

David's hope and confidence 17 

David praises God 18 

David prays for grace 19 



The church's confidence in God .... 20 

A thanksgiving for victory 21 

David's complaint and prayer 22 

David's confidence in God's grace . . 23 

God's worship in the world 24 

David's confidence in prayer 25 

David resorts unto God 26 

David's love to God's service 27 

David hlesses God 28 

Why God must be honored 29 

David's praise for deliverance 30 

David rejoices in God's mercy 31 

Who are blessed 32 

God is to be praised 33 

Those blessed who trust in God .... 34 

David prays for his safety 35 

The excellency of God's mercy 36 

David persuades to patience 37 

David moves God to compassion ... 38 

The brevity of life 39 

Obedience the best sacrifice 40 

God's care of the poor 41 

David's zeal to serve God 42 

David prays to be restored 43 

The church's complaint to God .... 44 
The majesty of Christ's kingdom. . . 45 
The church's confidence in God. ... 46 

The kingdom of Christ 47 

The privileges of the church 48 

Worldly prosperity contemned 49 

God's majesty in the church 50 

David's prayer and confession 51 

David's confidence in God 52 

The natural man described 53 

David's prayer for salvation 54 

David's complaint in prayer 55 

David's promise of praise 56 

David in prayer flees to God 57 

David describes the wicked 58 

David prays for deliverance 59 

David's comfort in God's promises . . 60 

David vows perpetual service 61 

No trust in worldly things 62 

David's thirst for God 63 

David's complaint of his enemies. . . 64 
The blessedness of God's chosen ... 65 

David exhorts to praise God 66 

A prayer for God's kingdom 67 

A prayer at the removing of the ark 68 

David's complaint in affliction 69 

David's prayer for the godly 70 

David's prayer for perseverance. . . . 71 

David's prayer for Solomon 72 

The righteous sustained 73 

David prays for the sanctuary 74 

David rebukes the proud 75 

God's majesty in the church 76 

David's combat with diffidence .... 77 

God's wrath against Israel 78 

The Psalmist's complaint. ... - 79 

David's prayer for the church 80 

An exhortation to praise God 81 

David reproves the judges 82 

The church's enemies 83 

David longs for the sanctuary 84 

David prays for mercies 85 

David's complaint of the proud .... 86 
The nature and glory of the church. 87 

David's grievous complaint 88 

God praised for his power 89 

God's providence set forth 90 

The state of the godly 91 

God praised for his great works. . . 92 
The majesty of Christ's kingdom. . 93 

David's complaint of impiety 94 

The danger of tempting God 95 


God praised for His greatness 96 

The majesty of God 97 

All creatures exhorted to praise 

God 9S 

God to be worshipped 99 

God to be praised cheerfully 100 

David's profession of godliness. . . 101 

God's mercies to be recorded 102 

God blessed for his constancy 103 

God wonderful in providence 104 

The plagues of Egypt 105 

Israel's rebellion 106 

God's manifold providence. 107 

David's confidence in God 10S 

David's complaint of his enemies . . 109 

The kingdom of Christ 110 

God praised for his works Ill 

The happiness of the godly. 112 

God praised for his mercy 113 

An exhortation to praise 114 

The vanity of idols 115 

David studies to be thankful 116 

God praised for his mercy and 

truth 117 

David's trust in God 118 

Meditation, prayer, and praise .... 119 

David prays against Doeg 120 

The safety of the godly 121 

David's joy for the church 122 

The godly"s confidence in God .... 123 

The church blesses God 124 

A prayer for the godly 125 

The church prays for mercies 126 

The virtue of God's blessing 127 

Those blessed that fear God 128 

The haters of the church cursed. . 129 

God to be hoped in 130 

David professes his humility 131 

David's care for the ark 132 

The benefits of the saints' commu- 
nion 133 

An exhortation to bless God 134 

God praised for his judgments. . . . 135 
God praised for manifold mercies. . 136 

The constancy of the Jews 137 

David's confidence in God 138 

David defies the wicked 139 

David's prayer for deliverance. . . . 140 

David prays for sincerity 141 

David's comfort in trouble 142 

David complains of his grief 143 

David's prayer for his kingdom. . . 144 

God's help to the godly 145 

David vows perpetual praise to 

God 146 

God praised for his providence. . . . 147 
All creatures should praise God . . . 148 

God praised for his benefits 149 

God praised upon instruments. . . . 150 


The use of the proverbs 1 

The benefit of wisdom 2 

Exhortation to sundry duties 3 

Persuasions to obedience 4 

The mischiefs of whoredom 5 

Seven things hateful to God 6 

Description of a harlot 7 

The call of wisdom 8 

The doctrine of wisdom 9 

Virtues and vices contrasted 10 

Continued, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 

17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, and 24 

Observations about kings 25 

Sundry maxims 26 


Sundry maxims 27 

Observations of impiety 28 

Of public government 29 

Agur's prayer 30 

Lemuel's lesson of chastity 31 


The vanity of all human things .... 1 

Wisdom and folly have one end .... 2 

A time for all things 3 

The good of contentment 4 

The vanity of riches 5 

The conclusion of vanities 6 

Remedies against vanities 7 

Kings are to be respected 8 

Wisdom is better than strength .... 9 

Of wisdom and folly 10 

Directions for charity 11 

The preacher's care to edify 12 


The church's love to Christ 1 

Christ's care of the church 2 

The church glories in Christ 3 

The graces of the church 4 

Christ's love for his church 5 

The church's faith in Christ 6 

The graces of the church 7 

The calling of the Gentiles 8 


Isaiah's complaint of Judah 1 

Christ's kingdom prophesied 2 

The oppression of the rulers 3 

Christ's kingdom a sanctuary 4 

God's judgments for sin 5 

Isaiah's vision of God's glory 6 

Christ promised 7 

Israel and Judah threatened 8 

The church's joy in Christ's birth . . 9 

God's judgments upon Israel 10 

The calling of the Gentiles 11 

Thanksgiving for God's mercies .... 12 

Babylon threatened 13 

Israel's restoration 14 

The lamentable state of Moab 15 

Moab exhorts to obedience 16 

Syria and Israel threatened 17 

God's care of his people 18 

The confusion of Egypt 19 

Egypt and Ethiopia's captivity. ... 20 

The fall of Babylon 21 

The invasion of Jewry 22 

Tyre's miserable overthrow 23 

Judgments of God for sin 24 

The prophet praises God 25 

A song of praise to God 26 

God's care of his vineyard 27 

Ephraim threatened 28 

God's judgment on Jerusalem 29 

God's mercies towards his church.. 30 

An exhortation to turn to God 31 

Desolation foreshown 32 

The privileges of the godly 33 

God revenges his church 34 

The blessings of the gospel 35 

Rabshakeh insults Hezekiah 36 

Hezekiah's prayer 37 

Hezekiah's thanksgiving 38 

Babylonian captivity foretold 39 

The promulgation of the gospel .... 40 

God's mercies to his church 41 

Christ's mission to the Gentiles .... 42 

God comforts his church 43 



The vanity of idols 44 

God calls Cyrus 45 

Idols not to be compared with God 46 

God's judgment upon Babylon 47 

The intent of prophecy 48 

Christ sent to the Gentiles 49 

Christ's sufferings and patience. ... 50 
The certainty of God's salvation. . . 51 

Christ's free redemption 52 

The humiliation of Christ 53 

The church's enlargement 54 

The happy state of believers 55 

Exhortation to holiness 56 

God reproves the Jews 57 

Hypocrisy reproved 58 

The covenant of the Redeemer. ... 59 

The glory of the church .'.... 60 

The office of Christ 61 

God's promises to his church 62 

Christ shews his power to save. ... 63 

The church's prayer 64 

The calling of the Gentiles 65 

The growth of the church 66 


The calling of Jeremiah 1 

Israel is spoiled for his sins 2 

God's mercy to Judah 3 

Israel called to repentance 4 

God's judgments upon the Jews... 5 

Enemies sent against Judah 6 

Jeremiah's call for repentance 7 

The calamities of the Jews 8 

Jeremiah's lamentation 9 

The vanity of idols 10 

God's covenant proclaimed 11 

The prosperity of the wicked 12 

An exhortation to repentance 13 

The prophet's prayer 14 

Jeremiah's complaint 15 

The utter ruin of the Jews 16 

The captivity of Judah 17 

The type of the potter 18 

The desolation of the Jews 19 

Pashur smiting Jeremiah 20 

Nebuchadnezzar's war 21 

The judgment of Shallum 22 

Restoration of God's people 23 

The type of good and bad figs 24 

Jeremiah reproves the Jews 25 

Jeremiah is arraigned 26 

Nebuchadnezzar's conquests 27 

Hananiah's prophecy 28 

Jeremiah's letter 29 

The return of the Jews 30 

The restoration of Israel 31 

Jeremiah imprisoned 32 

Christ the Branch promised 33 

Zedekiah's fate foretold 34 

God blesses the Rechabites 35 

Jeremiah's prophecies 36 

The Chaldeans' siege raised 37 

Jeremiah cast into a dungeon 38 

Jerusalem is taken 39 

Jeremiah set at liberty 40 

Ishmael kills Gedaliah 41 

Johanan promises obedience 42 

Jeremiah carried to Egypt 43 

Judah's desolation . .'. 44 

Baruch comforted 45 

Overthrow of Pharaoh's army 46 

The Philistines' destruction 47 

The judgment of Moab 48 

The restoration of Elam 49 

The redemption of Israel 50 



God's severe judgment 51 

Zedekiah's wicked reign 52 


Jerusalem's misery 1 

Israel's misery lamented 2 

Sorrows of the righteous 3 

Zion's pitiful estate 4 

Zion's complaint 5 


Ezekiel's vision 1 

Ezekiel's commission 2 

Ezekiel eats the roll . 3 

The type of a siege 4 

The type of hair 5 

Israel threatened 6 

Israel's desolation 7 

Vision of jealousy 8 

The mark preserved 9 

Vision of coals of fire 10 

The princes' presumption 11 

The type of removing 12 

Lying prophets 13 

Idolaters exhorted 14 

The rejection of Jerusalem 15 

God's love to Jerusalem 16 

The eagles and the vine 17 

Parahle of sour grapes 18 

Of the lion's whelps 19 

Israel's rebellions 20 

Prophecy against Jerusalem 21 

Jerusalem's sins 22 

Aholah and Aholibah 23 

Jerusalem's destruction 24 

Ammonites threatened 25 

The fall of Tyrus 26 

Tyrus's rich supply 27 

Zidon threatened 28 

The judgment of Pharaoh 29 

Desolation of Egypt 30 

The glory and fall of Assyria 31 

The fall of Egypt 32 

Ezekiel admonished 33 

God's care of his flock 34 

Judgment of Seir 35 

Israel comforted 36 

Vision of dry bones 37 

The malice of Gog 38 

Israel's victory over Gog 39 

Description of the temple 40 

Ornaments of the temple 41 

The priests' chambers 42 

Return of God's glory 43 

The priests reproved 44 

Division of the land 45 

Ordinances for the princes 46 

Vision of the holy waters 47 

Portions of the twelve tribes 48 


Jehoiakim's captivity. 1 

Daniel advanced 2 

Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego. 3 

Nebuchadnezzar's pride and fall ... 4 

Belshazzar's impious feast 5 

Daniel in the lions' den 6 

Vision of the four beasts 7 

Vision of the ram 8 

Daniel's confession 9 

Daniel comforted 10 

Overthrow of Persia 11 

Israel's deliverance 12 



Judgments for whoredom 1 

The idolatry of the people 2 

The desolation of Israel 3 

Judgment threatened 4 

Israel a treacherous people 5 

Exhortation to repentance 6 

Reproof for manifold sins 7 

Israel threatened 8 

Captivity of Israel 9 

Israel's impiety 10 

Israel's ingratitude to God 11 

Ephraim reproved 12 

Ephraim's glory vanished 13 

Blessings promised 14 


God's sundry judgments 1 

Exhortation to repentance 2 

God's judgments against his people's 

enemies 3 


God's judgments upon Syria 1 

God's wrath against Moab 2 

Judgments against Israel 3 

God reproveth Israel 4 

A lamentation for Israel 5 

Israel's wantonness plagued 6 

Judgments of the grasshoppers .... 7 

Israel's end typified 8 

Israel's restoration promised 9 


Edom's destruction for their pride 

and violence 1 


Jonah sent to Nineveh 1 

The prayer of Jonah 2 

The Ninevites' repentance 3 

Jonah repines at God's mercy 4 


God's wrath against Jacob 1 

Against oppression 2 

The cruelty of the princes 3 

The church's glory 4 

The birth of Christ 5 

God's controversy 6 

The church's complaint 7 


The majesty of God 1 

God's armies against Nineveh 2 

The ruin of Nineveh 3 


Habakkuk's complaint 1 

Judgment on the Chaldeans 2 

Habakkuk's prayer 3 


God's severe judgments 1 

Exhortation to repentance 2 

Jerusalem sharply reproved 3 


The people reproved 1 

Glory of the second temple 2 




Exhortation to repentance 1 

Redemption of Zion 2 

The type of Joshua 3 

The golden candlestick 4 

Curse of thieves 5 

Vision of the chariots 6 

Captives' inquiry of fasting 7 

Jerusalem's restoration 8 

The coming- of Christ 9 

God to be sought unto 10 

Destruction of Jerusalem 11 

Judah's restoration 12 

Jerusalem's repentance 13 

Jerusalem's enemies plagued. 14 


Israel's unkindness 1 

The priests reproved 2 

The majesty of Christ 3 

Judgments of the wicked 4 


The genealogy of Christ 1 

Visit of the wise men 2 

The preaching of John Baptist .... 3 

Christ tempted 4 

Christ's sermon on the mount 5 

Of alms and prayer 6 

Holy things not for dogs 7 

Christ's miracles 8 

Matthew called 9 

The apostles sent forth 10 

John sends to Christ 11 

Blasphemy against the Holy Ghost 12 

Parable of the sower 13 

John Baptist beheaded 14 

The scribes reproved 15 

The sign of Jonas 16 

Transfiguration of Christ 17 

Christ teaches humility 18 

Christ heals the sick 19 

The laborers in the vineyard 20 

The fig-tree cursed 21 

The marriage of the king's son .... 22 

The Pharisees exposed 23 

Destruction of the temple foretold. . 24 

Parable of the ten virgins ,, 25 

Judas betrays Christ 26 

Christ crucified 27 

Christ's resurrection 28 


Baptism of Christ 1 

Matthew called 2 

The apostles chosen 3 

Parable of the sower 4 

Christ heals the bloody issue 5 

Christ walks on the sea 6 

The Syrophcenician woman 7 

The multitude fed 8 

Jesus transfigured 9 

Children brought to Christ 10 

The barren fig-tree 11 

The widow and her two mites .... 12 
The destruction of the temple fore- 
told 13 

Peter denies Christ 14 

Crucifixion of Christ 15 

Resurrection of Christ 16 



Christ's conception 1 

Christ's circumcision 2 

John's testimony of Christ 3 

Christ tempted by Satan 4 

Miraculous draught of fishes 5 

The twelve apostles chosen 6 

Christ's testimony of John 7 

Jairus' daughter raised 8 

How to attain eternal life 9 

Seventy disciples sent out 10 

A dumb devil cast out 11 

Covetousness to be avoided 12 

The crooked woman healed 13 

The great supper 14 

The prodigal son 15 

The unjust steward 16 

The power of faith 17 

The importunate widow IS 

Zaccheus called 19 

Parable of the vineyard 20 

The widow's two mites 21 

Christ condemned 22 

Christ's death and burial 23 

Christ's resurrection 24 


The divinity of Christ 1 

Water turned into wine 2 

Necessity of regeneration 3 

The woman of Samaria 4 

The impotent man healed 5 

Five thousand fed 6 

Christ teaches in the temple 7 

Christ's doctrine justified 8 

The blind healed 9 

Christ the good shepherd 10 

Lazarus raised 11 

Christ foretells his death 12 

Christ's humility 13 

The Comforter promised 14 

Christ the true vine 15 

Christ warns his disciples of their 

sufferings 16 

Christ's prayer 17 

Jesus betrayed 18 

Christ's death and burial 19 

Christ's resurrection 20 

Christ appears to his disciples 21 


Matthias chosen 1 

Peter's sermon 2 

The lame healed 3 

Peter and John imprisoned 4 

Ananias and Sapphira 5 

Seven deacons chosen 6 

Stephen stoned 7 

Philip preaches in Samaria 8 

Saul's conversion 9 

Peter's vision 10 

Peter's defence 11 

Herod kills James 12 

Paul preaches at Antioch 13 

Paul stoned 14 

Circumcision disputed 15 

Timothy circumcised 16 

Paul persecuted 17 

Paul preaches at Corinth 18 

Exorcists beaten 19 

Eutychus raised to life 20 

Paul goes to Jerusalem 21 



Paul's defence 22 

Paul smitten 23 

Paul accused before Felix 24 

Paul appeals to Csesar 25 

Agrippa almost a Christian 26 

Paul shipwrecked 27 

His arrival at Rome 28 


Paul greets the Romans 1 

Who are justified 2 

Justification by faith 3 

Abraham's faith acceptable 4 

Sin and death came by Adam 5 

Dying to sin 6 

The law not sin 7 

What frees from condemnation. ... 8 

Calling of the Gentiles 9 

Paul's prayer for Israel 10 

All Israel are not cast off 11 

Love required 12 

Love the fulfilling of the law 13 

How to use Christian liberty 14 

The intent of the Scriptures 15 

Parl's salutations 16 


The wisdom of God 1 

Christ the foundation 2 

Christians are God's temple 3 

Distinctions are from God 4 

The incestuous person 5 

Law forbid brethren 6 

Paul treats of marriage 7 

Of meats offered to idols 8 

Paul's zeal to gain converts 9 

Old examples 10 

Rules for divine worship 11 

Spiritual gifts are diverse 12 

Charity commended 13 

Of strange tongues 14 

Of Christ's resurrection 15 

Paul commends Timothy 16 


Consolation in trouble 1 

Paul's success in preaching 2 

The excellency of the gospel 3 

The Christian's paradox 4 

Paul assured of immortality 5 

Exhortations to purity 6 

Godly sorrow profitable 7 


Liberality extolled 8 

Bounty praised 9 

Paul's spiritual might 10 

Paul's godly boasting 11 

Paul's revelations 12 

Paul's, charge 13 


Of their leaving the gospel 1 

Peter reproved 2 

Justification by faith 3 

Christ frees us from the law 4 

The liberty of the gospel 5 

Lenity recommended 6 


Of election and adoption 1 

Christ our peace 2 

The hidden mystery 3 

Exhortation to unity 4 

Exhortation to love 5 

The Christian armor 6 


Paul's prayer to God 1 

Exhortation to humility 2 

All loss for Christ 3 

General exhortations. 4 


Christ described 1 

Exhortation to constancy 2 

Household duties 3 

Prayer recommended 4 


History of their conversion 1 

How the gospel was preached to 

the Thessalonians 2 

Paul's love in sending Timothy. . . 3 

Exhortation to godliness 4 

Description of Christ's coming .... 5 


Comfort against persecution 1 

Of steadfastness in the truth 2 

To avoid idleness 3 



Paul's charge to Timothy 1 

Prayers made for all men 2 

Of bishops and deacons 3 

Apostasy foretold 4 

Of widows and elders 5 

The gain of godliness 6 


Paul's love to Timothy 1 

Exhortation to Timothy 2 

All Scripture inspired 3 

Qualification of ministers 4 


Qualifications for ministers 1 

Christians' duty 2 

Paul directs what to teach, and 

what not 3 


Philemon's faith commended 1 


Christ far above angels 1 

Obedience due to Christ 2 

Christ above Moses 3 

The Christian's rest 4 

Of Christ's priesthood 5 

The danger of apostasy 6 

Melchisedek and Christ 7 

A new covenant 8 

The sacrifices of the law 9 

Christ's perfect sacrifice 10 

The power of faith 11 

Divers exhortations 12 

Obedience to spiritual rulers 13 


Wisdom to be sought of God 1 

Of faith and works 2 

The truly wise 3 

Against, covetousness 4 

The trial of faith 5 


Of God's spiritual graces 1 

Christ the corner-stone 2 



Duty of wives and husbands 3 

Of ceasing from sin 4 

The duty of elders 5 

n. PETER. 

Exhortation to duties 1 

False teachers foretold 2 

Certainty of judgment 3 


Christ's person described 1 

Christ our advocate, and propitiation 2 

God's great love 3 

Try the spirits 4 

The three witnesses 5 


An elect lady exhorted 1 


Gaius' piety commended 1 


Of constancy in the faith 1 


Of the coming of Christ 1 

Balaam's doctrine 2 

The key of David 3 

The vision of a throne 4 

The book with seven seals 5 

The seven seals opened 6 

The number of the sealed 7 

Seven angels with trumpets .8 

A star falls from heaven 9 

The book eaten 10 

The two witnesses 11 

The red dragon 12 

The beast with seven heads . . 13 

The harvest of the world 14 

The seven angels with the seven last 

plagues 15 

Of the vials of wrath 16 

The scarlet woman 17 

The fall of Babylon 18 

The lamb's marriage 19 

The first resurrection 20 

The heavenly Jerusalem described. . 21 

The tree of life 22 










It is well known that the Scriptures are filled with many words of obscure derivation and meaning, and that it is difficult to 
determine their correct pronunciation. This difficulty is now removed, as the new self-pronouncing feature has been specially 
prepared to overcome it. 

In the proper names the syllables are separated by hyphens (-), and the accented syllable is marked with the vertical accent ('). 
The quantity of the vowel sounds, whether long, intermediate, or short, and their quality, whether broad, obtuse, obscure, or other- 
wise, as well as the value of the consonants, are shown in the following tables. By paying attention to this explanation, and ap- 
plying it to the proper names in the text, the reader will easily learn to pronounce all of them correctly. 




as in fate, Abi.^ 

courage, Abiah. 


mete, Crete. 

redeem, deliver. 





as in 

note, rode. 














style, July. 



nymph, abyss 



e obtuse 


as in care, Aaron. 

" far. 

" last. 

" fall. 

" term. 

" firm. 

" familiar. 

" 6rgan, for, Hor. 

u obtuse as in furl, hurl. 


rude, ruby. 



a obscure 

altar, liar. 


prudent, fuel 



valor, actor. 


q (soft) as in gent, Qyrus. 

c (hard) is not marked. 

g (soft) as in gender, Genesis. 

g (hard before e, i, and y) as in get, 

§ (z) as in muse, Isaac. 
? (gs) " example, Alexander. 

A .t.TtW Imj-n A. Co. 1222 Arcb-St Philada 

W. &■ A.K. Johnston Edinburgh and Landcoi 

^^ ■zn :. " ■ ,-: -,. . 

■ _ ^ g -l j MtM* ^jmi> i il ■ j, .J. ' . --■ l "«— M»«c i ■ .. ' .■■■.'■. ■ '■ ■ ■ J - ■ - * ' -^"-L-^ J- ' J - ■ - J - ' ■ ■ " ■ ■ - ' - ' - 



Books of the Old and New Testaments, 











Chronology of the Books of the Bible 









" ■■-■■■"-■ - 


THE First Book of Moses is called " Genesis," because it gives an account of 
the " generation " or origin of all things. Nothing is more certain than 
that Moses wrote it, but at what time is uncertain. It is a record of a period of 
2369 years. 

It has an interest and an importance to which no other book or document of antiq- 
uity can pretend. It is the oldest book in the world which lays any claim to being 
a trustworthy history. If the religious books of other nations make any pretensions 
to vie with it in antiquity, in all other respects they are immeasurably inferior. The 
earlier portions of the work, so far as the eleventh chapter, may be properly termed 
a history of the world : the latter is a history of the fathers of the Jewish race. 
But from first to last it is a religious history. It is very important to bear in mind 
this religious aspect of the history if we would put ourselves in a position rightly 
to understand it. But if we would judge of the work as a whole, we must not 
forget the evident aim of the writer. It is only in this way we can understand, 
for instance, why the history of the Fall is given with so much minuteness of 
detail, whereas of whole generations of men we have nothing but a bare 

That a distinct plan and method characterize the work is now generally ad- 
mitted. Genesis is, after all, but a part of a larger work. The five books of the. 
Pentateuch form a consecutive whole ; they are not merely a collection of ancient 
fragments loosely strung together, but a well-digested and connected narrative. 

The Book of Genesis (with the first chapters of Exodus) describes the several 
steps which led to the establishment of the Theocracy. It is a part of the writer's 
plan to tell us what the divine preparation was, in order to show, first, the signif- 
icance of the call of Abraham; and, next, the true nature of the Jewish Theoc- 
racy. He begins with the Creation of the World, because the God who created 
the world and the God who revealed himself to the fathers is the same God. The 
Book of Genesis has thus a character at once special and universal. 

Five principal persons are the pillars, so to speak, on which the whole super- 
structure rests — Adam, Noah, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. 


1 W-^im- 


I V M 




THE title of this book is derived from the Septuagint version, and is significant 
of the principal transaction which it records, namely, the exodus or depart- 
ure of the Israelites from Egypt. The book comprises a history of the events which 
took place during a period of one hundred and forty-five years, from the year of the 
world 2369 to 2514 inclusive, from the death of Joseph to the erection of the tab- 
ernacle. Twenty -five passages are said to be quoted from Exodus by our Saviour 
and his apostles, in express words, and nineteen allusions to the sense are made in tho 
New Testament. That Moses was the author of this book there can be no doubt, 
although the period at which it was written cannot with certainty be determined. As, 
however, it is a history of matters of fact, it was doubtless written after the giving 
of the law on Mount Sinai and the erecting of the tabernacle ; for events cannot be 
historically related until they have actually taken place, and the author of this book 
was evidently an eye and ear witness of the events he has narrated. 

The Book of Exodus records the cruel persecution of the Israelites in Egypt 
under Pharaoh-Rameses II. ; the birth, exposure and preservation of Moses ; his 
subsequent flight into Midian ; his call and mission to Pharaoh- Amenophis II. ; the 
miracles performed by him and his brother Aaron ; the ten plagues also miraculously 
inflicted on the Egyptians ; the institution of the passover, and the departure of the 
children of Israel from Egypt ; their passage across the Red Sea, and the destruction 
of the Egyptian army ; the subsequent journeyings of the Israelites in the desert, their 
idolatry and frequent murmurings against God ; the promulgation of the law from 
Mount Sinai, and the erection of the tabernacle. This is, of course, on the supposition 
that the sojourn of the Israelites in Egypt was for 215 years, the 430 being computed 
from the giving of the promise to Abraham. 

The scope of the Book of Exodus is to preserve the memorial of the departure 
of the Israelites from the land of Egypt, and to represent the Church of God afflicted 
and preserved, together with the providential care of God toward her, and the judg- 
ments inflicted on her enemies. It plainly points out the accomplishment of the 
Divine promises and prophecies delivered to Abraham, that his posterity would be very 
numerous, and that they would be afflicted in a land not their own, whence they should 
depart, in the fourth generation, with great substance. 

Further, in Israel passing from Egypt through the Red Sea, the Wilderness and 
Jordan, to the promised land, this book shadows forth the state of the Church in 
the wilderness of this world until her arrival at the heavenly Canaan — an eternal 
rest. St. Paul, in 1 Cor. x. 1, etc., as well as in various parts of his Epistle to the 
Hebrews, has shown that these things prefigured and were applicable to the Christian 




LEVITICUS, the third book of the Pentateuch, is not so entitled because it 
treats of the ministry of the Levites, strictly so called (of which we have 
a further account in the Book of Numbers), but because it principally contains the 
laws concerning the religion of the Israelites, which chiefly consisted of various 
sacrifices, the charge of which was committed to Aaron, the Levite (as he is termed 
in Exodus iv. 14), and to his sons, who alone held the priestly office in the tribe of 
Levi, which St. Paul therefore calls a " Levitical priesthood." (Heb. vii. 11.) In 
the Babylonish Talmud it is called the " Law of the Priests," which appellation is 
retained in the Arabic and Syriac versions. 

It is universally admitted that Moses was the author of this book, and it is 
cited as his production in several books of Scripture. By comparing Exodus xl. 
17 with Numbers i. 1, we learn that this book contains the history of one month, 
namely, from the erection of the tabernacle to the numbering of the people who 
were fit for war, that is, from the beginning of the second year after Israel's de- 
parture from Egypt to the beginning of the second month of the same year, which 
was in the year of the world 2514, and before Christ 1490. 


This book is so called because it contains an account of the numbering of the 
children of Israel, related in chapters i.-iii. and xxvi. The scope of the Book of 
Numbers is to show how faithfully Jehovah fulfilled his promises to the patriarchs 
Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, in the rapid increase of their posterity, and also in his 
providential care of them during their journeyings in the wilderness, and finally 
conducting them to the land of Canaan, together with his impartial severity against 
their murmurings and corruptions, for which many of them perished in the wilder- 
ness after their deliverance from Egypt, " so that they could not enter into his rest 
because of their unbelief." The method pursued in this book is precisely that which 
would be adopted by the writer of an itinerary ; the respective stations are noted, 
and the principal occurrences that took place at each station are related, omitting 
such as are of comparatively less importance. This circumstance is an additional 
internal proof that Moses was the author of the Book of Numbers, which is cited 
as his work in many parts of Scripture. 

The book contains a history of the Israelites from the beginning of the second 
month of the second year after their departure from Egypt to the beginning of the 
eleventh month of the fortieth year of their journeyings ; that js, a period of thirty- 
eight years and nine or ten months. 











DEUTERONOMY, which signifies the " Second Law," or " The Law Repeated," 
is so called because it contains a repetition of the law of God given by 
Moses to the Israelites. From a comparison of ch. i. 5 with xxiv. 1, it appears to 
have been written by Moses in the plains of Moab, a short time before his death. 

The period of time comprised in this book is five lunar weeks, or, according to 
some chronologers, about two months, viz. : from the first day of the eleventh month 
of the fortieth year after the exodus of Israel from Egypt, to the eleventh day of 
the twelfth month of the same year, A.M. 2553, B.C. 1451. Erom the account of 
Moses' death, recorded in the thirty-fourth chapter of this book, and the insertion of 
some explanatory words in other parts of Deuteronomy, it has been insinuated that 
Moses could not have been the author ; but the following remark will clearly prove 
this notion to be unfounded. The words of Moses evidently conclude with the thirty- 
third chapter : the thirty-fourth was added to complete the history ; the first eight 
verses, probably, immediately after his death, by his successor, Joshua ; the last four 
by some later writer, probably Samuel or Ezra, or some prophet that succeeded him. 

The scope of the Book of Deuteronomy is to repeat to the Israelites, before Moses 
left them, the chief laws of God which had been given to- them; that those who were 
not born at the time when they were originally delivered, or were incapable of 
understanding them, might be instructed in these laws and excited to attend them, 
and consequently be. better prepared for the promised land upon which they were 
entering. With this view, the sacred historian recapitulates the various mercies 
which God had bestowed upon them and their forefathers from their departure out 
of Egypt ; the victories which, by divine assistance, they had attained over their 
enemies ; their rebellion, ingratitude, and chastisements. The moral, ceremonial, 
and judicial laws are repeated, with additions and explanations ; and the people are 
urged to obedience in the most affectionate manner. 

The Jews divide this book into ten parasches or chapters : in our Bibles it con- 
sists of thirty-four chapters, the contents of which may be arranged as follows : 
Part I. is simply a repetition of the history related in the preceding books, com- 
prising — 1. A relation of the events that took place in the wilderness, from their 
leaving Mount Horeb until their arrival at Kadesh (ch. i.). 2. Their journey from 
Kadesh till they came to the land of the Amorites, and the defeat of Sihon their 
king, and of Og, king of Bashan. 3. An exhortation to obey the divine law and to 
avoid idolatry, founded on their past experience of the goodness of God (iv.) Part 
II. is a repetition of the moral, ceremonial, and judicial law. Part III. contains 
the confirmation of the law ; for which purpose the law was to be written on 
and set up on Mount Ebal. Part IV. contains the personal history, of Mos< 
his death, and his appointment of Joshua to be his successor. 



THE Book of Joshua, which in all copies of the Old Testament immediately 
follows the Pentateuch, is so called because it contains a narration of the 
achievements of Joshua the son of Nun, who had been the minister of Moses, and 
succeeded him in the command of the children of Israel. 

From the absence of Chaldee words, and others of a later date, some are of 
opinion not only that the book is of great antiquity, but also that it was composed 
by Joshua himself. This opinion was held by several of the Fathers and Talmudical 
writers, as well as by many modern eminent biblical scholars. 

The objections to this idea are founded chiefly on the clause, "unto this day," 
which occurs several times, (ch. iv. 9 ; viii. 28.) But this, at least in the case of 
Kahab, is no valid reason for rejecting the idea of his authorship ; for assuming, 
what is most probable, that this book was composed towards the close of Joshua's 
long career, or compiled from written documents left by him, Rahab might have 
been still alive. A more simple and satisfactory way of accounting for the frequent 
insertion of the clause, " unto this day," is the opinion, that it was a comment 
introduced by Ezra when revising the sacred canon ; and this difficulty being 
removed, the direct proofs of the book having been produced by a witness of the 
transactions related in it ; the strong and vivid descriptions of the passing scenes, 
and the use of the words " we " and " us," (ch. v. 1-6,) viewed in connection with 
the fact, that, after his farewell address to the people, Joshua " wrote these words 
in the book of the law of God " — all afford strong presumptive proofs that the entire 
book was the work of that eminent individual. Its inspiration and canonical author- 
ity are fully established by the repeated testimonies of other Scripture writers. As 
a narrative of God's faithfulness in giving the Israelites possession of the promised 
land, this history is the most valuable, and bears the same character as a sequel to 
the Pentateuch, that the Acts of the Apostles do to the Gospels. 

The Book of Joshua comprises the history of about seventeen years, or, accord- 
ing to some chronologers, of twenty-seven or thirty years. " It is one of the most 
important documents in the old covenant, and it should never be separated from 
the Pentateuch, of which it is at once both the continuation and the completion." 
The Pentateuch contains a history of the acts of the great Jewish legislator, and 
the laws upon which the Jewish church was to be established ; the Book of Joshua 
relates the history of Israel under the command and government of Joshua, the 
conquest of Canaan, and its subsequent division among the Israelites. 

The scope and design of the inspired writer of this book were evidently to 
demonstrate the faithfulness of God, in the perfect accomplishment of all his 
promises to the patriarchs Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, and also to Moses, that the 
children of Israel should obtain possession of the land of Canaan. 




Is the title given to this book, from its containing the history of those non- 
regal rulers who governed the Hebrews from the time of Joshua to that of 
Eli, and whose functions in time of peace consisted chiefly in the administration 
of justice, although they occasionally led the people in their wars against their 
public enemies. The date and authorship of this book are not precisely known. 
It is certain, however, that it preceded the Second Book of Samuel, (cf. ch. ix. 35, 
with 2 Samuel xi. 21,) as well as the conquest of Jerusalem by David, (cf. ch. 
i. 21, with 2 Samuel v. 6.) Its author was in all probability Samuel, the last of 
the judges (see ch. xix. 1 ; xxi. 25,) and the date of the first part of it is fixed in 
the reign of Saul, while the five chapters at the close might not be written till 
after David's establishment as king in Israel, (see ch. xviii. 31.) It is a frag- 
mentary history, being a collection of important facts and signal deliverances 
at different times and in various parts of the land, during the intermediate 
period of three hundred years between Joshua and the establishment of mon- 
archy. The inspired character of this book is confirmed by allusions to it 
in many passages of Scripture, (cf. ch. iv. 2; vi. 14; with 1 Samuel xii. 9-12; ch. 
ix. 53, with 2 Samuel xi. 21 ; ch. vii. 25, with Psalms -lxxxiii. 11 ; cf. ch. v. 4, 5, 
with Psalms vii. 5; eh. xiii. 5; xvi. 17, with Matt. ii. 13-23; Acts xiii. 20; Heb. 
xi. 32.) 

Among the many internal proofs of the genuineness and fidelity of the history 
contained in this book, we would refer particularly to the account of Jephthah, 
who vows inconsiderately that if he should return conqueror of the Ammonites 
he would offer up whatever should first come forth out of the door of his house 
to meet him ; in consequence of which, his only daughter is immolated by a cruel 
father, acting contrary to the Mosaic law, which forbids human victims. 

The .first part embraces the history of the Elders, who ruled the Israelites 
after the death of Joshua. The second part contains the history of the Judges 
from Othniel to Eli ; and the third, which narrates several memorable actions 
performed not long after the death of Joshua, is thrown to the end of the 
book, that it might not interrupt the thread of the narrative. 

In this, as in other books of the Bible, the reader should bear in mind 
the principle that the Scriptures do not sanction many acts therein recorded 


l *mF.W- 

THE Book of Ruth is generally considered as an appendix to that of Judges, and 
as an introduction to that of Samuel ; it is therefore, with great propriety, placed 
between the books of Judges and Samuel. In the ancient Jewish canon of the Old 
Testament, Judges and Ruth formed one book, because the transactions which it con- 
tained happened in the time of the Judges. The book derives its name from Ruth the 
Moabitess, whose history it relates, and whom the Chaldee paraphrast supposes to have 
been the daughter of Eglon, king of Moab. This conjecture, however, is wholly un- 
supported by Scripture ; nor is it at all likely that a king's daughter would abandon 
her native country to seek bread in another land, and marry a stranger. 

Like the Book of Judges, Ruth has been ascribed to Hezekiah and also to Ezra ; but 
the most probable and, indeed, generally received opinion is that of the Jews, who 
state it to have been written by the prophet Samuel. From the genealogy recorded in 
ch. iv. 17-22, it is evident that this history could not have been reduced into its present 
form before the time of Samuel. 

The scope of this book is partly to show the genealogy of King David through the 
line of Ruth, a heathen proselyte to the Jewish religion, and the wife of Boaz, whose 
adoption into the line of Christ has generally been considered as a pre-intimation of the 
admission of the Gentiles into the Christian Church. It had been foretold to the Jews 
that the Messiah should be of the tribe of Judah, and it was afterward further revealed 
that he should be of the family of DaVid ; and therefore it was necessary, for the full 
understanding of these prophecies, that the history of the family in that tribe should 
be written before these prophecies were revealed, in order to prevent the least suspicion 
of fraud or design. And thus this book, these prophecies and their accomplishment 
serve to illustrate each other. A further design of this book is to evidence the care 
of Divine Providence over those who sincerely fear God, in raising the pious Ruth 
from a state of the deepest adversity to one of the highest prosperity 



IN the Jewish caiion of Scripture the two books of Samuel 
form but one, termed in Hebrew the Book of Samuel, prob- 
ably because the first book was written by that prophet, whose 
history and transactions it relates. The books of Samuel ap- 
pear to have derived their appellation from 1st Chron. xxix. 
29, where the transactions of David's reigo are said to be 
" written in the book of Samuel the Seer." In the Septuagint 
version they are called the First and Second Books of 
Kings or of the Kingdoms. In the Vulgate they are desig- 
nated as the First and Second Books of Kings, and by Je- 
rome they are termed the Books of the Kingdoms, as being 
two of the four books in which the history of the kings of 
Judah and Israel is related. 

Jahn is of opinion that the books of Samuel and the two 
books of Kings were written by one and the same person, 
and published about the forty-fourth year of the Babylonish 
captivity ; and he has endeavored to support his conjecture 
with much ingenuity, though unsuccessfilly, by the uniformity 
of plan and style which he thinks is', discernible in these 
books. The more prevalent, as well as more probable, 
opinion is that of the Talmudists, which was adopted by the 
most learned fathers of the Christian Church (who unques- 
tionably had better means of ascertaining this point than we 
have), namely, that the first twenty-four chapters of the First 
Book of Samuel were written by the prophet whose name 
they bear, and that the remainder of that book, together 
with the whole of the Second Book, was; committed to writing 
by the prophets Gad and Nathan, agi'eeably to the practice 
of the prophets who wrote memoirs of the transactions of their 
respective times. 

The First Book of Samuel contains the history of the Jew- 
ish Church and polity, from the birth of Samuel, during the 
judicature of Eli, to the death of Saul, the first king of Israel 
— a period of nearly eighty years — namely, from the year of 
the world 2869 to 2949. 



THE Second Book of Samuel contains the history of David, the 
second king of Israel, during a period of nearly forty years, 
namely, from the year of the world 2948 to 2988; and, by recording 
the translation of the kingdom from the tribe of Benjamin to that 
of Judah, it relates the partial accomplishment of the prediction de- 
livered in Gen. xlix. 10. The victories of David, his wise adminis- 
tration of civil government, his efforts to promote true religion, his 
grievous sins and deep repentance, together with the troubles and 
judgments inflicted upon him and his people by God, are all fully 
described. This book consists of three principal divisions, relating 
the troubles and triumphs of David, and his transactions subsequent 
to his recovery of the throne, whence he was driven for a short time 
by the rebellion of his son Absalom. 

This second book bears an exact relation to the preceding, and is 
likewise connected with that which succeeds. We see throughout 
the effects of that enmity against other nations which had been im- 
planted in the minds of the Israelites by the Mosaic law, and which 
gradually tended to' the extirpation of idolatry. " This book," says 
Bishop Gray, " as well as the first, contains intrinsic proofs of its 
verity. By describing without disguise the misconduct of those 
characters who were highly reverenced among the people, the sacred 
writer demonstrates his impartial sincerity, and, by appealing to 
monuments that attested the veracity of his relations when he wrote, 
he furnished every possible evidence of his faithful adherence to 
truth. The books of Samuel connect the chain of sacred history 
by detailing the circumstances of an interesting period. They de- 
scribe the reformation and improvements of the Jewish Church es- 
tablished by David ; and as they delineate minutely the life of that 
monarch they point out his typical relation to Christ." In the falls 
of David we behold the strength and prevalence of human corrup- 
tion, and in his repentance and recovery the extent and efficacy 
of Divine grace. The two books of Samuel are of very consider- 
able importance for illustrating the Book of Psalms, to which they 
may be considered as a key. No mention of the author's name 
is made in the book of Kings, nor in any other of the sacred 
writings, nor in the Apocrypha. 



IN the ancient copies of the Hebrew Bible, the Books of Kings constitute one 
book. Various titles have been given them ; in the Septuagint and the 
Vulgate they are called the Third and Fourth Books of Kings. Their inspired 
character was acknowledged by the Jewish Church, which ranked them in the 
sacred canon; and, besides, is attested by our Lord, who frequently quotes from 
them, (cf. 1 Kings xvii. 9 ; 2 Kings v. 14, with Luke iv. 24-27 ; 1 Kings x. 1, with 
Matt. xii. 42.) 

The two books of Kings are closely connected with those of Samuel. The origin 
and gradual increase of the united kingdom of Israel under Saul and his successor 
David having been described in the latter, the books of Kings relate its height of 
glory under Solomon, its division into two kingdoms under his son and successor 
Rehoboam, the causes of that division, and the consequent decline of the two king- 
doms of Israel and Judah until their final subversion, the ten tribes being carried 
captive into Assyria by Shalmaneser, and Judah and Benjamin to Babylon by 
Nebuch adnezzar. 

Concerning the author or authors of these books, the sentiments of learned men 
are extremely divided. Some have been of opinion that David, Solomon and 
Hezekiah wrote the history of their own reigns ; others that Nathan, Gad, Isaiah, 
Jeremiah, and other prophets who flourished in the kingdoms of Israel and 
Judah, undertook the office of historiographers. We know that several of the 
prophets wrote the lives of those kings who reigned in their times, for the names 
and writings of these prophets are mentioned in several places in the books of 
Kings and Chronicles. 

The First Book of Kings embraces a period of one hundred and twenty-six 
years, from the anointing of Solomon and his admission as a partner to the 
throne with David, a. m. 2989, to the death of Jehoshaphat, A. m. 3115. It relates 
the latter part of David's life, his death, and the accession of Solomon, whose 
I reign comprehended the most prosperous and glorious period of the Israelitish 
history. It prefigured the peaceful reign of the Messiah ; Solomon's erection and 
consecration of the temple at Jerusalem (the beauty and perfection of which was 
a type of the beauty and perfection of the Church of God) ; his awful defection 
from the true religion ; the sudden decay of the Jewish nation after his death, 
when it was divided into two kingdoms, under Rehoboam, who reigned over the 
kingdom of Judah, comprising the tribes of Judah and Benjamin, and under 
Jeroboam, who wa.3 sovereign of the other ten tribes that revolted from the 
house of David, and which in the sacred writings are designated as the kingdom 
of Israel. 








: ; *K 






THE Second Book of Kings contains the contemporary history of the two king- 
doms of Israel and Judah, from the death of Jehoshaphat, A. m. 3115, to the 
destruction of the city and temple of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, a. m. 3416, a 
period of three hundred years. 

The last three verses of the preceding book have been improperly separated from 
this. The history of the two kingdoms is interwoven in this book, and presents a 
long succession of wicked sovereigns in the kingdom of Israel from Ahaziah to 
Hoshea, in whose reign Samaria was captured by Shalmaneser, king of Assyria, and 
the ten tribes were taken captive into that country. 

In the kingdom of Judah we find some few pious princes among many who were 
corrupt. Sixteen sovereigns filled the Jewish throne from Jehoram to Zedekiah, 
in whose reign the kingdom of Judah was totally subverted, and the people car- 
ried captive into Babylon. During this period numerous prophets flourished— 
Jonah, Joel, Amos, Hosea, Isaiah, Micah, Nahum, Jeremiah, Habakkuk, Daniel, 
Ezekiel, etc. 

We have here the acts of Elijah and Elisha portrayed. Chap. ii. v. 11, Elijah is 
carried up to heaven in a fiery chariot. Like Enoch, he was translated, that he should 
not see death; Elisha pathetically laments the loss of the great prophet, but attends 
him with an encomium. He was possessed of Elijah's mantle, the badge of his office, 
which, we may suppose, he put on and wore for his master's sake. 

The Second Book of Kings comprises twenty-five chapters, which may be divided 
into two parts, containing — 1. The history of the two monarchies until the end of the 
kingdom of Israel ; and, 2. The history of Judah alone until its subversion. The 
two books of Kings, particularly the second, abound with impressive and lively nar- 
rations ; and the strict impartiality with which the author of each book has related 
events and circumstances dishonorable to his nation affords the most convincing 
evidence of his fidelity and integrity. They delineate the long-suffering of God 
toward his people, and his severe chastisements for their iniquitous abuse of his mercy 
and goodness ; at the same time, they mark most clearly the veracity of the Almighty, 
both in his promises and in his threatenings, and show the utter vanity of trusting 
in an arm of flesh, and the weakness and instability of human kingdoms from which 
justice and piety are banished. 

Considering the conciseness of the narrative and the simplicity of the style, the 
amount of information which this book conveys of the characters, conduct, and 
manners of kings and people during so long a period is truly wonderful. 

: MantfeT."'.",:.-; _-.--•■ .■--.-■■:■■ .■-.■■■ 

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a.^;a-,Wiii.-.T-ri--.-i ~mT.V-. r-, — ->i»- Mirr. 

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THE ancient Jews comprised the two Books of Chronicles in one book ; but in the 
Hebrew books now printed for their use they have adopted the same division 
which is found in our Bibles, apparently (Calmet thinks) for the purpose of conforming 
to our mode of reference in concordances, the use of which they borrowed from the 
Romish Church. 

The Jews entitle these books " The Words of Days," or "Annals," probably from the 
circumstance of their being compiled out of diaries or annals in which were recorded 
the various events related in these books. The appellation of Chronicles was given to 
these books by Jerome, because they contained an abstract, in order of time, of the whole 
of the sacred history to the time, when they were written. 

These books were evidently compiled from others, which were written at different 
times, some before and others after the Babylonish captivity. It is certain that the 
Books of Chronicles are not the original records or memorials of the transactions 
of the sovereigns of Israel and Judah, which are so ofteu referred to in the Books 
of Kings. Those ancient registers were much more copious than the Books of Chron- 
icles, which contain ample extracts from original documents, to which they very fre- 
quently refer. 

Concerning the author of the Books of Chronicles we have no distinct information. 
Some have conjectured that he was the same who wrote the Books of Kings ; but the 
great difference, Calmet remarks, in the dates,- narratives, genealogies, and proper 
names, strongly militates against this hypothesis. The Hebrews commonly assign the 
Chronicles to Ezra, who, they say, composed them after the return from the captivity. 
There are various marks, however, about these books which prove conclusively that 
Ezra did not compose them. 

The authenticity of the Chronicles is abundantly supported by the general mass of 
external evidence, by which, also, their divine authority is fully established, as well as 
by the indirect attestations of the Lord and his apostles. 

The principal scope of these books is to exhibit with accuracy the genealogies, the 
rank, the functions and the order of the prjests and Levites, that after their captivity 
they might more easily assume their proper ranks and re-enter on their ministry. The 
books are also an abridgment of all the sacred history, but more especially from the 
origin of the Jewish nation to their return from the first captivity. The First Book 
traces the rise and propagation of the people of Israel from Adam, and afterwards gives 
a circumstantial account of the reign and transactions of David. In the Second Book 
the narrative is continued, and relates the progress and dissolution of the kingdom of 
Judah to the return of the Jews from the Babylonish captivity. 

ik v* m — t **ttfarr, * 

■ - ■ 





INDEPENDENTLY of the important moral and religious instruction to be derived 
from the two Books of Chronicles, as illustrating the Divine dispensation toward 
a highly-favored but ungrateful people, the Second Book is extremely valuable in a 
critical point of view, not only as it contains some historical particulars which are 
not mentioned in any other part of the Old Testament, but also because it affords us 
many genuine readings which, by the inaccuracies of transcribers, are now lost in the 
older books of the Bible. 

The discrepancies between the Books of Kings and Chronicles, though very 
numerous, are not of any great moment, and admit of an easy solution, being partly 
caused by various lections and partly arising from the nature of the books, which, 
being supplementary to those of Samuel and Sings, omit what is there related more 
at large and supply what is there wanting. It should further be recollected that 
after the captivity, the Hebrew language was slightly varied from what it had formerly 
been ; that different places had received new names or undergone sundry vicissitudes ; 
that certain things were now better known to the returned Jews under other appel- 
lations than under those by which they had formerly been distinguished ; and that, 
from the materials to which the author had access, he has selected those passages 
which appeared to him best adapted to his purpose and most suitable to the time in 
which he wrote. 

As the Books of Samuel, Kings and Chronicles relate the same histories, they 
should be constantly read together, not only for the purpose of obtaining a more 
comprehensive view of Jewish history, but also in order to illustrate or amend from 
one book what is obscure in either of the others. 

Chapter I. First Book of Chronicles has Adam for its first word, and Abraham 
for its last. Between the creation of the former, and birth of the latter, were 2,000 
years ; almost the one half of which time Adam himself lived. Adam was the com- 
mon father of our flesh, Abraham the common father of the faithful. By the breach 
which the former made of the covenant of innocency, we were all made miserable ; 
by the covenant of grace made with the latter, we are all, or may be made happy. 
We all are, by nature the seed of Adam, branches of that wild olive. Let us see to 
it, that, by faith we become the seed of Abraham (Rom. iv. 11, 12,) that we be planted 
with the good olive, and partake of its root and fatness. 

The Second Book of Chronicles, portrays minutely, King Solomon's preparations 
for building the second temple at Jerusalem, and the only portion of King Solomon's 
life rehearsed at length, are those, in connection with the erection and dedication of 
that magnificent sanctuary, which formed the most glorious epoch of his reign. 



THE Books of Ezra and Nehemiah were anciently reckoned 
by the Jews as one volume, and were divided by them 
into the First and Second Books of Ezra. The same division 
is recognized by the Greek and Latin Churches, but the 
third book, assigned to Ezra and received as canonical by 
the Greek Church, is the same in substance as the book which 
properly bears his name, but interpolated. The fourth book, 
which has been attributed to him, is a manifest forgery, in 
which the marks of falsehood are plainly discernible. It 
was never unanimously received as canonical either by the 
Greek or Latin Church, although some of the fathers have 
cited it, and the Latin Church has borrowed some words out 
of it. It is now extant in Greek, but was never extant in 
Hebrew. It is evident that the author of the Book of Ezra 
was personally present at the transactions recorded in it, the 
narrative being in the first person. It also bears upon the 
face of it every character of natural simplicity, and contains 
more particulars of time, persons and places than could have 
been introduced by any other individual. 

That the last chapters of this book were written by Ezra 
himself there can be no doubt, as he particularly describes 
himself in the beginning of the seventh chapter, and likewise 
frequently introduces himself in the subsequent chapters. 

The Jews, indeed, ascribe the whole of this book to Ezra, 
and their opinion is adopted by most Christian commentators. 
But as the writer of the first six chapters appears, from ch. v. 
4, to have been at Jerusalem in the reign of Darius Hystaspes, 
and it is evident, from the beginning of the seventh chapter, 
that Ezra did not go thither until the reign of Artaxerxes 
Longimanus (a distance of sixty years), some persons have 
ascribed the first six chapters to a more ancient author. This, 
however, does not necessarily follow, and we think there can 
be no doubt that these chapters were written by Ezra as well 
as the last four. 




r*HE book of Nehemiah, we have already noticed, is in 
X some versions termed the Second Book of Ezra or Es- 
dras, from an opinion which anciently obtained, and was 
adopted by Athanasius, Epiphanius, Chrysostom and other 
eminent fathers of the Church, that Ezra was the author of 
this book. In the modern Hebrew Bibles it has the name 
of Nehemiah prefixed to it, which is also retained in our Eng- 
lish Bibles. The author of this book was not the Nehemiah 
who returned to Jerusalem from Babylon with Zerubbabel. 
That Nehemiah, whose name this book bears, and who was 
cup-bearer to Artaxerxes Longimanus, was the author of it, 
there cannot be any reasonable doubt, the whole of it being 
written in his name, and, what is very unusual when com- 
pared with the preceding sacred historians, being written in 
the first person. The insertion of the greater part of the 
register in chap. xii. 1-26 (which is supposed to militate 
against this generally-received opinion) may be accounted for 
by supposing it either to have been added by some subsequent 
author, or perhaps by the authority of the great synagogue, 
for it seems to be unconnected with the narrative of Nehe- 
miah, and, if genuine, must ascribe to him a degree of lon- 
gevity which appears scarcely credible. According to some 
writers, Nehemiah was of the tribe of Levi, while others are 
of opinion that he was of the royal house of Judah. 

This book may be divided into four parts, namely : I. The 
departure of Nehemiah from Shushan, with a royal commis- 
sion to build the walls of Jerusalem, and his first arrival there 
(ch. i., ii. 1-11). II. An account of the building of the 
walls, notwithstanding the obstacles interposed by Sanballat 
(ch. ii. 12-20 ; iii.-vii. 4). III. The first reformation accom- 
plished by Nehemiah (ch. vii. 5 ; xii. 47). IV. The second 
reformation accomplished by Nehemiah on his second return 
to Jerusalem, and his correction of the abuses which had 
crept in during his absence (ch. xiii.). The administration 
of this pious and truly patriotic governor lasted about thirty- 
six years, to the year of the world 3574. 





~i //■ 




^ ■■ -■" *- "■'" 

mm wo— viiS-ai 




THIS book, which derives its name from the person whose history it chiefly 
relates, is by the Jews termed Megillah Esther, or the volume of Esther. The 
history it contains comes in between the sixth and seventh chapters of Ezra. Its 
authenticity was questioned by some of the fathers, in consequence of the name of 
God being omitted throughout ;. but it has always been received as canonical by 
the Jews, who hold this book in the highest estimation, placing it on the same 
level with the law of Moses. They believe that, whatever destruction may attend 
the other sacred writings, the Pentateuch and the Book of Esther will always be 
preserved by a special providence. Concerning the author of this book, the 
opinions of biblical critics are so greatly divided that it is difficult to determine by 
whom it was written. Augustine and some of the fathers of the Christian Church 
ascribe it to Ezra. By other writers it is ascribed to the joint labors of the Great 
Synagogue, who, from the time of Ezra to Simon the Just, superintended the 
edition and canon of Scripture. The transactions recorded in this book relate to 
the time Artaxerxes Longimanus, the same who reigned during the time of Ezra 
and Nehemiah. They commence about the year of the world 3544, and continue 
through a period not exceeding eighteen or twenty years. The Book of Esther 
relates the elevation of a' Jewish captive to the throne of Persia, and the provi- 
dential deliverance of herself and people from the machinations of the cruel 
Haman and his associates, whose intended mischief recoiled upon themselves, thus 
affording a practical comment on the declaration of the royal sage: "Though 
hand join in hand, the wicked shall not go unpunished ; but the seed of the right- 
eous shall be delivered." (Prov. xi. 21.) 

The scope of Esther is clearly to describe the historical occasion and origin of 
the Purim festival, and the writer probably wrote in Persia. At the Feast of Purim 
this book is read through in the synagogues. 


THIS book has derived its title from the venerable patriarch Job whose pros- 
perity, afflictions and restoration from the deepest adversity are here 
recorded, together with his exemplary and unequaled patience under all his 

The Book of Job undoubtedly contains the history of a real character, the point 
to be considered is the age in which he lived, a question concerning which there is 
as great a diversity of opinion as upon any other subject connected with this 







: V\A- 






THE BOOK OF JOB. (Continued.) 

venerable - monument of sacred antiquity. Thus, some think that he lived in 
the days of Moses, from a supposed resemblance between the style of Moses and 
that of Job ; others, in the time of the Judges, from an expression in Job xxvii. 
12, because at that time all was vanity, and every man did that which was good 
in his own eyes. Grotius thinks the events of the history are such as cannot be 
placed later than the sojourning of the Israelites in the wilderness. Bishop 
Warburton, in like manner, admits them to bear the marks of high antiquity. 
The subject of this book is the history of the patriarch Job, who at the period 
in question was an emir, or Arab prince, of distinguished wealth, eminence 
and authority, resident in the country of Uz, or Idumsea. The principal object 
offered to our contemplation in this production is the example of a good man, 
eminent for his piety and of approved integrity, suddenly precipitated from the 
very summit of prosperity into the lowest depths of ruin, who, having been first 
bereaved of his wealth, his possessions and his children, is afterward afflicted 
with the most excruciating anguish of a loathsome disease, which entirely covers 
his body. He sustains all with the mildest submission and the most complete 
resignation to the will of Providence. Independently of the important instruc- 
tion and benefit which may be derived from a devout perusal of the Book of 
Job, this divine poem is of no small value, as transmitting to us a faithful delin- 
eation of the patriarchal doctrines of religion. 
































IN the Hebrew this book is entitled Sapher Tchillim, which signi- 
fies the " Book of Hymns or Praises," because the greater part 
of them treat of the praises of God, whilst the remainder consist 
either of the complaints of an afflicted soul, or of penitential effu- 
sions, or of the prayers of a heart overwhelmed with grief. In the 
Roman edition of the Septuagint version, printed in 1587, which 
professes to follow the Vatican manuscript, the book is simply 
denominated the " Psalms ;" and in the Alexandrian manuscript, 
preserved in the British Museum, it is entitled the " Psalter with 
Odes or Hymns." The Syriac version, in Bishop Walton's polyglot, 
styles it the " Book of Psalms of David the King and Prophet," 
and the Arabic version commences with the " First Book of Psalms 
of David the Prophet, King of the Sons of Israel." 

The right of the book of Psalms to a place in the sacred canon 
has never been disputed ; they are frequently alluded to in -the 
Old Testament, and are often cited by our Lord and his apostles 
as the work of the Holy Spirit. They are generally termed the 
Psalms of David, that Hebrew monarch being their chief author. 
Many of the ancient Fathers were of opinion that he was their sole 
author, while others equally eminent held contrary views. An 
attentive examination of the Psalms will at once prove them to 
be the compositions of various authors, in various ages, some 
much more ancient than the time of David, some of a much later 
age, and others evidently composed during the Babylonish captivity. 
At what time and by whom the Psalms were collected into one 
volume we have no certain information. That they were collected 
together at different times and by different persons is very evident 
from an examination of their contents. " The hearts of the pious 
in all ages have felt the value of the Psalms as helps to devotion, 
and many have labored for expressions in which to set forth their 
praise." All the Fathers of the Church are unanimously eloqueut 
in their commendation of the Psalms. Athanasius styles them an 
epitome of the whole Scriptures ; Basil, a compendium of all the- 
ology ; Luther, a little Bible and the summary of the Old Testa- 
ment ; Melanchthon, the most elegant writing in the world. How 
highly the Psalter was valued subsequently to the Reformation we 
may estimate by the numerous editions executed in the infancy of 
printing, and by the number of commentators who have undertaken 
its illustration. 





The Book of Proverbs has always been ascribed to Solomon, whose 
name it bears, although, from the frequent repetition of the same 
sentences, as well as some variations in style which have been discovered, 
doubts have been entertained whether he really was the author of every 
maxim it comprises. Dr. Mason Good says : " The latter part of it, from 
P the beginning of the twenty-fifth chapter, evidently forming an appendix, 
was collected after his death, and added to what appears to have been 
more immediately arranged by himself." The proverbs in the thirtieth 
chapter are expressly called " The words of Agur the son of Jakeh," 
and the thirty-first chapter is entitled " The words of King Lemuel." It 
seems certain that the collection called the Proverbs of Solomon was 
arranged in the order we now have it by different hands ; but it is not 
therefore to be concluded that they are not the productions of Solomon, 
who, we are informed, spoke no less than three thousand proverbs. 
(1 Kings iv. 32.) As it is nowhere said that Solomon himself made a 
collection of proverbs and sentences, the general opinion is that several 
persons made a collection of them, perhaps as they were uttered by 
him — Hezekiah, among others, as mentioned in the twenty-fifth chapter. 
Agur, Isaiah and Ezra might have done the same. The Jewish writers 
affirm that Solomon wrote the Canticles, or song bearing his name, in 
his youth, the Proverbs in his riper years, and Ecclesiastes in his old 
age. The scope of this book is " to instruct men in the deepest mysteries 
of true wisdom and understanding, the height and perfection of which 
is the true knowledge of the Divine will and the sincere fear of the 
Lord." To this end the book is filled with the choicest aphorisms, 
infinitely surpassing all the ethical sayings of the ancient sages, and 
comprising in themselves distinct doctrines, the duties of piety toward 
God, of equity and benevolence toward man, and of sobriety and temperance 
in all things ; together with precepts for the right education of children, 
and for the relative situations of subjects, magistrates and sovereigns. 

A proverb is a pithy sentence, concisely expressing some well-established 
truth, susceptible of various illustrations and applications. The word is 
of Latin derivation, literally meaning for a word, speech, or discourse, i. e., 
one expression for many. The Hebrew word for proverb (mashal) means 
I a comparison. Many suppose it was used because the form or matter 
of the proverb, or both, involved the idea of comparison. Most of the 
proverbs are in couplets or triplets, or some modification of them, the 
numbers of which correspond, in structure and length, as if arranged to 
be compared one with another. They illustrate the varieties of parallelism, 
a distmgulshing feature of Hebrew poetry. ^^ 




THE title of this book in our Bibles is derived from the Septuagint version, 
Ecclesiastes signifying a preacher, or one who harangues a public con- 
gregation. In Hebrew it is termed "The Preacher," by whom may be in- 
tended either the person assembling the people or he who addresses them 
when convened. Although this book does not bear the name of Solomon, it 
is evident from several passages that he was the author of it. 

The beautiful descriptions which this book contains of the phenomena in 
the natural world and their causes, of the circulation of the blood (as the 
late Bishop Horsely thought), and of the economy of the human frame, all 
show it to be the work of a philosopher. It is generally supposed to have 
been written by Solomon in his old age, after he repented of his sinful prac- 
tices, and when, after having seen and observed much, as well as having 
enjoyed all that he could wish, he was fully convinced of the vanity of every- 
thing except holiness toward God. 

The tendency of the book is excellent when rightly understood ; and Solo- 
mon speaks in it with great clearness of the revealed truths of a future life 
and of a future judgment. 

The design of this book is to contrast the vanity of all mere human pursuits, 
when made the chief end, as contrasted with the real blessedness of true wisdom, 
i. e., religion. The immortality of the soul is dwelt on incidentally as sub- 
sidiary to the main scope. Moses' law took this truth for granted, but 
drew its sanctions of rewards and punishments, in accordance with the 
theocracy, which was under a special providence of God as the temporal 
King of Israel, from the present life, rather than the future. But after that 
Israel chose an earthly King, God withdrew, in part, his extraordinary provi- 
dence, so that under Solomon temporal rewards did not invariably follow virtue, 
and punishment vice. 

We may therefore consider it as an inquiry into that most important and 
disputed question, What is the sovereign good of man, that which is ultimately 
good, and which, in all its bearings and relations, is conducive to the best 
interests of man? This is the object of the preacher's inquiry, and, after 
discussing various erroneous opinions, he finally determines that it consists 
in true wisdom. 

The scope of the whole argument, therefore, is the praise and recom- 
mendation of wisdom as the supreme good to creatures responsible for their 
actions — that wisdom which is from above, and which is holy, spiritual and 
undefiled, and which, in the writings of Solomon, is but another word for true 




i, ! 









1 n 



l m 







FEW poems have excited more attention, or have found more trans- 
lators and commentators, than the Song of Songs; but the learned 
are not yet agreed respecting its arrangement and design. The majority 
consider it as an inspired book, and certainly on the best evidence, while 
others affirm it to be merely a humane composition. In addition to other 
Divine compositions of Solomon, we are informed (1 Kings iv. 32) that his 
songs were a thousand and five, of which the present book is supposed 
to be one. In the first verse it is called, by way of eminence and distinc- 
tion, according to the Hebrew idiom, Shir Hashirim, that is, a "Song 
of Songs," or " The Most Beautiful Song." 

By the unanimous voice of antiquity, the author of this ancient poem is 
asserted to have been Solomon, and this tradition is corroborated by many 
internal marks of authenticity. 

If the canon of the Hebrew Scriptures was settled by Ezra (which we 
have seen was most probably the case) there can be no doubt that the 
Song of Solomon is a sacred book. To use the strong language of Bishop 
Warburton, " Ezra wrote, and we believe, acted, by the inspiration of the 
Most High, amid the last blaze, indeed, yet in the full lustre of expiring 
prophecy. And such a man would not have placed any book that was 
not sacred in the same volume with the law and the prophets." In addi- 
tion to this evidence, various other considerations authorize us to infer 
that the Song of Solomon was from the most early period deemed a 
sacred book, and ranked with the Hagiographa or holy writings of the 
Jews, and hence was received among the canonical books of the Old 

Origen and Jerome tell us that the Jews forbade it to be read by any 
until he was thirty years of age. It certainly needs a degree of spiritual 
maturity to enter aright into the holy mystery of love which it allegorically 
sets forth. To such as have attained this maturity, of whatever age they 
be, the Song of Songs is one of the most edifying of the sacred writings. 
Rosenmuller justly says, the sudden transitions of the bride from the court 
to the grove, are inexplicable, on the supposition that it describes merely 
human love. 

^5» " *?^ ; : 







CONCERNING the family and descent of the prophet Isaiah nothing 
certain has been recorded, except what he himself tells us (i. 1), namely, 
that he was the son of Amos, and discharged the prophetic office in the days 
of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah, who successively flourished between 
a.m. 3194 and 3305. 

The name of Isaiah, as has been remarked by several commentators, is in 
some measure descriptive of his high character, since it signifies the salvation 
of Jehovah, and was given with singular propriety to him who foretold the 
advent of the Messiah. Isaiah was contemporary with the prophets Amos, 
Hosea, Joel and Micah. 

He is uniformly spoken of in the Scriptures as a prophet of the highest 
dignity. Bishop Lowth calls him the prince of all the prophets, and pro- 
nounces the whole of his book to be poetical, with the exception of a few 
detached passages. Until the latter part of the eighteenth century Isaiah 
was universally regarded both by Jews and Christians, as the sole author of 
the book which bears his name. 

Isaiah has, with singular propriety, been denominated the "evangelical 
prophet," on account of the number and variety of his prophecies concern- 
ing the advent and character, the ministry and preaching, the sufferings and 
death and the extensive permanent kingdom of the Messiah. 

No one, indeed, can be at a loss in applying them to the mission and 
character of Jesus Christ and to the events which are cited in his history 
by the writers of the New Testament. Bishop Lowth says : " This prophet 
abounds in such transcendent excellences that he may be said to afford the 
most perfect model of prophetic poetry. He is at once elegant and sublime, 
forcible and ornamental. He unites energy with copiousness and dignity with 
variety. In his sentiments there is uncommon elevation and majesty ; in his 
imagery, the utmost propriety, elegance, dignity and diversity ; in his language, 
uncommon beauty and energy." 

The expectation of Messiah is so strong in Isaiah, that Jerome, ad 
Paulinum, calls his book, not a prophecy, but the gospel: "He is not so 
much a prophet as an evangelist." Messiah was already shadowed forth iij 
Gen. xlix. 10, as the Shiloh or tranquilizer: also Psalms ii., xlv., Ixxii., ex. 
Isaiah brings it out more definitely ; and, whereas they dwelt on His kingly 
office, Isaiah develops most His priestly and prophetic office. Psalms ex., 
also, have set forth His priesthood ; but His kingly, rather than, as Isaiah, 
His suffering priesthood. 




THE prophet Jeremiah was of the sacerdotal race, being (as he himself 
records) one of the priests that dwelt in Anathoth (ch. i. 1), in the 
land of Benjamin, a city appropriated out of that tribe to the use of the 
priests, the sons of Aaron (Josh. xxi. 18), and situate, as we learn from 
Jerome, about three Roman miles north of Jerusalem. Jeremiah appears to 
have been very young when called to the exercise of the prophetical office, 
from which he modestly endeavored to excuse himself by pleading his youth 
and incapacity ; but being overruled by the Divine authority, he set himself to 
discharge the duties of his function with unremitting diligence and fidelity 
during a course of at least forty-two years, reckoned from the thirteenth year 
of Josiah's reign. The idolatrous apostasy and other criminal enormities 
of the people of Judah, and the severe judgments which God was preparing 
to inflict upon them, though not without a distant prospect of restoration and 
deliverance, form the jjrincipal subjects of the prophecies of Jeremiah. 

The style of Jeremiah, though not deficient in elegance or sublimity, is 
considered by Dr. Lowth as being inferior in both respects to that of Isaiah. 
Although the sentiments of Jeremiah are not always the most elevated, nor 
his periods uniformly neat and compact, yet his style is beautiful and tender, 
especially when he has occasion to excite the softer passions of grief and pity. 


THAT Jeremiah was the author of the Elegies or Lamentations which 
bear his name is evident, not only from a very ancient and almost 
uninterrupted tradition, but also from the argument and style of the book, 
which corrrespond exactly with those of his prophecies. Josephus, Jerome, 
Junius, Archbishop Usher, Michaelis and other eminent writers are of opinion 
that the Lamentations of Jeremiah were the same which are mentioned in 
2 Chron. xxxv. 25 as being composed by the prophet on the death of the pious 
King Josiah, and which are there said to have been perpetuated by " an 
ordinance in Israel." But whatever may have become of those Lamenta- 
tions, it is evident that these cannot be the same ; for their whole tenor 
plainly shows that they were not composed till after the subversion of the 
kingdom of Judah. The calamities which Jeremiah had foretold in his 
prophecies are here deplored as having actually taken place, namely : the 
impositions of the false prophets who had seduced the people by their lying 
declarations, the destruction of the holy city and temple, the overthrow of 
the state and the extermination of the people. 




EZEKIEL, whose name imports The Strength of God, was the son of Buzi, 
of the sacerdotal race, and one of the captives carried by Nebuchad- 
nezzar to Babylon, with Jehoiachim, king of Judah. It does not appear 
that he had prophesied before he came into Mesopotamia. The principal 
scene of his predictions was some place on the river Chebar, which flows 
into the Euphrates, about two hundred miles to the north of Babylon, 
where the prophet resided; though he was occasionally carried in vision to 

Ezekiel was contemporary with Jeremiah and Daniel. The former had 
prophesied for thirty-four years before Ezekiel, and continued to do so for six 
or seven years after him. The call of Ezekiel followed the very next year 
after the communication of Jeremiah's predictions to Babylon (Jer. 51, 59), 
and was divinely intended as a sequel to them. 

Daniel's predictions are mostly later than Ezekiel's, but his piety and 
wisdom had become proverbial in the early part of Ezekiel's ministry (ch. 
xiv. 14, 16 ; xxviii. 3). They much resemble one another, especially in the 
visions and grotescme images. It is a remarkable proof of genuineness, that 
in Ezekiel no prophecies against Babylon occur among those directed against 
the enemies of the covenant people. 

Probably he desired not to give needless offence to the government under 
which he lived. The effect of his labors is to be seen in the improved character 
of the people towards the close of the captivity, and their general cessation 
from idolatry and return to the law. 

The events of his life, after his call to the prophetic office, are interwoven 
with the detail which he has himself given to his predictions, but the manner 
of his termination is nowhere ascertained. 

Until of late years the prophecies of Ezekiel have always been acknow- 
ledged to be canonical, nor was it ever disputed that he was their author. 
Most Biblical critics concur in the opinion as to the excellency and sublimity 
of Ezekiel's style. Grotius observes that he possessed great erudition and 
genius ; so that, setting aside his gift of prophecy, which is incomparable, 
he deserves to be compared with Homer, on account of his beautiful con- 
ceptions, his illustrious comparisons and his extensive knowledge of various 



DANIEL, the fourth of the prophets, if not of royal birth (as the Jews 
affirm), was of noble descent. He was carried captive to Babylon at an 
early age, in the fourth year of Jehoiachim, king of Judah, in the year" 606 before 
the Christian era. Having been instructed in the language and literature of the 
Chaldeans, which at that time was greatly superior to the learning of the ancient 
Egyptians, he afterwards held a very distinguished office in the Babylonian 
empire. He was contemporary with Ezekiel, who mentions his extraordinary 
piety and wisdom. (Ezek. xiv. 14, 20.) Daniel lived in great credit with the Baby- 
lonian monarchs, and his uncommon merit procured him the same regard from 
Darius and Cyrus, the first two sovereigns of Persia. He lived throughout the 
captivity, but it does not appear that he returned to his own country when Cyrus 
permitted the Jews to revisit their native land. The pseudo-Epiphanius, who 
wrote the lives of the prophets, says that he died at Babylon, and this assertion 
has been adopted by most succeeding writers ; but as the last of his visions of 
which we have any account took place in the third year of Cyrus, about 534 years 
before the Christian era, when he was about ninety-four years of age, at Susa, on 
the Tigris, it is not improbable that he died there. 

Although the name of Daniel is not prefixed to his book, the many passages in 
which he speaks in the first person sufficiently prove that he was the. author. 
Josephus accounts Daniel one of the greatest of the prophets, and says that he 
conversed familiarly with God, and not only predicted future events, as other 
prophets did, but also determined the time of their accomplishment, The book 
of Daniel may be divided into two parts. The first is, historical, and relates 
various circumstances that happened to himself and to the Jews, under several 
kings of Babylon; the second is strictly prophetical, and comprises the visions 
and prophecies with which he was favored, and which enabled him to foretell 
numerous important events relative to the monarchies of the world, the time of 
the advent and death of the Messiah, the restoration of the Jews and the conver- 
sion of the Gentiles. Of the genuineness and authenticity of the Book of Daniel 
we have every possible evidence, both external and internal. 

The period of Daniel's prophecies is that from the downfall of the theocracy 
at the captivity till its final restoration— yet future,— the period of the dominion 
of the world powers, not set aside by Christ's first coming, (John xviii. 36, for, to 
have taken the earth-kingdom then, would have been to take it from Satan's hand, 
Mat. iv. 8-10,) but to be superseded by His universal and everlasting kingdom at 
His second coming, (Rev. ix. 15.) 




CONCERNING the family of Hosea we have no certain information 
except what is furnished to us by the first verse of his prophecy, 
which states that he was the son of Beeri, whom some Jewish commenta- 
tors confound with Beerah, a prince of the Reubenites who was carried into 
captivity with the ten tribes by Tiglath-pileser, king of Assyria. He pro- 
phesied during the reigns of Uzziah, Jotham and Ahaz, and in the third 
year of Hezekiah, kings of Judah, and during the reign of Jeroboam II., 
king of Israel. It is most probable that he was an Israelite, and lived in 
the kingdom of Samaria or of the ten tribes, as his predictions are chiefly 
directed against their wickedness and idolatry. 

His first prophecy foretells the overthrow of Jehu's house, fulfilled on 
the death of Jeroboam, Jehu's great-grandson, (2 Kings xv. 12,) in Zacha- 
riah, Jeroboam's son, the fourth and last from Jehu, conspired against by 
Shallum. This first prediction was doubtless in Jeroboam's life, as Zacha- 
riah, his son, was only suffered to reign six months ; thus the inscription 
is verified that "the word of the Lord came unto him in the days of 
Jeroboam." Again, in ch. x. 14, Shalmaneser's expedition against Israel 
is alluded to as past — i. e., the first inroad against King Hoshea, who began 
to reign in the twelfth year of Ahaz ; so that as Ahaz's whole reign was 
sixteen years, the prophecy seems to have been given about the beginning 
of Hezekiah 's reign. 

Messianic references are not frequent ; but the predictions of the future 
conversion of Israel to the Lord their God, and David their king, and of 
the fulfillment of the promise to Abraham, that his spiritual seed should be 
as the sand of the sea, clearly refer to the New Testament dispensation. 

Rosenmiiller and others are of opinion that the title of this book is a 
subsequent addition, and that Hosea did not prophesy longer than from 
forty to sixty years, and that he died, or at least wrote his predictions, 
previous to the year 725 before the Christian era. His writings were 
originally, without doubt, in a metrical form, although that arrangement is 
now, perhaps, irrecoverably lost. The design of this book is — 1. Partly to 
detect, reprove and convince the Jewish nation generally, and the Israelites 
in particular, of their many and heinous sins, especially of their gross 
idolatry ; 2. Partly to denounce the imminent and utter rejection, final 
captivity, and destruction of the Israelites by the Assyrians, if the former 
persisted in their wicked career ; and, 3. To invite them to repentance, 
with promises of mercy ; predictions of the future restoration of the 
Israelites and Jews, and their ultimate conversion to Christianity. 




THERE is great diversity of opinion among learned 
men concerning the family, condition and pursuits of 
this prophet. Although several persons of the name of Joel 
are mentioned in the Old Testament, we have no information 
concerning the prophet himself, except what is contained in 
the title of his predictions (ch. i. 1) — that he was the son of 
Pethuel. According to some reports collected and preserved 
by the pseudo-Epiphanius, he was of the tribe of Reuben, and 
was born at Bethhoron, a town situated on the confines of the 
territories of Juda and Benjamin. The celebrated Rabbi 
Kimchi and others place him in the reign of Joram, and are 
of opinion that he foretold the seven years' famine which pre- 
vailed in that king's reign. 


AMOS is the third of the -minor prophets, according to 
the order adopted in our modern Bibles. He is sup- 
posed to have been a native of Tekoah, a small town in the 
kingdom of Judah, situate about four leagues to the south of 
Jerusalem. There is, however, no proof of his being a native 
of this place, except his retiring thither when driven from 
Bethel by Amaziah, the high priest of Bethel. We have more 
certain information of his rank and condition in life, for he 

himself tells us that he was " no prophet, neither a prophet's 
son ;" in other words, that he was not educated in the schools 
of the prophets, but was called to the prophetic office from 
being a herdsman and a gatherer (or cultivator) of sycamore 
fruit. That he prophesied during the reigns of Uzziah, king 
of Juda, and of Jeroboam II., son of Joash, we are not only 
informed from the first verse of his predictions, but we also 
have internal evidence of it from the argument or subject- 
matter of his book. 


THE time when this prophet flourished is wholly uncer- 
tain. Jerome, with the Jews, is of opinion that he 
was the same person who was governor of Ahab's house and 
who hid and fed one hundred prophets whom Jezebel would 
have destroyed. Some other critics think that he was the 
Obadiah whom Josiah constituted overseer of the works of 
the temple, mentioned in 2 Chron. xxxiv. 12. Dupin refers 
him to the time of Ahaz, in whose reign the Edomites, in con- 
junction with the Israelites, made war against the tribe of 
Judah, because his prophecy is almost wholly directed against 
the Edomites or Idumseans. Grotius, Huet, Dr. Lightfoot and 
other commentators, however, make him to be contemporary 
with Hosea, Joel and Amos. 



'HIS book is by the Hebrews 
called Sepher Jonah, or the 
Book of Jonah, from its author, 
Jonah the son of Amittai, who 
was a native of Gath-Hepher, in 
the tribe of Zebulon, which formed 
part of the kingdom of Israel and 
afterwards of Galilee. According 
to Bishop Lloyd, he is supposed to 
have prophesied to the ten tribes 
toward the close of Jehu's reign, 
or in the beginning of Jehoahaz's 
though Witsius, Blair, 
^PPPII3§P|^^!^^ , ^ i ®'^ r Bishop Newcome and others, with 
greater probability, place him under Jeroboam II., about 
forty years later. With the exception of his sublime ode in 
the second chapter, the Book of Jonah is a simple narrative. 
It is very probable that at the time Jonah promised the 
restoring and enlarging of the coasts of Israel in the days of 
Jeroboam II. (2 Kings xiv. 25), when both the king and 
people were exceedingly wicked, he also invited them to 
repentance and reformation. But the Israelites still con. 
tinuing impenitent and obdurate, God took occasion to send 
him to Nineveh, the capital of the Assyrian empire, to 
denounce the impending Divine judgments against its aband. 
oned inhabitants. Jonah, declining the commission, was cast 
into the sea from the vessel in which he was sailing to Tarsh- 
ish, and was swallowed by a large fish. The time of Jonah's 
continuance in the belly of the fish was a type of our Lord's 
continuance in the grave. (Luke ix. 30.) The fame of the 
prophet's miraculous preservation was so widely propagated 
as to reach even Greece. 


MICAH, the third of the minor prophets according to 
the arrangement in the Hebrew and all modern copies, 
as well as in the Septuagint, was a native of Morasthi, a 
small town in the southern part of the territory of Judah. 
As we learn from the commencement of his predictions, he 
prophesied in the reigns of Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah, 
kings of that country, consequently he was contemporary 
with Isaiah, Joel, Hosea and Amos. The time, place and 
manner of his death are unknown. The genuineness of his 
prophecies relating to the complete destruction of Jerusalem 
and of the temple is supported by the testimony of Jeremiah 
(ch. xxvi. 18, 19). The prophecy of Micah is perhaps the 
most important single testimony in the Old Testament, and 
the most comprehensive, respecting the personal character 
of the Messiah and his successive manifestation to the world. 


NAHUM, the seventh of the minor prophets, is supposed 
to have been a native of Elkosh or Elkosha, a village 
in Galilee. The scope of this prophecy is to denounce the 
certain and imminent destruction of the Assyrian empire, 
and particularly the inhabitants of Nineveh, its metropolis, 
who, after a transient repentance in consequence of Jonah's 
preaching, had relapsed into their former sins, which were 
even more aggravated. With this denunciation the prophet 
introduces consolation for his countrymen, whom he encour- 
ages to trust in God. In boldness, ardor and sublimity, Na- 
hum is superior to all the minor prophets. The preparation 
for the destruction of Nineveh, and the description of its 
downfall and desolation are expressed in the most vivid 
colors, and with images that are truly pathetic and sublime. 




WE have no certain information concerning the tribe or birth- 
place of Habakkuk. The pseudo-Epiphanius affirms that he 
was of the tribe of Simeon and was born at Bethcazar. Some com- 
mentators have supposed that he prophesied in Judea in the reign of 
Manasseh, but Archbishop Usher places him, with greater probability, 
in the reign of Jehoiakim (compare Hab. i. 5, 6), consequently this 
prophet was contemporary with Jeremiah. Several apocryphal pre- 
dictions and other writings are ascribed to Habakkuk, but without any 
foundation. His genuine writings are comprised in the three chapters 
which have been transmitted to us, and the subject of them is the same 
with that of Jeremiah, namely, the destruction of Judah and Jerusa- 
lem by Chaldeans for the heinous sins of the Jewish people, and the 
consolation of the faithful amid all their national calamities. 

The prophecy of Habakkuk consists of two parts. The first is in 
the form of a dialogue between God and the prophet, and the second 
is a sublime ode or hymn, which was probably intended to be used in 
the public service. In the former he humbly expostulates with God 
for punishing the Jews by the instrumentality of the Chaldeans. In 
answer to this complaint, God replies that he will in due time perform 
his promises to his people of deliverance by the Messiah (implying 
also the nearer deliverance by Cyrus). The destruction of the Baby- 
lonish empire is then foretold, together with the judgment that would 
be inflicted upon the Chaldeans for their covetousness, cruelty and 
idolatry. In the latter the prophet implores God to hasten the deliv- 
erance of his people, and takes occasion to recount the wonderful 
works of the Almighty in conducting his people through the wilder- 
ness* and giving them possession of the promised land. 












THIS prophet, who was " the son of Cushi, the son of Gedaliah, the son 
of Amariah, the son of Hizkiah " (ch. i. 1), is supposed to be of the 
tribe of Simeon ; but though he has mentioned his ancestors for no less than 
four generations, nothing certain can be inferred from thence as to the family 
to which he belonged. We learn, however, from his prophecy, that he 
delivered his predictions in the reign of Josiah, consequently he prophesied 
about the time that Jeremiah entered upon his prophetic office, and in method 
and subject he greatly resembles him. On this account Zephaniah has been 
considered as the abbreviator of Jeremiah ; but it is evident that he prophesied 
before Jeremiah, because the latter (Jer. ii. 5, 20, 22) seems to speak of those 
abuses as partially removed which the former (Zeph. i. 4, 5, 9) describes as 
existing to a most flagitious extent. From his account of the disorders pre- 
vailing in Judah, it is probable that he discharged the prophetic office before 
the eighteenth year of Josiah ; that is, before that prince had reformed the 
abuses and corruptions of his dominions. 

In consequence of the idolatry and other iniquities prevailing in the king- 
dom of Judah, whose inhabitants had disregarded the denunciations and 
admonitions of former prophets, Zephaniah was commissioned to proclaim 
the enormity of their wickedness, and to denounce the imminent desolation 
that awaited them ; to excite them to repentance, to foretell the destruction 
of their enemies, and to comfort the pious Jews with promises of future 

The prophecy begins with the nation's sin, and the fearful retribution com- 
ing at the hands of the Chaldeans. These are not men. oned by name, as in 
Jeremiah ; for the prophecies of the latter, being nearer the fulfilment, become 
more explicit than those of an earlier date. 

The second chapter dooms the persecuting states in the neighborhood, 
as well as Judea itself. The third chapter denounces Jerusalem ; but 
concludes with the promise of her joyful re-establis^ment in the the- 

The style, though not generally sublime, is graphic and vivid in details 
(cf. ch. i. 4-12). The language is pure, and free from Aramaisms. There are 
occasional coincidences with former prophets (cf. ch. ii. 14 with Isa. xxxiv. 11 ; 
ch. ii. 15 with Isa. lxvii. 8 ; ch. iii. 10 with Isa. xviii. 1 ; ch. ii. 8 with Isa. xvi. 
6 ; also ch. i. 5 with Jer. viii. 2 ; ch. i. 12 with Jer. lxviii. 11). Such coinci- 
dences in part arise from the phraseology of Hebrew prophetic poetry being 
the common language of the inspired brotherhood. 

















%i^m fym 











HAGGAI, the tenth in order of the minor prophets, but the first of 
the three who were commissioned to make known the Divine will to 
the Jews after their return from captivity was born at Babylon, and was one 
of the Jews who returned with Zerubbabel in consequence of the edict of 
Cyrus. He was buried at Jerusalem among the priests and was supposed to 
be of the family of Aaron. After the return of the Jews to Jerusalem from 
their captivity in the first year of Cyrus, they commenced the rebuilding of 
the temple, (Ezra ii., iii.,) were interrupted by the neighboring satraps, who 
prejudiced the Persian monarch against them, until the second year of 
Darius. Discouraged by these impediments they ceased for fourteen years 
to prosecute the erection of the second temple. But God, disposing that 
sovereign to renew the decrees of Cyrus, raised up the prophet Haggai, 
about 520 before Christ, and in consequence of his exhortations they resumed 
the work which was completed in a few years. They were further encouraged 
to proceed in this undertaking by the prophet assuring them from God, that 
the glory of this latter house should far exceed the glory of the former. 


ALTHOUGH the names of Zechariah's father and grandfather are 
specified (ch. i. 1) it is not known from what tribe or family he was 
descended, nor where he was born. He was one of the captives who returned 
to Jerusalem after the decree of Cyrus, and was contemporary with Haggai. 
The prophecy of Zechariah consist of two parts, the first concerns events then 
taking place, namely, the restoration of the temple, with predictions relative 
to the advent of the Messiah; the second predictions of remote events, 
particularly the coming of Christ, and the war of Romans against the Jews. 


THE name of Malachi, the last of the minor prophets signifies, "my 
angel," or " my messenger " was contemporary with Nehemiah. He 
predicts "the Son of righteousness shall arise with healing in his wings," 
before whom shall go a forerunner, John the Baptist, in the spirit of Elijah. 
The Old Testament closes with predictions of Messiah's coming, and the 
New Testament opens with the record of their fulfilment. " Prophecy has 
been the oracle of the Mosaic and Christian dispensations, to uphold the 
authority of the one, and reveal the promise of the other; and its last 
admonitions were like those of a faithful departing minister embracing and 
summing up his duties. Resigning its charge to the personal precursor of 
Christ, it expired with the Gospel on its tongue." 







i | 

t :'!ii:IL-: _, 

"«,. iffiWnm , lill'"l!""li" ii"". ' r 

' . 1 




ISIiillliilSfflWIIIIII..* 111 " 






w^lnJT'l ^ 




IT has often been a matter for contemplation to the thoughtful mind why 
the salvation offered to man by Jesus Christ was so long in preparation, 
why so many centuries must have passed before the Saviour could appear. 
God has not rested in his work of redeeming love. The Old Testament was, 
indeed, stern and severe, but it was a glorious preparation for the coming 
of the Redeemer. The infancy of fallen humanity was rude and barbarous ; 
through the blackest darkness the rays of truth had to cleave their way ; 
only a rigorous discipline of law could mortify the pride of the Jew, and 
lead him heart-broken and trembling to the promised Redeemer. And 
when we turn to heathendom a still more mournful sight greets us. Having 
" changed the glory of the uncorruptible God into an image made like to 
corruptible man, and to birds, and four-footed beasts, and creeping things," 
they were given up to uncleanness, bound by it, hand and foot. And yet, 
for these many centuries, among the heathens as well as among God's chosen 
people the Jews, there were dim longings, and blind gropings, for a Deliverer ; 
the fingers of the soul had never, even in the deepest degradation, ceased 
to reach forth, though trembling, towards the Desire of all Nations. 
And at last, after the decay of Judaism, and after the rolling away of Pagan- 
ism, was heard the voice of one crying in the wilderness — " Prepare ye the 
way of the Lord !" For four hundred years no prophetic voice had broken 
the almost agonizing silence. Malachi had been the last to utter words of 
warning and of comfort, and the world has waited almost hopelessly. But 
all things were now ready, the fulness of the time was come; and this 
rough man, with coat of camel's hair, and leathern girdle, and feeding on the 
rudest desert fare, was the forerunner of Him for whom the world had waited. 
The Messiah came — came to turn men from their idols to serve the living 
God ; to break down the wall of partition between Jew and Gentile, and to 
declare the universal brotherhood of man and fatherhood of God. Thus, 
were the ancient prophecies fulfilled ; thus, were the longings of heathendom 
satisfied. " The testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy," says the Apos- 
tle ; meaning that all the rays of light, streaming from prophetic sources for 
the enlightening of the moral darkness of the race, converge to and are cen- 
tred in Jesus Christ. He is the bond of union between the past and the 
future, the elder dispensation and the younger. The ancient Temple and all 
its magnificence of ritual have passed away ; thus the sceptre departed from 
Judah, for Shiloh was come. 



This Gospel has 
been received by the 
Christian Church 
from the apostolic 
age as written by 
St. Matthew, whose 
call to be an apostle 
is recorded by him- 
self, by St. Mark 
and St. Luke. He 
was previously a 
publican, or col- 
lector of taxes, at 
Capernaum, and his 
name, according to 
Mark and Luke, was Levi, son of Alphseus. It is uncertain whether 
the Evangelist bore two names originally, or took that of Matthew 
when he relinquished his previous occupation ; either supposition is 
in accordance with the customs of his countrymen. Little is known 
of his after-life ; he is said to have preached the gospel in Mace- 
donia, Greece and Ethiopia, and to have died at an advanced age. 

He seems to have kept an accurate record of our Lord's public 
discourses, which he relates far more fully than the other Evan- 
gelists ; such as, for instance, the Sermon on the Mount, several 
parables, the discourses on John the Baptist, the denunciations 
against the Pharisees, and the prophecies concerning the destruc- 
tion of Jerusalem and the second advent. These discourses form, 
indeed, the most important portion of the Gospel ; to which tb*= 

narrative is generally subordinate, presenting, more briefly, the 
substance of fuller accounts in the other Gospels, especially that of 
St. Mark. This accounts for some striking deviations from the 
chronological sequence of events observed by the other Evangelists. 

This Gospel is also remarkable for its frequent and copious cita- 
tions from the Old Testament, more especially from the Messianic 
prophecies. The great object of the Evangelist was undoubtedly 
to prove to his countrymen, in the first place, that Christianity was 
the perfect development of Judaism, and that the announcements 
on which the national hopes of a deliverer rested were fulfilled in 
Jesus, the true King, Priest and Prophet foretold in their Scrip- 
tures. He is at the same time careful to show that this fulfillment 
included the conversion of the Gentiles and the communication of 
all religious blessings and privileges to the whole race of man. 

St. Jerome seems to say that this Gospel was written by the 
Evangelist in Hebrew. It is, however, certain that the early Chris- 
tians had little knowledge of any other copies than the Greek ; and 
it is most probable that it was at least rewritten in Greek by the 
apostle, or under his guidance, with some additions to the narra- 
tive, together with interpretations and explanations, by which it 
might be adapted to the use of converts from heathenism. The 
date of publication is not certain : the narrative has expressions 
which indicate an interval of some years after our Lord's ascension, 
but there is no doubt that the entire Gospel was published long 
before the overthrow of the temple and final dispersion of the 
Jewish nation. All internal indications are in accordance with the 
statement of Irenseus that St. Matthew published his Gospel while 
St» Peter and St. Paul were founding the church at Rome. 



MARK was not, like Matthew and John, an apostle of Jesus Christ, 
but he had the advantage of the friendship and knowledge of Peter, 
who (1 Pet. v. 13) calls him his son, probably from having been the meass 
of his conversion. Mark was sister's son to Barnabas (Col. iv. 10) and the 
son of Mary, a woman of Jerusalem, at whose house was held at least one 
notable prayer-meeting (Acts lxii. 12). His Hebrew name was John, ami 
Michaelis supposes that he adopted the surname of Mark when he left Judea 
to preach the gospel in foreign countries, according to the custom of the Jews 
to adopt a name more familiar to the Gentiles whom they visited than their 
Hebrew appellations. 

After Peter's deliverance (Acts xii. 11, 12), Mark went from Jerusalem with 
Paul and Barnabas, and soon after accompanied them to other countries 
as their minister (Acts xiii. 5) ; but, declining to attend them through their 
whole progress, he returned to Jerusalem, and kept up an intercourse with 
Peter and the other apostles. Afterward, however, when Paul and Bar- 
nabas settled at Antioch, on the termination of their journey, we find Mark 
with them, and disposed to accompany them in their future journeys. At 
this time he went with Barnabas to Cyprus (Acts xv. 37-39), and subsequently 
accompanied Timothy to Rome, at the desire of Paul (2 Tim. iv. 11), dur- 
ing his confinement in that city, whence Mark sent his salutations to Philemon 
(24) and to the church at Colosse (CoL iv. 10). "From Eusebius, Epipha- 
nius and Jerome," continues Home, "we learn that Mark, after he had 
written his Gospel, went to Egypt, and having planted a church at Alex- 
andria, Jerome states that he died and was buried there in the eighth year 
of the reign of Nero. Baronius, Cave, Wetstein and other writers affirm that 
St. Mark suffered martyrdom ; but this is not mentioned by Eusebius or any 
other ancient writer, and is contradicted by Jerome, whose expressions seem 
to imply that he died a natural death." 

St. Peter having publicly preached the Christian religion, many who were 
present entreated Mark, as he had for a long time been that apostle's compan- 
ion, and had a clear understanding of what Peter had delivered, that he would 
commit the particulars to writing. Accordingly, when Mark had finished his 
Gospel, he delivered it to the persons who made this request. 

Regarding the date of this Gospel nothing certain is known. If the tra- 
dition reported by Irenseus can be relied upon, it was written at Rome, " after 
the departure of Peter and Paul ;" and if by that word " departure " we are to 
infer their death, we may date it somewhere between the years 64 and 68 ; but, 
in all likelihood, this is too late. 



LTTKE first appears 
historically at Troas 
with Paul, going with him 
into Macedonia (Acts xvi. 
9, 10), and writing his his- 
tory after that as an eye- 

It is supposed that Luke 
was descended from Gen- 
tile parents, and in his 
youth had embraced Juda- 
ism, from which he was 
converted to Christianity 
The Hebraic-Greek style 
of writing, and the accu- 
rate knowledge of Jewish 
doctrines, ceremonies and 
usages, which character- 
ize him in his Gospel and in the Acts of the Apostles, evince 
the author to have been a Jew; whilst his Greek name and 
his intimate knowledge of the Greek language are thought to 
be sufficient proof that he was of Grecian birth and education. 
His Gospel has been divided into five divisions : 

I. Birth of Christ, with the circumstances that preceded, 
attended and followed it (ch. i. ; ii. 1-40). 

II. Christ's infancy and youth (ch. ii. 41-52). 

III. Preaching of John, and baptism and genealogy of 
Christ (ch. iii.). 

IV. Discourses, miracles and actions of Christ during his 
ministry (ch. iv. ; ix. 50^. 

V. Christ's last journey to Jerusalem; his passion, death, 
resurrection and ascension (ch. ix. 51-62 ; x.-xxiv.). 

Home says : " If St. Paul had not informed us (Col. iv. 
14) that St. Luke was by profession a physician, and conse- 
quently a man of letters, his writings wouM have sufficiently 
evinced that he had had a liberal education ; for, although 
his Gospel presents as many Hebraisms perhaps as any of 
the sacred writings, yet his language contains more numerous 
Grsecisms than that of any other writer of the New Testa- 
ment. The style of this evangelist is pure, copious and 
flowing, and bears a considerable resemblance to that of his 
great master, St. Paul. Many of his words and expressions 
are exactly parallel to those which are to be found in the 
best classic authors ; and several eminent critics have long 
since pointed out the singular skill and propriety with which 
St. Luke has named and described the various diseases which 
he had occasion to notice. As an instance of his copious- 
ness, Dr. Campbell has remarked that each of the evangelists 
has a number of words which are used by none of the rest ; 
but in St. Luke's Gospel the number of such words as are 
used in none of the other Gospels is greater than that of the 
peculiar words found in all the three Gospels. There Is also' 
more composition in his sentences than is found in the other 
three Gospels, and consequently less simplicity." 

The time and place of the publication of his Gospel are alike 
uncertain. But we can approximate to it. It must at any 
rate have been issued before the Acts, for there the " Gospel " 
is expressly referred to as the same author's " former treatise " 
(Acts i. 1). Now, the book of the Acts was not published for 
I two whole years after Paul's arrival S3 a prisoner at Borne. 




JOHN was the son of Zebedee, a fisherman of the town of Bethsaida, on, 
the Sea of Galilee, and the younger brother of James the elder. His 
mother's name was Salome. It is supposed from his account of the disci- 
ples of John the Baptist becoming followers of Christ, that he was one of 
the two (ch. i. 35-40), but of this there is no certainty. 

According to Lampe, there are three degrees in the call of John, viz.: 1. 
His call to discipleship (John i. 37-42) ; after which he continued for a short 
time to follow his business ; 2. His call to be one of the immediate compan- 
ions of Christ (Matt. iv. 21, 22) ; and, 3. His call to the apostleship, when 
the surname of Boanerges was given to him and his brother (Mark iii. 17). 
He is supposed to have been the youngest of the twelve, but this is mere 
conjecture. He was certainly admitted to intimate intercourse with the 
Saviour, and is described as the disciple whom Jesus loved (John xiii. 23 ; 
xix. 26). He was an eye-witness, in company with Peter and James only, 
to the resurrection of Jairus's daughter to life (Luke viii. 51), to Christ's 
transfiguration (Luke ix. 28), and to his agony in the garden (Mark xiv. 33). 
He was also present at the crucifixion — though we have no right to say, as 
some do, that he was the only one of the apostles present at that awful event — 
and received the mother of Jesus as a precious legacy from her dying son 
(John xix. 26, 27). He had several interviews with Christ after his resur- 
rection ; and our Saviour is supposed to have intimated John's continuance 
upon earth until after the destruction of Jerusalem (John xxi. 22), but the 
text appealed to does not warrant this interpretation. 

After the ascension of Christ, and the effusion of the Holy Spirit on the 
day of Pentecost, John became one of the chief apostles of the circumcision, 
and exercised his ministry in Jerusalem and its vicinity, as narrated in the 
Acts of the Apostles (ii. 1-11 ; iii. ; iv. 1-22, and viii. 5-26). Ecclesiastical 
history informs us that after the death of Mary, the mother of Jesus, John 
proceeded to Asia Minor, where he founded and presided over seven churches 
in as many cities, but resided chiefly at Ephesus. Thence he was, probably 
toward the close of Domitian's reign, banished to the Isle of Patmos, where 
he wrote his Revelation (Rev. i. 9). On his liberation from exile by the 
accession of Nerva to the imperial throne, John returned to Ephesus, where 
he wrote his Gospel and Epistles, and died in the hundredth year of his age, 
about the year of Christ 100, in the third year of the reign of the emperor 
Trajan, and about thirty years after the destruction of Jerusalem. John's 
Gospel is supposed to have been written about the year 97, or three yeara 
before the evangelist's death. 





THE title of this book is very ancient, being found in all the 
oldest copies, though with some variety of form. Dr. J. Addi- 
son Alexander, in his Introduction to the Acts of the Apostles, says : 
" The title does not mean, nor is the book in fact, a history of the 
twelve apostles, most of whom are barely named in the first chapter. 
It is not the biography of Peter and Paul, as apostles by way of 
eminence ; for each of them is prominent in one part only, and the 
whole life of neither is recorded in detail. It is not a general his- 
tory of the apostolical period as distinguished from the ministry of 
Christ himself; for many interesting facts belonging to that subject 
are omitted, some of which have been preserved in the Epistles. 
But the book before us is a special history of the planting and ex- 
tension of the Church, both among Jews and Gentiles, by the 
gradual establishment of radiating centres or sources of influence 
at certain salient points throughout a large part of the empire, 
beginning at Jerusalem and ending at Kome. That this is really 
the theme and purpose of the history any reader may satisfy 
himself by running through it with this general idea in his 
mind. While the Greek of this book is comparatively classi- 
cal and pure, it has certain peculiarities of language, not the 
less real because slight and unimportant in themselves, dis- 
tinguishing its style from every other except that of the third 
Gospel, which, besides bearing a general resemblance not to be mis- 

taken, coincides with it in some of its most striking singularities 
of thought and diction. This remarkable coincidence creates, of 
course, a strong presumption that the two books which exhibit it 
are works of the same author. This presumption is still further 
strengthened by the fact that the two together make up an un- 
broken history, the one beginning where the other ends, to wit, at 
the Ascension. It is further strengthened by the latter book's 
purporting on its face to be the sequel or continuation of another, 
the contents of which as there described (Acts i. 1) exactly corre- 
spond to those of the third Gospel. It is still further strengthened 
by the circumstance that both books are ascribed to Theophilus, 
and seem to have been primarily meant for his instruction. All 
these considerations go to confirm, and are themselves confirmed by, 
the unanimous tradition of the ancient church, that the third 
Gospel and the Acts of the Apostles are works of the same author. 
The remarkable dearth of information as to Luke, beyond his name, 
profession, and the general fact that he was one of Paul's most inti- 
mate associates and perhaps for many years his medical attendant, 
gives the more importance to the uniform tradition of the early 
church, not only that he wrote these books, but that he wrote them 
under Paul's direction and control, thereby imparting to them, in 
addition to the common seal of inspiration, the specific stamp of 
apostolical authority." 



THE epistle to the Romans, though fifth in the order of time, is placed 
first of all the apostolical letters, either from the pre-eminence of 
Rome, as being the mistress of the world, or because it is the longest and 
most comprehensive of all St. Paul's epistles. A great variety of opin- 
ions have been held as to the precise date when this Epistle was written. 
The most probable date is that which assigns it to the end of 57 or the 
beginning of 58, at which time St. Paul was at Corinth, whence he was 
preparing to go to Jerusalem with the collections which had been made by 
the Christians of Macedonia and Achaia for their poor brethren in Judea 
(ch. xv. 25-27). That this Epistle has always been acknowledged to be a 
genuine and authentic production of St. Paul is attested not only by the 
ancient Syriac and Latin versions, and by the express declarations and 
quotations of Irenseus, Theophilus of Antioch, Clement of Alexandria, 
Tertullian, Origen, and by all subsequent ecclesiastical writers, but it was 
also cited or alluded to by several of the apostolic fathers, and by the 
churches of Vienna and Lyons. 

In perusing this Epistle, it is desirable to read uninterruptedly at least the 
first eleven chapters, as every sentence, at least in the argumentative part, 
bears an intimate relation to and is dependent upon the whole discourse, 
and cannot be understood unless we comprehend the scope of the whole. 
And in order to enter fully into its spirit, we must enter into the spirit of 
a Jew in those times, and endeavor to realize in our minds his utter aver- 
sion for the Gentiles, his valuing and exalting himself upon his relation to 
God and to Abraham, and also upon his law, pompous worship, circumcis- 
ion, etc., as if the Jews were the only people in the world who had a right to 
the favor of God. Attention to this circumstance will show the beauties of 
the apostle's style and argument, and that this Epistle is indeed " a writing 
which, for sublimity and truth of sentiment, for brevity and strength of ex- 
pression, and, above all, for the unspeakable importance of the discoveries 
which it contains, stands unrivalled Sy any mere human composition." 



CHRISTIANITY was planted at Corinth by St. Paul himself. 
He resided there for a year and six months, between the years 
51 and 53. The church consisted partly of Jews and partly of 
Gentiles, but chiefly of the latter. Hence the apostle had to combat 
sometimes Jewish superstition and sometimes heathen licentiousness. 
On St. Paul's departure from Corinth, he was succeeded by Apollos, 
" an eloquent man, and mighty in the Scriptures," who preached the 
gospel with great success. 

We learn that St. Paul maintained a constant intercourse with the 
churches which he had planted, and was thoroughly acquainted with 
all their circumstances. They applied to him for advice in difficult 
cases which their own understanding could not solve, and he was ready 
on all occasions to correct their mistakes and give them counsel. 


THE preceding Epistle, we are aware, was written from Ephesus, 
about a. d. 57, previous to St. Paul's departure from that city. 
On quitting Ephesus he went to Troas, which place was situated on 
the shore of the iEgean Sea, in expectation of meeting Titus, and 
receiving an account of the success with which he hoped his former 
Epistle had been attended, and of the state of the Corinthian church. 
Not meeting Titus at Troas, Paul proceeded to Macedonia, where he 
obtained the desired interview, and received satisfactory information 
concerning the promising state of affairs at Corinth. From this coun- 
try, and probably from Philippi, the apostle wrote his second letter 
Teh. viii. 1-14, ix. 1-5), which he sent by Titus and his associates, who 
were commissioned to hasten and finish the contribution among the 
Christians at Corinth for the use of their poor brethren in Judea. 



CHRISTIANITY was very early planted in Galatia by St. Paul,. and 
it appears from the Acts of the Apostles that he visited the churches 
in that country more than once. Two distinct visits are clearly marked, 
namely: the first about the year 50 (Acts xvi. 6), and the second about 
the year 54 or 55 (xviii. 23). There is great diversity of opinion among 
learned men concerning the date of the Epistle to the Galatians. The- 
odoret who is followed by Dr. Lightfoot and others, imagines that it was 
one of those epistles which St. Paul wrote from Rome during his first 
imprisonment ; but this opinion is contradicted by the apostle's silence 
concerning his bonds, which he has often mentioned in the letters that 
are known to have been written at that time. The genuineness of this 
Epistle has never been doubted. It is cited by the apostolic fathers, and 
is declared to be authentic by many subsequent writers. It is worthy of 
remark that this Epistle was acknowledged to be genuine by the heretic 
Marcion, who reckoned it the earliest written of all St. Paul's letters, and ac- 
cordingly placed it first in this Apostolicon, or collection of apostolical writings. 

His purpose, then, in writing this epistle was (1.) to defend his apostolic 
authority, (ch. i. 11-19 ; ii. 1-14 ;) (ii.) to counteract the evil influence of 
the Judaisers in Galatia, (ch. iii. and iv.) and to shew that their doctrine 
destroyed the very essence of Christianity, by lowering its spirituality to 
an outward ceremonial system ; (iii.) to give exhortation for the strength- 
ening of Galatian believers in faith towards Christ, and in the fruits of the 
Spirit, (ch. v. and vi.) He had already, face to face, testified against the 
Judaising teachers, (ch. i. 9 ; iv. 16 ; Acts xviii. 23 ;) and now that he has 
heard of the continued and increasing prevalence of the evil, he writes with 
his own hand (ch. vi. 11— a labour which he usually delegated to an aman- 
uensis) this epistle to oppose it. The sketch he gives in it of his apostolic 
career confirms and expands the account in Acts ; and shews his indepen- 
dence of human authority, however exalted. His protest against Peter in 
ch. ii. 14-21, disproves the figment, not merely of papal, but even of that 
apostle's supremacy; and shews that Peter, save when specially inspired, 
was fallible like other men. 

There is much in common between this epistle and that to the Romans 
on the subject of justification by faith only, and not by the law. But the 
epistle to the Romans handles the subject in a didactic and logical mode, 
without any special reference : this epistle, in a controversial manner, and 
with special reference to the Judaisers in Galatia. 




THE apostle Paul is universally admitted to be the author of the Epistle 
to the Ephesians. It is expressly cited as his production by Ignatius, 
who has no fewer than six distinct allusions to it, and, as he was contemporary 
with Paul, his testimony alone is sufficient to determine its genuineness. The 
subscription to this Epistle states that it was the first in order of those written 
from Rome, and sent to the Ephesians by Tychicus, who was also the bearer of 
the Epistle to the Colossians, the similarity of which in style and subject shows 
that it was written at the same time. St. Paul's first visit to Ephesus is re- 
corded in Acts xviii. 19-21. That this Epistle was written during St. Paul's 
first imprisonment at Rome is evident from its allusions to his confinement (ch. 
iii. 1 ; iv. 1 ; vi. 20) ; and as he does not express in it any hopes of a speedy 
release (which he does in his other epistles sent from that city), we conclude, 
with Dr. Lardner, Bishop Tomline, and others, that it was written during the 
early part of St. Paul's imprisonment, probably in the year 61, soon after his 
arrival in Rome. 

The style of this Epistle is exceedingly animated, and corresponds with the 
state of the apostle's mind at the time of writing. Overjoyed with the account 
which messengers had brought to him of their faith and holiness (ch. i. 15), and 
transported with the consideration of the unsearchable wisdom of God displayed 
in the work of man's redemption, and of his astonishing love toward the Gen- 
tiles in making them partakers, through faith, of all the benefits of Christ's 
death, he soars high in his sentiments on these grand subjects, and gives his 
thoughts utterance in sublime and copious expressions. " No true Christian," 
says Dr. Macknight, " can read the doctrinal part of the Epistle to the Ephe- 
sians without being impressed and roused by it, as by the sound of a trumpet." 




CHRISTIANITY was first planted at Philippi, in Macedonia, by St. Paul, 
A. D. 50, the particulars of which are related in Acts xvi. 9-40 ; and it 
appears from Acts xx. 6 that he again visited both places in 57, though no 
particulars are recorded concerning that visit. Of all the churches planted 
by St. Paul, that at Philippi seems to have cherished the most tender con- 
cern for him ; and though it appears to have been but a small community, 
its members >vere particularly generous toward him. When the gospel was 
first preached in Macedonia, no other church contributed anything toward 
his support except the Philippians, who, while he was preaching at Thessa- 
lonica, the metropolis of that country, sent him money twice, that the suc- 
cess of the gospel might not be hindered by its preacher becoming burden- 
some to the Thessalonians. 

It appears, from St. Paul's own words, that this Epistle was written while 
he was a prisoner at Rome ; and from the expectation of soon being re- 
leased and restored to them, as well as from the intimations contained in 
this letter that he had then been a considerable time at Rome, it is probable 
that he wrote the Epistle to the Philippians toward the close of his first 
imprisonment, at the end of A. D. 62, or perhaps at the commencement of 
63. The genuineness of this book has never been questioned. The scope 
of this Epistle was to confirm the Philippians in the faith, to encourage 
them to walk in a manner becoming the gospel of Christ, to caution them 
against the intrusion of Judaizing teachers, and to testify his gratitude for 
their Christian bounty. It is remarkable that the Epistle to the church of 
Philippi is the only one of all St. Paul's letters to the churches in which not 
one censure is expressed or implied against any of its members ; on the 
contrary, sentiments of unqualified commendation and confidence pervade 
every part of this Epistle. 

We have here an account of the life and death of blessed St. Paul ; his 
life was Christ, and his death was gain. Observe 1. It is the undoubted 
character of every good Christian, that to him to live is Christ. The glory 
of Christ ought to be the end of our life, the grace of Christ the principle 
of our life, and the word of Christ the rule of it. The Christian life is de- 
rived from Christ, and directed to him. He is the principal Rule and End 
of it. 2. All those to whom to live is Christ, to them to die will be gain: 
it is great gain, a present gain, everlasting gain. Death is a great loss to a 
carnal, worldly man ; for he loses all his comforts and all his hopes ; but to 
a good Christian it is gain, for it is the end of all his weakness and misery, 
and the perfection of his comforts, and accomplishment of his hopes. 



Y whom or at what time Christianity was planted at Colossse we have 
no certain information. Dr. Lardner, Bishop Tomline, Boehmer and 
others are of the opinion that the church at Colossse was founded by St. Paul, 
and this they arrive at from a variety of considerations. That Paul, how- 
ever, did not plant the church at Colossse is evident from his own declaration 
in ch. ii. 1, where he says that neither the Colossians nor the Laodiceans had 
then " seen his face in the flesh." But though it is impossible now to ascer- 
tain who was the founder of the church at Colossse, the Epistle itself furnishes us 
with a guide to its date. In Col. iv. 3 the apostle alludes to his imprison- 
ment, from which circumstance, as well as from its close affinity to the Epis- 
tle addressed to the Ephesians, it is evident that it was written nearly at the 
same time. Accordingly most commentators and critics refer it to the year 
62. Its genuineness was never disputed. 

The style is peculiar; many Greek phrases occur here found nowhere else, 
cf. ch. ii. 8, " spoil you f "making a show of them openly" (ch. ii. 15); "be- 
guile of your reward," and "intruding" (v. 18); "rule", (ch. iii. 15); "com- 
fort" (ch. iv. 11). The loftiness and artificial elaboration of style correspond 
to the majestic nature of his theme ; the majesty of Christ's person and office, 
in contrast to the beggarly system of the Judaizers ; the discussion of which 
was forced on him by the controversy. Hence arises his use of unusual 
phraseology. On the other hand, in the epistle to the Ephesians, subsequently 
written, in which he was not so hampered by the exigencies of controversy, 
he dilates on the same glorious truths, so congenial to him, more at large, 
freely and uncontroversially, in the fuller outpouring of his spirit, with less 
of the elaborate and antithetical language of system such as was needed in 
cautioning the Colossians against the particular errors threatening them. 
Hence arises the striking similarity of many of the phrases in the two epis- 
tles written about the same time, and generally in the same vein of spiritual 
thought ; whilst the peculiar phrases of the epistle to the Colossians are such 
as are natural, considering the controversial purpose of that epistle. The 
spirit of the great apostle of the Gentiles breathes in every sentence of this 
pithy and earnest composition. Ardor undamped by imprisonment, interest 
unchilled by distance, zeal for the purity and simplicity of the gospel, un- 
compromising to all who introduce rash speculation or vile and unscriptural 
vagaries, whether under the shape of higher wisdom or superior sanctity, are 
indubitable traits of Paul's character, and unmistakable features in the Epis- 
tle to the Colossians. 




CHRISTIANITY was first planted at Thessalonica by St. 
Paul, A. d. 50, who formed a church composed of both 
Jews and Gentiles, though the latter were most numerous. (Acts 
xvii. 2-4.) The unbelieving Jews, however, having stirred up a 
persecution against him and his company, they were forced to 
flee to Bersea, and thence to Athens, from which city he pro- 
ceeded to Corinth. The First Epistle to the Thessalonians is 
generally admitted to have been one of the earliest written, if, 
indeed, it be not the very first of all St. Paul's letters, and we 
find that he was anxious that it should be read to all the 
Christian Churches in Macedonia. The genuineness of this 
First Epistle has never been disputed. The immediate occasion 
of Paul's writing this Epistle was the favorable report which 
Timothy had brought him of the steadfastness of the Thessa- 
lonians in the faith of the gospel. He therefore wrote to con- 
firm them in that faith, lest they should be turned aside from it 
by the persecutions of the unbelieving Jews, and also to excite 
them to a holy conversation becoming the dignity of their high 
and holy calling. The Epistle concludes with various practical 
advices and instructions. 


THE Second Epistle to the Thessalonians was evidently 
written soon after the first (a. d. 52), and from the same 
place, for Sylvanus or Silas and Timothy are joined together 
with the apostle in the inscription of this Epistle, ns well as of 
the former. The Epistle was occasioned by the information 
jommunicated to Paul by the person who had conveyed his first 
letter to the Thessalonians respecting the state of the church. 
Among other things he was informed, from some expressions in 
it, that many of them expected that the day of judgment would 
happen in that age, and that such of them as thought the advent 
of Christ and the end of the world was at hand were neglecting 
their secular affairs, as being inconsistent with a due preparation 
for that important and awful event. As soon, therefore, as the 
state of the Thessalonians was made known to Paul, he wrote 
this Second Epistle to correct their misapprehension, to rescue 
them from an error which (appearing to rest on apostolical 
authority) must ultimately be injurious to the spread of the gos- 
pel, and to recommend various Christian duties. 

Although this Epistle is the shortest of all St. Paul's letters to 
the churches, it is not inferior to any of them in sublimity of 
sentiment and in that excellent spirit by which all the writings 
of this apostle are so eminently distinguished. Besides those 
marks of genuineness and authority which it possesses in common 
with the rest of the apostolical epistles, it has one peculiar to 
itself in the exact representation it contains of the papal power, 
under the characters of the " man of sin " and the " mystery of 


TIMOTHY, to whom this Epistle was addressed, was a native 
of Lystra, a city of Lycaonia, in Asia Minor. His father 
was a Greek, but his mother was a Jewess, and a person of ex- 
cellent character. The pious care taken in his education soon 
appeared to have the desired success, for we are assured by St. 
Paul that from his childhood Timothy was well acquainted with 
the Holy Scriptures. It is generally supposed that he was con- 
•verted to the Christian faith during the first visit made by Paul 
and Barnabas to Lystra. From the time of his conversion, 

Timothy made such proficiency in the knowledge of the gospel, 
and was so remarkable for the sanctity of his manners, as well 
as for his zeal in the cause of Christ, that he attracted the esteem 
of all his brethren in those parts. 

The date of this Epistle has been much disputed, and consider- 
able discussion has taken place on the subject. From a careful 
examination of the evidence, we think it is safe to conclude that 
it was written about the end of the year 64. But whatever ud 
certainty may have prevailed concerning the date of this Epistle, 
it has always been acknowledged to be the undisputed production 
of St. Paul. Both the First and Second Epistles to Timothy are 
cited or alluded to by the apostolical fathers, Clement of Rome and 
Polycarp, and the First Epistle by Ignatius, and by all subse- 
quent ecclesiastical writers. Timothy having been left at Ephesua 
to regulate the affairs of the church in that city, St. Paul wrote 
this Epistle chiefly to instruct him in the choice of proper officers 
in the churches, as well as in the exercise of a regular ministry. 
Whoever carefully and impartially examines the style of this 
Epistle will find that the language and genius of the apostle of 
the Gentiles pervades it throughout, and that the animating, 
urgent and affecting motives which it presents are such as pro- 
ceeded from the heart. 


THAT Paul was a prisoner when he wrote the second Epistle 
to Timothy is evident from ch. i. 8, 12, 16, and ch. ii. 9, 
and that his imprisonment was in Rome appears from ch. i. It, 
and is universally admitted. But whether he wrote it during his 
first imprisonment, recorded in Acts xxviii., or during a second 
imprisonment there (which was the uniform tradition of the 
primitive church), is a point that has been much disputed. The 
former opinion is advocated by Drs. Hammond, Lightfoot, Lard* 
ner and Hug, and the latter by Drs. Benson, Macknight, Paley 
and others. From various considerations, we are inclined to 
believe that the last-mentioned opinion is correct, and that this 
Epistle was written by Paul at Rome, during an imprisonment 
different from that recorded in Acts xxviii. Paul was released 
from his confinement a. d. 63, and, after visiting various churches, 
returned to Rome early in 65, where, after being confined rather 
more than a year, it is generally agreed that he suffered martyr- 
dom A. d. 66. 

It is generally supposed that Timothy was at Ephesus when 
Paul wrote his Second Epistle to him. This opinion is advocated 
by Drs. Lardner, Benson and Macknight, bat is opposed by 
Michaelis, who has shown that Timothy was most probably some- 
where in Asia Minor when Paul sent this letter to him, because 
the apostle, toward the close of the first chapter, mentions several 
persons who dwelt in that region, and also because (2 Tim. iv. 13) 
he requests Timothy to bring with him the cloak, books and 
parchments which he had left behind him at Troas, and because 
Troas does not lie in the route from Ephesus to Rome, to which 
city Timothy was desired to " make haste to come to him before 
winter" (ch. iv. 21). Michaelis concludes, therefore, that Paul- 
not knowing exactly where Timothy was at that time, wrote U 
him this Epistle, which he entrusted to a safe person (whom Di 
Benson supposes to have been Tychicus) that was traveling into 
Asia Minor, with an order to deliver it to him wherever he could 
find him. 

As this Epistle was written to St. Paul's most intimate friend 
under the miseries of a jail and the near prospect of death, and 
was not designed for the use of others, it may serve to exhibit 
the temper and character of the apostle, and to convince us that 
he .was no deceiver, but believed the doctrines he pr@a©fo@cL 





1-^ITUS was a Greek (Dr. Benson thinks he was a native of Antioch, in 
__ Syria), and one of Paul's early converts, who attended him and Barnabas 
) the first council at Jerusalem, A. d. 49, and afterwards on his ensuing circuit 
Tit. i. 4, Gal. ii. 1-3, Acts xv. 2). Some years after this we find that Paul sent 
im to Corinth, to investigate and report to him the state of the church in that 
tty, and particularly to report what effect had been produced by his First Epistle 
) the Corinthians. The intelligence brought to the apostle by Titus afforded 
im the highest satisfaction, as it far exceeded his expectations. And as Titus 
ad expressed a particular regard for the Corinthians, the apostle thought proper 
) send him back again, with some others, to hasten the collection for the poor 
rethren in Judea (ch. viii. 6). After this we learn nothing further of Titus, 
xcept that he is mentioned in this Epistle as having been with Paul in Crete. 


PHILEMON was an inhabitant of Colossse, as appears 
from Paul's mentioning Onesimus in his Epistle to the 
Colossians (ch. iv. 9) as one of them, and also from his salu- 
ting Archippus in this Epistle (ver. 2), who appears, from 
Col. iv. 17, to have been a pastor of that church. Philemon 
was most probably a converted Gentile, and a person of great 
worth as a man and of some note as a citizen in his own 
country. It appears, from verses 1, 10, 13 and 23 of this 
Epistle, that Paul was under confinement when he wrote it; 
and as he expresses (v. 22) his expectation of shortly being 
released, it is probable that it was written during his first 
imprisonment at Rome, towards the end of A. d. 62 or early 
in 63, and was sent, together with the Epistle to the Ephesians 
and Colossians, by Tychicus and Onesimus. Stronger exter- 
nal testimony to the authenticity of any part of the Bible 
does not exist than that which we have for the Epistle to 
Philemon. The whole of this Epistle is a most beautiful 
composition. Such deference and respect for Philemon, such 
affection and concern for Onesimus, such distant but just 
insinuation, such an admirable address pervade the whole, 
that this alone might be sufficient to convince us that Paul 
was not unacquainted with the world, and was not that weak 
and visionary enthusiast which the enemies of revelation have 
sometimes represented him to be. 


THE nature and authenticity of this Epistle have been 
more controverted, perhaps, than any other book of the 
New Testament. Who the Hebrews were to whom this letter 
was addressed learned men are by no means agreed. The 
most ancient opinion, however, and the one best corroborated 
by the contents of the Epistle itself, is, that it w r as directed 
to the Hebrews in Palestine, and probably to the church of 
Csesarea. As to the language in which this Epistle was 
written, there have been two principal opinions ; one, that it 
was originally written in Hebrew, and translated into Greek 
by Luke or Barnabas ; and the other, that it was written in 
Greek. The point is a much litigated one, but Home " feels 
compelled to draw the conclusion that the original language 
must have been Greek." The question is one, however, which 
by no means affects the genuineness and authenticity of the 
gospel. The authorship of this Epistle has been ascribed to 
different persons, but the Christian Church generally believe 
it to be the genuine production of the great apostle to the 
Gentiles. As to the time when this Epistle was written, the 
majority of commentators place it between A. d. 61 and 64. 
This Epistle is considered by the most eminent Bible critics a 
finished model of didactic writing. The internal excellence of 
this Epistle, as connecting the Old Testament and the New, is 
most convincing and instructive. 



CONSIDERABLE doubt has existed respecting the author 
of this Epistle. Two apostles of the name of James are 
mentioned in the New Testament. The first was the son of 
Zebedee, a fisherman upon the Lake of Galilee, and the brother 
of the evangelist John ; and as he is uniformly mentioned by the 
evangelists before John (except in Luke ix. 28), he is supposed 
to have been the elder of the two. As he was put to death by 
Herod Agrippa a. d. 44 (Acts xii.), it is evident that he was not 
the author of the Epistle which bears his name. The other 
James was the son of Alpheus or Cleopas. He is called the 
brother or near relation of our Lord (Gal. i. 18, 19), and is gen- 
erally termed the Less, partly to distinguish him from the other 
James, and probably because he was lower of stature. There is 
no doubt that this was the apostle who wrote this Epistle. The 
time when this Epistle was composed is uncertain ; some place 
it early, a. d. 45, others think its date later, perhaps 61 or 62 a.d. 
Some writers think this Epistle does not harmonize with the 
Epistles of Paul. On this topic little can be said. The two 
apostles had each his own aspect of a cardinal truth, and their 
expressions have reference to the special need of those they re- 
spectively addressed. Paul vindicates the power of a living faith, 
James shows that if it be not a living faith it is worthless. The 
two are not at variance. On account of his distinguished piety 
and sanctity he was named James the Just. Notwithstanding 
She high opinion that was generally entertained of his character, 
his life was prematurely terminated by martyrdom. According 
to Hegesippus, an ecclesiastical historian who flourished about 
the close of the second century, this event took place about a. d. 
<J2. This Epistle is one of the most pathetic and instructive in the 
New Testament. Its style possesses all that beautiful and elegant 
iimplicity which so eminently characterizes the sacred writers 


SIMON, surnamed Cephas or Peter (which appellation signi- 
fies a stone or rock), was the son of Jonas or Jonah, and 
was born in Bethsaida, on the coast of the Sea of Galilee, follow- 
ing the occupation of fisherman on that lake until called by Jesus 
to be his apostle. In the evangelical history of this apostle the 
distinguishing features in his character are signally portrayed, 
and in no small degree enhance the credibility of the sacred his- 
torians, that they have blended without disguise several traits of 
his precipitance and presumption with the honorable testimony 
which the narration of facts affords to the sincerity of his attach- 
ment to Christ, and the fervor of his zeal in the cause of his 
blessed Master. After our Saviour's ascension, Peter took an 
active part in the affairs of the infant church. It was he who 
proposed the election of a successor to the traitor Judas (Acts. 
i. 1,5-26), and on the ensuing day of Pentecost he preached 
Christ so effectually that three thousand souls were added 
to the church. After laboring zealously for many years in the 
cause of Christ, he was finally crucified at Rome, a. d. 63, during 
the reign of the Emperor Nero. The design of this Epistle was 
to support the Christians under afflictions and trials, to which 
they were subjected, and to instruct them how to behave in 
midst of the opposition and cruelty with which they were treated, 
submissive to civil authority, attentive to their duties in their 
several stations, and leading blameless and exemplary lives 
This Epistle is sparing in words, but full of sense, majestic, and 
one of the finest books of the New Testament. The genuineness 
%nd canonical authority of this Epistle have never been disputed. 


SOME doubts were entertained by the primitive churches re« 
specting the authenticity of this Epistle, which has been 
received as the genuine production of Peter ever since the fourth 
century, except by the Syrian Church, in which it is read as an 
excellent book, though not of canonical authority. We have, 
however, most satisfactory evidence of its genuineness and au- 
thenticity. Clement of Rome has three allusions to the second 
and one to the third chapter of this Epistle, and it is twice referred 
to by Hermas, once by Justin Martyr, and also by Athenagoras. 
Various reasons have been assigned why this Epistle was not 
earlier acknowledged as the writing of Peter. Jerome informs 
us that the difference in style between this and the former Epis* 
tie was in his day the principal cause of its authority being 
disputed, and the same objection has been adopted by other 
modern writers. No objection, however, can be drawn from 
this circumstance, as it is well known that different subjects 
suggest different styles. Both external and internal evidence 
show that the Second Epistle of Peter is unquestionably the 
production of that apostle, and claims to be received and studied 
with the same devout care and attention as the other inspired 
writings of the New Testament. That Peter was old and near 
his death when he wrote this Epistle is evident from chap. i. 14; 
and that it was written soon after the First Epistle appears from 
the apology he makes (ch. i. 13, 15) for writing this Second Epis- 
tle to the Hebrew Christians. The scope of the Epistle is to 
confirm the doctrines and instructions delivered in the former, 
to establish the Hebrew Christians in the faith of the gospel, 
to caution them against false teachers, and to warn them against 
those profane scoffers who should make a mock of Christ's coming 
to judgment. He warns them to prepare for that great even 
by a holy and unblamable conversation. 


ALTHOUGH no name is orefixed to this book, its authen- 
ticity as a genuine p. eduction of the apostle John is 
unquestionable. It was almost universally received as his com- 
position in the Eastern and Western Churches, and is declared 
to be genuine by many of the most eminent ancient and modern 
ecclesiastical writers. The Epistle is characterized by artless 
simplicity and benevolence, blended with singular modesty and 
candor, together with a wonderful sublimity of sentiment. It is 
not properly speaking an epistle, but rather a didactic discourse 
upon the principles of Christianity in doctrine and practice, 
opening sublimely with the fundamental topics of God's perfec- 
tion, and man's depravity, and Christ's propitiation, perspicuous- 
ly propounding the deepest mysteries of our holy faith maintain- 
ing the sanctity of its precepts with energy of argument, and ex- 
hibiting in all its parts the most dignified simplicity of language, 
With regard to the date of this Epistle, there is a considerable di- 
versity of opinion, but the most probable of these various opinions 
is that which assigns to it an early date, namely, before the de» 
struction of Jerusalem and the subversion of the Jewish polity, 1 , 
Prom all the evidence before us, we conclude that St. John wrote 
his First Epistle in a. d. 68, or at the latest in 69 ; though it is 
impossible to ascertain from what place he sent it — whether from 
Patmos, as Grotius supposes, or from some city in Judea, as Da 
Macknight supposes, or from Ephesus, as Irenaeus and Eusebiua 
relate from ancient tradition, which has been generally received. 
The style of the Epistle is pure, clear and flowing, and an affec- 
tionate spirit prevades the whole* 



there are three persons of this name mentioned in the New 
Testament. Michaelis and most modern critics suppose the 
person to whom this Epistle was addressed to be the Caius 
of Corinth, as hospitality was a leading feature of his char- 
acter. His hospitable temper, particularly toward the min- 
isters of the gospel, is strongly marked in the fifth, sixth, sev- 
enth and eighth verses of this Epistle. The scope of this 
Epistle is to commend his steadfastness in the faith and 
his general hospitality, especially to the ministers of Christ; 
to caution him against the ambitious and turbulent practices 
of Diotrephes, and to recommend Demetrius to his friend- 
ship, referring what he further had to say to a personal 
interview. Commentators are by no means agreed as to who 
this Diotrephes was. Bede, Erasmus, Michaelis and others 
suppose him to have been the author of a new sect, and that, 
as he delivered false doctrines, he objected to those who prop- 
agated the true faith. The character of Demetrius, on the 
contrary, was in every respect conformable to the precepts 
of the gospel, and St. John recommends him as ai> <wample 
to Caius, and the other members of the church. 

"N the fourth century, when Eusebius wrote his ecclesiastical history, these two 
epistles were classed among the books which were received by the majority of 
Christians, though some doubts were entertained by others respecting their authenticity. 
Testimonies are not wanting, however, to prove that they were both known and receiver! 
as genuine productions of the apostle John. The Second Epistle is cited by Irenseus, and 
received by Clement of Alexandria. Origen mentions all three epistles, though he says 
that the second and third were not allowed to be genuine by all persons. Dionysius of 
Alexandria mentions them as being ascribed to St. John. 

The Second Epistle is an epitome of the first, and touches, in few words, on the same 
points. The " Lady Electa " is commended for her virtuous and religious education of 
her children, and is exhorted to abide in the doctrine of Christ, to persevere in the truth, 
and carefully to avoid the delusions of false teachers. But chiefly does the apostle 
beseech this Christian matron to practice the great and indispensable commandment 
of Christian love and charity. 

The Third Epistle of John is addressed to a converted Gentile, a respectable member 
of some Christian church, called Caius, but who he was is a matter of uncertainty, as 


JUDE or Judas, who was surnamed Thaddeus and Lebbeus, 
and who was also called the brother of our Lord (Matt. 
xiii. 25), was the son of Alpheus, brother of James the 
Less, and one of the twelve apostles. As he continued with 
the rest of the apostles after our Lord's resurrection and 
ascension (Acts i. 13), and was also with them on the day 
of Pentecost, it is not unreasonable to suppose that, after 
having received the extraordinary gifts of the Holy Spirit, 
he preached the gospel for some time in Judea, and performed 
miracles in the name of Christ. He is said to have prop- 
agated Christianity in Arabia, Syria, Mesopotamia and 
Persia, and suffered martyrdom in the last named country. 
The Syrians still claim him as their apostle. When and 
where this epistle was written, and to whom it was addressed, 
are uncertain and immaterial. The design of the Epistle 
is to guard believers against the false teachers who had begun 
to insinuate themselves into the Christian Church, and to 
contend with the utmost earnestness and zeal for the truo 



THIS wonderful book stands alone among the sacred writings of 
the new dispensation, and occupies a place among them in 
many respects analogous to that of the Book of Daniel in the Old 
Testament. It has been very generally ascribed in all ages of the 
Church to the apostle and evangelist St. John. We learn from the 
book itself that the visions which it records were seen by the writer 
while he was in Patmos, a small island in the iEgean Sea, as a prisoner 
" for the testimony of Jesus Christ " (chap. i. 9) ; and Irenseus fixes 
the date of the visions, and therefore (as may be assumed) that of the 
composition of the book, about the end of the reign of Domitian, in 
or shortly before A. D. 96. No book has been more commented upon 
or has given rise to a greater variety of interpretations than the 
Apocalypse, which has ever been accounted the most difficult portion 
of the New Testament. Although many parts of the Apocalypse are 
necessarily obscure to us, because they contain predictions of events 
still in the future, yet enough is sufficiently clear to convey to us the 
most important religious instruction. The book is to us precisely 
what the prophecies of the Old Testament were to the Jews, nor is 
it in any degree more inexplicable. " No prophecies in the Revelation 
can be more clouded with obscurity than that a child should be born 
of a poor virgin — that a mortal should not see corruption — that a 
person despised and numbered among malefactors should be estab- 
lished forever on the throne of David. Yet still the pious Jew pre- 
served his faith entire amidst all these wonderfkl and apparently 
contradictory intimations. Ho looked into the holy books in which 
they were contained with reverence, and with an eye of patient 
expeeianoa 'waited for the consolation of Israel 

■ ■ 

,_^— ^. 


Gen. in. 6. 

Gen- lii. 23, 24. 

Gen iii. 19. 

Gen, iv. 4, 5. 

Gen. iv. 8. 


Gen. vi. 13-18. 

' ' ' I - 



Gen. viii. 18, 19. 

Gen vi 11 20 

Gen. ix. 24, 25. 

Gen. xi. 7, 8. 

Gen. xii. 3-7. 

Gen. xv. 5. 



.pU- ,A%&..:. 

Gen. xix. 15. 

Gen. xxxi. 17, 18. 


Gen. xxxii. 24. 

Gen. xli. 29, 30. 

Ex, xxxii. 19. 

Deut. xxxiv. 5, 6 


Josh. xni. 6, 7. 

Judges xiv. 6. 

Judges xv. 16 

Judges xvi 21, 

Judges xvi. 29, 30. 

Judges xi. 34. 



Ruth ii 7. 

1 Sam. xxviii. 16, 17. 

1 Sam. xx. 42. 

1 Sam xxv. 23, 24. 

2 Sam. xii. iS. 

1 Kings iii. 26, 27. 



i Kings xvii. 21, 22. 

i Kings xix. ii, 12. 

2 Kings ii. ii. 

Jer. i. 16, 17. 

Dan. vi. 19, 20. 

Judith xiii. 9, 10. 



Luke i. 62-64. 

Luke ii. 10, 11. 

Luke ii. 7. 

Matt. ii. 16. 

Matt. ii. 13. 

Matt. ii. 14, 15. 



Luke ii. 27, 28. 

Luke ii 46, 47, 

John ni. 2, 3. 

Matt. x. 5-7. 

John vi. 10, 11. 

Mark x. 14. 




Luke x 33, 34. 

John iv 25, 26 

John 11 15. 16. 

John viii. 4-7. 

Mark v. 41, 42. 

Luke vii. 14, 15. 

yL MH . M I — lll M 



Matt. xiv. 30, 31. 

Luke xv. 22. 


Mark vi 27, 28 

Matt. xxi. 8, g. 

— T- 

Matt. xxvi. 10-12. 

John xiii. 5- 




Matt xxvii 3-5 

Luke xxiii. 27, 28. 

John xix 30 

John xix 4T, 42. 

Matt, xxviii. 2-4. 

Mark xvi. s, 6. 



Luke xxiv. 15. 

Luke xxiv. 50, 51. 


Acts xiv. 14, 15. 

Acts-xx. 37, 38. 

Rev. viii. 1-6. 

Rev. xxi. 1, 2. 









-■■■-------■ ■ '- . 

— ■—---"-' - --- - -; ■ --■ ■--- ■■■- ■ - -■ -■ 

■ ■' ' ■••- ■- ■ '• ; -- -■ ■•■■ 









■■I II— --.!■ — 



















Chronological and Miscellaneous Tables. 


From the Creation to the Christian Era, and the Principal Events of the Nineteenth Century, 


The Holt Scriptuees. 













THE CREATION, B. C. 4004, TO THE DELUGE, B. C. 2348 








1 B. C. 420 J 

1 ERA, A. D J 











Periods II. and III. Period to call of Abraham, 427 Years. Thence to 

Exode, 430 Years. 

Birth. Birth, 



A. M. 







Pel eg 





Abram"(eaVled'l92'rB.'c")'.. .'!."!!'.'.'.. ..... ..... 




Moses (Exode 1491 B. C.) 

Conquest of Canaan, begun under Joshua 




A. M. 













1978 • 




















Period IV. 40 Years. 


Period V. 356 Years. 

Date of 

b. c. 


Shamgar . 
Deborah and Barak . 

Gideon , 






Elon ..'. 





Saul (anointed King). 


Died at age of 110. 

First Judge. Judged 40 years. 

Rest of 80 years in the land. 

Judged 40 years. 

" 40 years. 

" 3 years. 

" 23 years. 

" 22 years. 

rt 6 years. 

" 7 years. 

" 10 years. 

" 8 years. 
High Priest 40 years. 
Samson, twelfth Judge. Judged 20 years. 
Last Judge. He filled his office long after 

Saul became King, B. C. 1095. 
The periods unaccounted for between the 
Judges were passed in servitude to neigh- 
boring nations. 


Period I. 1656 Years. 

Birth. Birth. 



a. m. 












Creation of Adam and Eve 











The Deluge. 


B. C. 

(Adam) 3074 
(Transl.) 3017 



a. m. 
























Period VI. 91 Years. 

Date of 

b. c. 





Saul Reigned 40 years. 

David Reigns over Judah in Hebron, 7 years 

and 6 months. 
R,eigns over all Israel, 32 years and 6 

Completion of Temple. Begun in 4th year of Solomon's reign, B. C. 1011 
completed in about seven years and a half. 


Period VIII. 168 Years. 

B. C. 











f The return of the Jews from Babylon 
{ was headed by Zerubbabel. 

J The prophet Malachi concludes the Old 
{ Testament Canon about the year 420 B. C. 

The Sons of Noah were 
Shem, Sam, tXapheth. 

Shem's Sons were 






Ha m 's So ii 8 were 





The Sons of Japheth 







Til as. 

They settled 




Northern Arabia, 


They settled 

The Continent of 
Africa and Arabia. 


Asia Minor, 

The principal nations which sprang 

from them were 

The principal nations which sprang 

from them were 


The principal nations which sprang J 

from them were 
Russians, Germans, Gauls, Britons 

Ionians and Athenians, 





























H h 


* rH -S "-( 




> e 





■OS o CO CO t- 00 


r— ■ — 

O a * 


1 e" " 


(M rH lO CO © 


<< S 

*T3 B 



Nahor do. 

Jacob aged when., 



Abram do. 

Terah do. 

Serug . 




Peleg do. 





Arphaxad do 

Shem aged when. 

Noah do. 

Lamech. . 


Methuselah . 


. . . .do. 



Cainan. . 







. . .do. 

Before Christ. 

Anno Mundi.. 
















e ,-e 

te <m 





I I 

rH CM 














>— < 
















00 !b- 


(M <M i— I 





$ 3 


»a as 















Deed Anno Mundi 

Born Anno Mundi 
and died aged 

Lived after 

Age at the birth of 
the heir 









. O IM O 

CO •<*! TH 









CO i— I 
i-H OS 




CO o 


-< • 

lO lO 

co o 



o o 



co Os 


CM rH 



lO o 
CM t- 






co oo 



o o 



CM t^ 


tH os 



•^ en 



co co 

■*! r-l 

I 8 

,§ OS* 

CM lO 






-a co 



oo i— i 

l-H CM 


b- OS 

O0 CO 






oo oo 

CO rH 

-*S CM 

"*< CM 

rH lO 

CO t^ 

'•J? o 
O lO 





rti CM 
1^ O0 

O0 rH 




lO CO 





lO o 
o o 

a> cm 


oo oo 

lO OS 








6~* rH 

CO o 



O0 O0 

lO CO 

co rH 



CO lO 
lO CO 



co co 
os co 

CO H^ 






rH CM 




co -* 
w co 

■— i 


CO tH 







t^ OS 

io co 
r- cm 


t- o 






t~ OS 

co co 




00 CO 



oo © 

rH CM 



OS o 

T^ CO 

00 CM 

OS o 

rH CO 


45 co 



© CM 



os oo 

00 rH 

os as 

rH CM 

CM rH 

00 lO 
00 CM 


oo © 

t~ CO 

oo <-t 


rH CM 



CO lO 

o t-~ 

© rH 


oo © 
o o 

O rH 

rH lO 

CM* rH 


d d 
<x> as 



O0 © 

cs -s 







co r^ 

co rH 

co oo 



The Kings and Prophets of Judah and Israel 


SAUL Reigned 40 years Before CHRIST 1095. 

DAVID Reigned 40 years Before CHRIST 1055. 

SOLOMON Reigned 40 years Before CHRIST 1015. 
























t— 1 




















3 mos. 


3 m. 10 d. 




















































7 days. 








6 mos. 
1 mo. 




Man of God from Judah. - 


Micaiah. ' 





l : 




Zechariah, son of Jehoiada.... 



, Zeehariah (who had under- 
standing in the visions of 
God, 2 Chron. 26 : 5). 

Ahaziah, or Azariah „ 

f Interrugnum, 22 years, ac- 1 
\ cording to Hales. J 

Interregnum, 11 years, ) 

according to Sales. J 


The Kingdom of Israel over- 

Shalmaneser, king of Assyria, came up against Samaria in the sixth 
year of the reign of Hoshea (b. c. 724), and after a siege of three 
years took the city, carried Israel away into Assyria ; and having 
removed them to the cities of Halah and Haboi, by the river Gozan, 
and into the cities of the Medes, he placed Assyrians in the cities j 
of Samaria in their room. 

' Ezekiel.. 


Obadiah ...................... 

Jerusalem destroyed by Nebu- ") 
ckadnezzar and Judah car- > 
ried captive. J 

Governors of Jerusalem 
after the captivity. 








B. C. 


Nimrod, founded Babylon. 
Ashur, founded Nineveh. 
Belus, reigned in Babylon. 
Ninus, united Nineveh and Babylon, 
forming the Assyrian Empire. 

B. C. 


Arbaces (Governor). 
Deioces (?) 
Cyaxares I. 
Scythians expelled. 

Cyaxares II., or Darius. 
Cyrus the Great forms the Medo- 
Persian Empire. 

B. C. 


Darius Codomanus. 
Alexander the Great conquers Darius 
and ends the Persian Empire. 

B. C. 




' 715 

Tiglath-pileser, or Arbaces. 



Dot) iLsarnaaaon uu<es jsaDyion. 

B. C. 




Busiris founds Thebes. 


Shepherd-kings reign 260 years. 



Memnon invents letters. 

Amenophis I. 


Hyksos, or Shepherd-kings. 

Rameses Miamum. 

Pharaoh Amenophis (the Exode). 




Sesac (?). ' 



B. C. 

1 2017 

. 840 


Semiramis (?). 

Arabs seize Ninevefe. 






Sardanapalus (?). 

Sardanapalus burned in his pal- 
ace (?). 

Pul (?). 

After the death of Sardanapalus 

'the Assyrian Empire ends, being 

divided into Assyrian, Babylonian 

and Median Kingdoms. 


B. C. 






Chiniladon, or Saracus. 







Babylon taken by Cyrus. 

B. C. 


Cyrus the Great. 
Cambyses, or Ahasuerus. 
Smerdis, or Artaxerxes. 
Darius, or Hystaspes. 
Xerxes the Great. 
Artaxerxes Longimanus. 
Xerxes II. 

Oohus, or Darius Nothus. 
Artaxerxes Mnemon. 
Artaxerxes Ochus. 


KINGS OF EGYPT (continued). 


KINGS OF MACEDON (continued). 

KINGS OF SYRIA (continued) 

B. C. 


Sebaeon invades Egypt. 

B. C. 


Uranus arrives in Greece. 

B. C. 


Amyntas II. 

B, C. 


Antiochus VI. Theus, 




Inachus founded Argos. 




Diodotus, r\r Tryphon. 




Arundelian marbles. 


Amyntas II. 


Antiochus $EL Sidetes. 


Pharaoh Neeho. 


Cecrops founded Athens. 


Alexander II. 


Demetrius II. Nicator, re-ealftl) 




Corinth built. 


Ptolemy Alorites. 



Pharaoh Hopbra. 


Lelex founded Sparta. 


Perdiccas III. 


Alexander II. Zebina. 


Apries (strangled)o 


(Edipus, king of Thebes, 


Philip II. 


Seleucus V. 




Trojan War. 


Alexander III., called the Gr««.i. 


Antiochus VIII. Grypus. 
Seleucus VI. Nicator. 




iEneas sails into Italy, 


Philip Aridseus, 



Cambyses conquers Egypt, 


Codrus, king of Athens. 




Antiochus Eusebes. 




Laws of Lycurgus. 


Alexander and Antipate* 


Antiochus IX. GrypuBo 




Macedonia founded. 








Solon, Archon of Athena. 




Demetrius Eueharea, 




Democracy at Athens. 




Antiochus Dionysius. 




Leonidas, king of Sparta. 


Ptolemy Ceraunui. 






Alexander master of all Greece 




Antioehus Asiaticus. 




Achaean League. 
Destruction of League. 


Antigonus Gonatug, 


Syria becomes a Roman Province, 



Conquered by Oehus, king of .Persia. 

Ptolemy Soter (?). 

Ptolemy Philadelphus, 

Ptolemy Euergetes. 

Ptolemy Philopator. 

Ptolemy Epiphanes. 

Ptolemy Philometer. 

Euergetes II. 


Corinth demolished, and Greece be- | 
comes a Roman Province under 1 
the name of Achaia. 


Antigonus Dosoa. 



End of Kingdom of Macedon. 

Becomes a Roman Province, 



B. C. 


Romulus builds Rome. 
Interregnum of one year, i 
Numa Pompilius. j 
Tullus Hostilius. 
Ancus Martius. 






B. C. 






B. C. 


Lathyrus Soter and Cleopatra. 




Seleucus I. Nieator, 


Tarquinius Priscus. 


Alexander and Cleopatra. 


Perdiccas 1= 


Antioehus I. Soter. 


Servius Tullius. 




Argseus I. 


Antioehus II. Theus. 


Tarquinius Supjrbns. 




Philip I. 


Seleucus II. Callinieug. 


The Tarouine expelled and Con- 


Ptolemy Auletes. 




Seleucus III. Ceraunus. 

sular Government established, 


Ptolemy Dyonysius and Cleopatra. 




Antiochus III. the Great. 

which lasted for 461 years. 


Ptolemy the Younger and Cleopatra. 


Amyntas I. 


Seleucus IV. Philopator, 


Julius Caesar, perpetual Dictator.! 


Cleopatra alone. 


Alexander I. 


Antiochus IV. Epiphanes 

Commencement of Empire of Csesars. 


Egypt becomes a Roman Province. 


Perdiccas II. 


Antiochus V. Eupator. 


Slain in the Senate House. Anarchy. 




Demetrius I. Soter. 


Augustus Cossar, 


Amyntas II. 


Alexander I. Balas. 

A. D. 




Demetrius II. Nicator, 




[The chief points only being Selected and Numbered.] 

Prophecy of Four Kingdoms, repre- 
sented by Four Beasts. 


1. A lion 

2. having eagle's wings 

3. the wings were plucked 

4. it was raised from the ground 

5. and made to stand on the feet, as a man, 

8. and a man's heart [intellect] was given 
to it. — Dan. 7 : 4. 


1. A ram 

2. which had two horns 

3. both high 

4. but one higher than the other 

Corresponding Events in their Histori- 
cal Order. 

5. The highest came up last 

6, the ram pushed north, west and south. 

7. did as he pleased, and became great.- 
Dan. 8 : 3, 4. 


1. The Babylonian empire; 

2. Nineveh, etc., added to it — but 

3. Nineveh was almost destroyed at the 

fall of Sardanapalus. 

4. Yet this empire was again elevated to 


5. and seemed to acquire stability under 


6. who laid the foundation of its subse- 

quent policy and authority. 


1. Darius, or the Persian power. 

2. Composed of Media and Persia, 

3. both considerable provinces, 

4. Media the most powerful; yet this most 


5. Median empire, under Deioees, rose after 

the other; 

6. and extended its conquests under Cyrus 

over Lydia, etc., west, over Asia, north, 
over Babylon, etc., south, and 

7. ruling over sueh an extent of country, 

was a great empire. 

Prophecy or Four Kingdoms, repre- 
sented by Four Beasts. 



A he-goat 

came from the west 

gliding swiftly over the earth 

ran unto the ram in the fury of hi? power. 

smote him 

brake his two horns 

cast him on the ground 

stamped on him, and 

waxed very great 

when he was strong his great horn was 

broken, and 
instead of it, came four notable ones.., 

Corresponding .Events in theie Histori 
cal Order. 

toward the four winds of heaven.... il2 

out of one of them a little horn waxed 13 


toward the south and east 14, 

which took away the daily sacrifice, and 15. 

cast down the sanctuary, etc. — Dan. 

8: 5-12. 


Dan. 7 : 7, 8 ; 19-21. 


Alexander, or Greek power, 
came from Europe (west of Asia) 
with unexampled rapidity of success; 
attacked Darius furiously, and 
beat him — at the Granicus, Issus, etc. 
conquered Persia, Media, etc.; 
ruined the power of Darius, 
insomuch that Darius was murdered, etc, 
Alexander overran Bactriana to India, 
but died at Babylon in the zenith of 

his fame and power; 
his dominions were parceled among 
Seleucus, Antigonus, Ptolemy, Cas- 
sander (who had been his officers) ; 
In Babylon, Asia Minor, Egypt, Greece 
Antiochus the Great, succeeded by An- 
tiochus Epiphanes; 
conquered Egypt, etc., 
and endeavored utterly to subvert the 
Jewish polity, polluting their temple^ 
worship and sacrifices to the utmost 
of his power. 


Rome, mistress of the world. 


Period IX. 420 Years. 

B. C, 


B. C 




' 300 
1 291 



High Priest. 
High Priest. 
High Priest.- 
High Priest.- 

High Priest. 
High Priest. 
High Priest. 
High Priest. 
High Priest.- 
High Priest.- 

High Priest.- 
High Priest.- 

— Alexander the Great dies, B. C. 324. 
—Ptolemy Lagus captures Jerusa- 
lem, b. c. 320, 

—Sect of Sadducees founded, b. c. 200. 
— Scopas, an Egyptian, conquers Ju- 

dea, b. c. 199. 
—Antiochus retakes Judea, B. C. 198. 
—Antiochus Epiphanes slays 40,000 

Jews, b. c. 170. 













"] These four were Princes of Judea, and were J 
1 called the Maccabees, or Asmonean Princes, j 
from Asmoncus, great-grandfather of Judas ' 
J Maecabseus. 

Son of John Hyrcanus assumes the title of king 
1 ■< 

- & i 

° Jerusalem taken by Pompey. 
§ Walls of Jerusalem rebuilt, b. c. 44; and Jeru- 
5 salem captured by the Parthians, b. c. 40. 
Appointed King of Judea at Rome. Returns to 
Jerusalem with an army and captures it. 

Simon, the Just 

Hyrcanus II. (restored).. 

Menelaus ..................... 

John Baptist, born three 
months before birth of 
Christ; and New Tes- 
tament Canon begins. 










Creation of the world. 


Zedekiah made king over the remnant of 



Chinese Empire founded. 




The deluge. 


Solon, legislator at Athens. 


1 Sesostris king of Egypt 


Jerusalem having rebelled against Baby- 
lon is besieged by Nebuchadnezzar. 


Birth of Abraham. 


Jerusalem taken and destroyed by Nebu- 


Call of Abraham.. 

chadnezzar. — Zedekiah's eyes are put 



Isaac born. 

out. — He is taken to Babylon where he 


Kingdom of Argos founded. 

diies. — End of the kingdom of Judah. 


Birth of Jacob and Esae, 


' Copper money coined at Rome. 


Joseph sold into Egypt. 


Fall of Tyre. 


Moses born. 


Amasis king of Egypt. 


Cadmus introduces letters into Greece. 


• The Jews captives in Babyloa. 

• Founding of the Persian Empire by ; 


The Passover instituted. — Departure from 


First comedy performed at Athens. 


The Law given from Mount Sinai. 



Marseilles built by the Phoeseans. 


Death of Moses and Aaron. — Joshua leads 


Babylon taken by Cyrus and united 

the Israelites into Canaan. 


Cyrus allows the Jews to return to their 

to Persia. | 



{ Rise of Assyria. 

own country. — Return of the first cara- 


I The Judges. 

i Search for the Golden Fleece, 
{ War against Troy. 

van under Zerubbabel and Jeshua. | 




Rebuilding of the Temple. 





Opposition of the Samaritans. 

Tarquinius Superbus king of Rome. 


Samson slays the Philistines, 


Letter to the Persian king from the ad- 

Death of Cyrus. 


Death of Samson. 



Sparta a kingdom. 


Egypt conquered by Cambyses, 


Saul made king. 


Work on the Temple stopped by a royal 

Death of Cambyses. 1 


Death of Samuel. 




Death of Saul and Jonathan. 


Haggai and Zechariah, 



David king over Israel. — Takes Jerusalem. 



Building of the Temple resumed. 



The Ark removed to Jerusalem. 


Dedication of the Second Temple. 


Revolt of Absalom. 

Death of David and accession of Solomon. 

■ Tyre flourishes under Hiram, 


Expulsion of the Tarquins.— Rome 
and Athens republics. 


Foundation of the Temple. 




Dedication of the Temple. 


Battle of Marathon. | 


Death of Solomon. — Revolt of the Ten 
Tribes. — Kingdom of Israel established 
under Jeroboam. 


Xerxes (the Ahasuerus of Esther). 
Battles of Salamis and Thermopylae. j 
— Persians burn Athens. 


Shemaiah averts a civil war. — Rehoboam 
king of Judah. 


Battles of Platsea and Mycale. — Per- 
sians retreat from Greece. 


Shishak, king of Egypt, takes Jerusalem 
and pillages the Temple. 


Esther and Biord®8»L 

Death of Aristides.--Socrates born, 


Abijah defeats the king of Israel; 50,000 
men are slain in the battle. 

Tabrimmon king of Damascus. 


Cimon defeats the Persians. 
Death of Xerxes. 


Israel afflicted with the famine predicted 
by Elijah. 


Commission of Ezra. 
Great reformation. 

Cincinnatus dictator. 


The Syrians besiege Samaria. 


Decern virate at Rome. — Appius Clau- 


Elijah translated to heaven. 

dius. '■ 


Death of Ahab, king of Israel. 


") Commission of Nehemiah.— The walls 



Miracles of Elisha the Prophet, 

> rebuilt. — Reading of the law. — Oppo- 


Carthage founded by Dido. 


J sition of Sanballat. 



Commencement of the Olympic Era. 



Peloponnesian war. 


Israel invaded by the Assy rians under Phul. 


, Pericles dies. — Plato born. 


Syracuse founded. 


Lysander takes Athens. — Death of 


Rome built. 

, Alcibiades. 


Era of Nabonass&rc, 


! Xenophon. — Retreat of the 10,000. 


Pekah, king of Israel, lays siege to Jeru- 
salem ; 120,000 of the men of Judah are 
slain in one day. 


Death of Socrates. 
Rome taken by the Gauls. 
Battle of Leuctra. 


Ahaz, king of Judah, being defeated by 
Pekah, calls in the assistance of Tiglath- 
Pileser, king of Assyria, and becomes 
tributary to him. — Israel is also made 
tributary to the same king. — A Syrian 
altar is set up in the Temple, and the 
sacred vessels sent to Assyria. 




Murder of Josteasv 

Alleged captivity of the Jews. 
Jaddua High Priest. 

Death of Epaminondas. 
Birth of Alexander the Great. — Tem- 
ple of Diana at Ephesus burned. 

Death of Plato. 


Samaria is taken by the king of Assyria. 
— The Ten Tribes carried into captivity. 


Alexander the Great succeeds to the 

— End of the Kingdom of Israel. — Isa- 

Numa Pompilius, B. c. 716. 


Destruction of Thebes. , 

iah and Micah prophets in Judah. 


Battle of Issus. — Damascus taken and i 


Sennacherib invades Judah, but the de- 

Tyre besieged by Alexander. 

stroying angel enters the camp of the 


The High Priest induces Alexander to 

Alexander king of Epirus in Italy. 

Assyrians, and in one night destroys 

spare Jerusalem. 

185,000 of them. 


Settlement of the Jews at Alexandria. 

Battle of Arbela. 


Manasseh king of Judah. — Gross idolatry 
of Judah. 


Onias High Priest. 

Demosthenes' oration for the crown. 
Death of Alexander. 


Samaria colonized by Assyrians. 

Scythian invasion of Western Asia. 


Romans humiliated by the Samnites 
at the Caudine forks.- — Demosthenes 


Byzantium founded. 


Holofernes is killed at the siege of Bethulia 
by Judith. 


Ptolemy takes Jerusalem.-^Jewish settle- 
ments in Egypt and Cyrene. 

and Aristotle die. 



Alyattes king of Lydia.— Nabopolas- 
sar of Babylonia and Cyaxares of 


Palestine under Antigonus. 

Thebes rebuilt. 

Media destroy Nineveh. 


Commencement of the Era of the Seleucidse. 

Appius Claudius censor. 


In repairing the Temple, Hilkiah discovers 
the book of the law, and Josiah keeps a 
solemn Passover. — Jeremiah prophet. 



Simon I., the Just, High Priest. 
Eleazar High Priest. 

Third Samnite war. 


Josiah killed in battle. — Jehoiakim king. 

Babylon a great kingdom. 


Manasseh High Priest. 


Jeremiah's prophecy of the 70 years' cap- 


Septuagint version made by order of 
Ptolemasus Philadelphus. 

tivity. — Nebuchadnezzar invades Judah, 

takes Jerusalem. — Jehoiakim his vaBsal. 


Commencement of the Punie wars. 


Jehoiakim revolts from Babylon. 


End of the first Punic war. 


Nebuchadnezzar besieges Jerusalem. [ 

Jerusalem taken. — Jehoiakim deposed and] 

succeeded by Jehoiachin, who rebels. 


Temple of Janus closed for 4he firf^ 


time since Numa. 

W-— ^-^ 


Antiochus overruns Palestine, 

Second Punic war. 





B. C. 







Hannibal crosses the Alps. 


Civil war between the rival brothers. — 


Ptolemy reoovers Palestine, profanes the 

Battle of Trasimene. 

Appeal to the Romans. 

Temple, but is driven out supernaturally. 


Arbitration of Pompey. 

— He persecutes the Jews of Alexandria. 


Pompey carries Jerusalem by assault. — 

Cieero, Consul, 


Battle of CannaB. 

Judea subject to Rome from this time. 


Chinese wall built. 


Alexander, son of Aristobulus II., makes 


Dynasty of Han in China. 

war on Hyrcanus, but is defeated by 


The Jews submit to Antioehus the Great. 

Gabinius, Proconsul of Syria. 

— Are well treated at first. 


Caesar's first 6-esoent on Britain. 


Scipio in Africa. — Defeat of the Car- 


Crassus at Jerusalem; plunders the Tem- 

Second invasion of Britain. If 



Peace with Carthage. 


Cassius enslaves 30,000 Jews, the partisans 


Palestine and Cosle-Syria conquered by 

of Aristobulus. 

Antioehus the Great and confirmed to 


Caesar releases Aristobulus, who is put to 

Caesar crosses the Rubicon. 

him by the peace with Rome. 

death by the Pompeians. — Alexander 


Attempt of Heliodorus to plunder the 

put to death by Scipio at Antioch. 



Antipater first Roman Procurator of Judea. 

Battle of Pharsalia. — Death of Pom- 


Death of Hannibal and Scipio» 

— Hyrcanus Ethnarch. 



Onias III. degraded from the High Priest- 


Antipater appoints his sons Phasael and 

Reform of the Calendar. 

hood, which is sold to Jason. 


Herod captains of Judea and Galilee. 


Third Macedonian war. 


Decree of Caesar for refortifying Jerusalem. 

Death of Caesar. 


Jerusalem taken by Antioehus Bpiphanes. 


Cassius plunders Jerusalem. 

Death of Cicero. 

— Great cruelties toward the Jews. 


Herod defeats Antigonus and enters Jeru- 

Battle of Philippi. — Death of Brutus 


Menelaus deposed. — Massacre at Jerusa- 
lem. — -Beginning of the Maocabaean war 

End of the Macedonian kingdom. 

salem in triumph. — Is reconciled to Hyr- 
canus and betrothed to Mariamne. 

and Cassius. 

ef independence. 


Herod appointed king by the Roman 

Roman Empire divided. — Octavius 


Judas Maccabseus defeats the Syrian gen- 


and Antony at Rome. 



Herod takes Jerusalem on the day of atone- 

Renewal of the Triumvirate for five 


Judas takes Jerusalem. — Rededicatian of 
the Temple. 

ment. — Marries Mariamne. — Death of 
Antigonus. — End of the Asmonaean line. 



Death of Antioehus. — He is suoceeded by 

— Annel made High Priest. 

Antioehus V., Eupator, who takes Beth- 


Herod compelled by Cleopatra to make 

Antony and Cleopatra 

sura and besieges Jerusalem. — Peace 

Aristobulus High Priest. 

with the Jews. 


Murder of Aristobulus. 


Alcimus made High Priest. — Judas calls 
on the Jews to resist. 


Herod appeases Antony by gifts. — Antony 
gives Coele-Syria to Cleopatra. 


Victory of Adasa. — Embassy to Rome. — 
Death of Judas Maccabaeus. 

Alliance between Rome and Judea. 


Herod defeats the Arabians. — Dreadful 
earthquake in Judea. 

Battle of Actium. 


Peace with Syria. 


Herod meets Octavian at Rome and is con- 

Death of Antony and Cleopatra. — 


Jonathan High Priest. 

Celtiberian war. 

firmed in his kingdom. 

Egypt a Roman provinoe. 


Third Punic war. 


Herod puts Mariamne to death. 


Alliance with Demetrius, whose life Jona- 

Destruction of Carthage. 


M urder of Alexandra, mother of Mariamne. 

than saves. 


The name of Augustus conferred upon 


Death of Jonathan. 



Tower of Zion taken. — First year of Jew- 


Herod murders the last of the family of 

ish freedom. 

Hyrcanus. — Introduces heathen games 


Simon made hereditary prince of the Jews. 

into Jerusalem. 


John Hyrcanus High Priest. 


The dominions of Herod increased by the 


Hyrcanus goes to Parthiawith Antioehus, 
who is killed there. — Judea independent. 

Death of Tiberius Gracchus. 

addition of Trachonitis, Batanea, and 
Auranitis. — Sends his sons Alexander 


Hyrcanus conquers the land east of Jordan. 

and Aristobulus to Rome. 


Death of Caius Gracohus. 


Herod visits Agrippa at Mytilene. 

Death of Mareellug, 


Hyrcanus destroys the Samaritan Temple 
on Mount Gerizim. 


Herod rebuilds his palace. — Founds Cae- 


Death of Hyrcanus. — Aristobulus, High 

Marius, First Consul. 


Rebuilding of the Temple. 

Priest, assumes the title of king. 


Completion of the Holy Place. 


Alexander Jannaeus. — Civil war. 

Jugurtha taken. — Cicero and Pom- 
pey born. 


Refuses the hand of Salome to the Arabian 


Augustus Pontifex Maximui, 


Julius Csesar born. 


Herod opens David's tomb in search of 


Sylla dictator. 



Alexandra queen of Judea. 


Murder of Alexander and Aristobulus, 


Defeat and death of Spartaous. 

Herod's sons, by Mariamne. — The Phar- 


Hyrcanus II., king, deposed by his brother 
after three months. — Succeeded by Aris- 

isees refuse the oath to Caesar and Herod, 
and are fined. 

tobulus II. — Rise of Antipater. 


Birth of Christ, according to the common 

Augustus Emperor of Rom*, 


Syria a Roman province. 

reckoning. — Death of Herod. 


Period X. 100 Years. 

B. C. 








Birth of Christ, probably Dec. 25. 

28th year of reign of Augustus Caesar 

Martyrdom of St. Stephen. 

Pilate deposed and commits suicide. . 
Agrippa made king of Judea. 


at Rome. 


Conversion of Saul. 


His oircumcision, presentation in Temple 

Herod orders the massacre of all male 


St. Matthew writes his Gospel. 

Death of Agrippa. 

and flight of his family to Egypt. 

infants under two years old. 


Rise of term Christian. 


Return from Egypt. 

Death of Herod and his son Antipater 


St. James beheaded. 


and division of his kingdom. 


Famine in Judea. 

Emperor Claudius. — London founded. 


Judea annexed to Roman province of 

Famine in Rome. 


St. Mark dies. 




Persecution of the Jews. 

Nero Emperor at Rome. 


Jesus being twelve years old is taken by 


Jews at war with Rome. 

Great slaughter of Jews in Syria. 

his parents to the Temple. 


Seoond imprisonment of Paul at Rome. 

Defeat of Jews by Vespasian. 


Birth of St. Paul. 


Martyrdom of Paul and Peter 

Nero deposed and commits suicide. — 


Caiaphas High Priest. 


Vespasian Emperor at Rome. — Jeru- 


Christ baptized by John. — His public min- 

Death of Augustus. 

salem taken and destroyed by Titus. 

istry begins. 


Second persecution of Christians. 

Plague in Rome. — Vespasian dies. 


John the Baptist beheaded. 

Tiberius Emperor at Rome. 


John banished to Patmos (Rev. 1). 

Domitian killed. — End of reign ot 


Crucifixion of Christ, probably on Friday, 

Pontius Pilate Governor of Judea. — 


April 1 5th. 

Tiberius friendly to the Christians. 


Death of St. John at Ephesus, 

Trajan Emperor of Rome. 


The apostles called. 
















Pliny'3 letter to Trajan. 108, Ignatius martyred. 120, Sixtus I. bishop of Borne. 
Palmyra built and Temple of the Sun, Baalbek. Adrian emperor (130) rebuilds 
Jerusalem as MUa, Capitolina. 132, Ptolemy the Egyptian astronomer, Pausa- 
nias, Lucian, Marcion's heresy. 136, Barcocab's (Jewish) rebellion crushed ; Jews 
banished from Palestine. 13S, Antoninus. 140, Claudius Ptolemy, Egypt, "Ptol- 
emaic System." 154, Justin Martyr's Apology. 167, Polycarp martyred. 169, 
Galen, Diogenes, Laertius. 161, Marcus Aurelius. 181, Commodus; Saracens 
defeat the Romans. 193, Severus. 

Tertullian the defender of Christianity. 208, Julius Africanus, Clemens of Alex- 
andria. 217, Calixtus bishop of Rome. The Septuagint found. 226, Ardsheer 
(Artaxerxes) founds the Sassanian line in Persia. 229, Dion Cassius historian. 
St. Cyprian 200-258. Temple of Diana burnt at Ephesus 260. Zenobia queen 
of Palmyra 263-273, taken to Rome by Aurelian, emperor. Manes d. 274. Tal- 
mud and Targum begun. 284, Diocletian emperor. 290, Gregorian code. First 
monks 296. Eusebius, "the father of church history," b. 266, d. 340. 
Constantino emperor (b. 272; d. 337). Christianity tolerated. Council ef Nicaea 
325. Constantinople the capital 330. Julian the Apostate (361) at Jerusalem. 
First monasteries in Egypt 356. Gregory Nazianzen, b. 328, d. 489. Valens 354. 
The Huns invade Europe. The Saxons invade Britain. Roman empire divided 
into East and West 364. Theodosius 379. Chrysostom, Ambrose, Jerome, Mar- 
tin and Augustine "Christian Fathers." 

Innocent I. bishop of Rome, 412, Cyril bishop of Alexandria. 416, Visigoths 
and Vandals appear. 425, Theodosius opens publio schools. 429, Nestorius 
bishop of Constantinople. 431, Council at Ephesus. 432, St. Patrick in Ireland. 
435, Theodosian code. Leo I. bishop at Rome. 447, Huns under Attila invade 
Scythia, Germany and Rome. 448, Eutyches condemned. 468, First trial by 
jury of peers. 476, Rome taken by Odoacer. End of the Roman empire. 498, 
Talmud of Babylon published. 

Christianity in France. 513, Christianity in Persia. 526, Extreme unction in- 
troduced. 529, Benedictine monks. Schools closed at Athens. 532, Christian 
era invented by Dionysius Exiguus. Justinian emperor, b. 483, crowned 527; 
the codes completed (Pandects) 534, d. 565. The Armenians separate from the 
Greek Church. 538, St. Sophia built at Constantinople. 540, The Monothelites. 
548, Turkish rule founded in Asia. 55S, Procopius the Roman. 559, The Saxon 
Heptarchy in England begun. 568, The Turks send an embassy to Justin II. 
emperor. Kingdom of Murcia, England. 580, Latin language dead in Italy. 586, 
Catholics in Spain. 588, Gregory of Tours, "the father of French history." 
590, Gregory the Great bishop of Rome. Purgatory and the mass first taught. 
596, Christianity taught by St. Augustine in England. Bretwalda king. 
St. Paul's, London, founded by Ethelbert, king of Kent. 606, Phocas, emperor 
of Rome, at Constantinople declared Boniface III. pope and supreme over all 
others in the Church. 612, Mohammed published the Koran, 613, The Arabs 
in Syria. Persians take Jerusalem. 617, St. Peter's, now Westminster Abbey, 
founded by Sabert, king of Kent. 622, Mohammed's flight from Mecca to Medina. 
Era of Mohammed. 632, Omar the Caliph unites civil and religious powers, and 
.conquers Egypt, Palestine, Syria and Asia Minor. 636, Christianity in China. 
644, University of Cambridge. Celibacy of the clergy enforced. Separation of 
Greek and Roman churches. 647, Rhodes and Cyprus taken by the Arabs, also 
Persia. 657, Latin adopted as the church language by Pope Vitalian. 672, Sara- 
cens in Spain. 680, Bulgaria. 682, Leo II. instituted "holy water." 698, First 
king in Poland. Cracow founded. Adhelm first English writer in prose and 

Anglo-Saxon Octarchy. 708, Pope Constantine's toe kissed (the first). 713, Arabs 
conquer all Spain. 716, Paper-making introduced by Arabs. 725, Image-wor- 
ship forbidden. 735, Venerable Bede died. 752, Pope Stephen II. founded the 
temporal power of the Church by aid of Pepin of France. 762, Almanzor, caliph, 
builds Bagdad. 768, Charlemagne king of France. He conquers Italy and ends 
the Lombard kingdom. Schools in Bagdad, Cufa, Alexandria, Fez and Cordova 
under the Arabs. 779, Charlemagne imposes tithes for the support of the clergy, 
schools and the poor. 787, Seventh Church council at Nice. Haroon ar-Rashid 
caliph — golden age of Arabic learning. Masses said for money. 
Charlemagne emperor of Rome, Italy, Germany and France. 802, Haroon ar- 
Rashid presents Charlemagne with a striking clock. 808, First bank for exchai. gs 
in Italy. Denmark a kingdom, Gotricus king. 817, College of cardinals. 820, 
First division of the Arabian government. 824, Christianity in Denmark and 
Sweden. 828, St. Mark's, Venice, built. 829, The seven kings unite and form 
the kingdom of England under Egbert. 838, Normans plunder Paris and Ham- 
burg. 846, Saracens besiege Rome, and, defeated, ravage Sardinia. 858, First 
coronation of a pope, Nicholas I. 860, Gorm king of Denmark, Normans dis- 
cover Iceland. Ruric, first grand prince of Russia, builds Lagoda. Alfred the 
Great defeats the Danes. Harold first king of Norway. 875, Eutyehius (d.940) 
learned historian, 889, Hungary, Arpad first king. 890, Oxford University 
founded, also militia and navy and trial by jury, by Alfred in England. 
Venice and Genoa republics. Edward the first " king of the .English." Fatimites 
in Egypt, 904, First Russian attack on Constantinople. 912, Abder-Rahman 
Arab prince in Spain (heroic age). 915, University of Cambridge founded. 

939, Cordova, Spain, a seat of learning. Arabic numerals introduced in Europe. 

940, Mint founded in Kent. 955, Russia Christianized. 959, St. Dunstan of 
Canterbury enforces clerical celibacy. 965, Poland Christianized under Miecislus. 
973, Stephen, king, makes a constitution and written laws. 982, Greenland dis- 
covered. 988, Hugh Capet king in France. 995, Christianity in Norway. Olaf 
I. founds Drontheim. 

Paper made from cotton rags in England. 1013, Danes conquer England. 1016, 
Canute king of England. 1024, Avicenna Arabian physician (b. 980, d. 1037). 
1027, Brian Boru in Ireland. Scotland and Norway conquered by Canute. Fir- 
dusi the greatest Persian poet (b. 940, d. 1022). 1042, First invasion by the 
Seljuk Turks in Asia Minor. They take Bagdad in 1055. The selling of chil- 
dren prohibited by law in England. 1066, William the Conqueror in England. 
Jerusalem taken by Turks, 1068, Knights-errant in Spain. First booksellers. 
Surnames first used. Norman-French the legal language in England. 1095, 
First Crusade under Peter the Hermit and Godfrey de Bouillon, who was king 
in Jerusalem in 1099. Knights of St. John instituted. 

William of Poitou first troubadour. 1101, Robert duke of Normandy in England. 
1104, Acre taken by Crusaders; 1111, Beirut and Sidon ; and 1118, Tyre. Knights 
Templar. • 1125, Aristotle's logic again in repute. 1137, Justinian's Pandects dis- 
covered at Amalfi. Civil law improved. 1138, Portugal a kingdom. 1140, Wil- 
liam of Malmesbury English historian 1147, Second Crusade. Benjamin of 
Tudela travels from Spain to India. 1150, Magnetic needle first known in Italy. 

Eben Ezra the Jewish historian. 1158, Bank at Venice. Henry Plantagenet 
king in England. Thomas a, Becket chancellor of England. Poem of the CicL. 
Waldenses and Albigenses appear. 1171, Saladin sultan in Egypt, and con- 
quers Syria, Assyria, Mesopotamia and Arabia. 1172, Henry conquers Ireland^ 
1177, English circuit judges. 1178, Maimonides of Cordova, a learned Jew. 
1190, Third Crusade. 1191, Kingdom of Cyprus. 1193, Richard defeats Saladin. 
1196, Richard Lion Heart in captivity. Pope of Rome supreme. 

1202. Fourth Crusade. 1204, Inquisition in France. 1217, Fifth Crusade. 1223, Cru- 
sade against the Albigenses. 1229, Scriptures forbidden to all laymen by Catholics 
1230, Spain rescued from the Moors by Ferdinand. 1233, Coal first discovered 
at Newcastle, England. 1240, Sixth Crusade. 1240, Seventh Crusade. Jews are 
persecuted everywhere. 1261, Private war and trial by battle suppressed in 
France. 1265, Monastic orders wealthy and powerful. 1270, Eighth and last 
Crusade. 1272, Marco Polo travels to Pekin. 1273, First patent of nobility in 
France. 1274, General Council at Lyons and first reunion of the Eastern and 
Western churches. 1279, University of Lisbon. Roger Bacon of Oxford the 
most learned of the age. Kubla Khan in China. 1282, Sicilian Vespers. 1283, 
The title "prince of Wales" originated by King Edward. 1291, End of the 
kingdom of Jerusalem. 1297, William Wallace, William Douglas in Scotland. 
1299, Ottoman empire founded in Bithynia by Othman I. 

1300. University at Lyons. 1302, Mariner's compass invented at Naples. First con- 
vocation of the States General of France. 1303, University of Avignon. Dante 
the poet (b. 1265, d. 1321). 1306, Robert Bruce king in Scotland. Edward II. 
in England. 1310, Knights of St. John of Rhodes. 1311, William Tell in Swit- 
zerland. 1307, Swiss republic. Poland under one king, Vladislas IV. 1323, 
Musical notation by John de Muris. 1326, Tamerlane (d. 1405). Orkhan sultan, 
Brusa his capital. 1338, German Diet of Frankfort declares against the temporal 
power of the pope. 1340, Gunpowder first used at the battle of Cressy by Edward 
the Black Prince. 1347, Sir John Maundevile travels. 1362, Petrarch — Boccaccio. 
1365, The University of Vienna, College of Medicine at Paris. 1370, Chaucer. 
1377, The first Speaker of the House of Commons. 13S0, Wickliffe. The Tar- 
tars sack Moscow. Persia invaded by Tamerlane. 1386, Froissart's Chronicles. 
John van Eyck (b. 1390, d. 1440) inventor of oil painting in Bruges. 1390, First 
linen paper-mill in Germany. 1397, Union of Denmark, Sweden and Norway 
under one king. Revival of Greek literature. Tamerlane in Russia and (1399) 
in India, and in 1401 in Asia Minor. 

1409. University of Leipsic. Thomas a Kempis. 1410, John Huss (burnt 1416). 
1420, Madeira discovered by the Portuguese. 1425, Cosmo de Medici promotes 
art in Italy. 1429, Joan of Arc saves Orleans, France, from the English (burnt 
as a witch 1431). Printing by blocks by Koster of Haarlem 1438; by types by 
Gutenberg 1444; first cast metal types by Schoefier 1457. 1444, Leonardo da 
Vinci, Perugino. 1447, Vatican Library begun. 1448, Azores discovered. 1453, 
Constantinople taken by Turks. Jind of the Eastern Roman empire. 1469, Fer- 
dinand and Isabella. 1462, Ivan I. the first czar. 1480, Ximenes. Inquisition 
in Spain. House of Tudor in England. 1490, Conquest of Granada. 1492, 
Discovery of America by Columbus. 1497, Cabot. 1498, Vasco da Gama sails 
to India by the Cape of Good Hope. 

1502. St. Peter's, Rome, church begun. 1507, Cardinal Ximenes. 1513, Pope Leo X. 
patron of literature and art. 1517, Cairo taken by Turks. Luther (b. 1483, d, 
1546), Erasmus, Woolsey chancellor and cardinal to Henry VIII., England. Be. 
ginning of the Reformation. 1519, Conquest of Mexico. 1522, Magellan sails 
round the world. 1523, Christianity in India. Ariosto poet. Gustavus Vasa. 
1526, Albert D'urer. Invasion of Germany by Turks. 1529, Lutherans first 
called Protestants. 1532, John Calvin. 1533, Conquest of Peru, Cortez. 1534, 
Loyola founded the Jesuits. 1538, Diving-bell invented. 1539, University of 
Geneva. 1545, Council of Trent. Diet of Worms. 1547, Catherine de Medici 
queen. Turks in Persia. 1549, English liturgy established. Montaigne. 1554, 
Lady Jane Grey beheaded. 1556, Jelaleddin the Mogul emperor in India. Eliza- 
beth queen in England 1558. 1560, Catholicism abolished in England. Cecil, 
secretary ; Protestantism established. Puritans. Duke of Guise in France. 
1562, Religious liberty granted to the Huguenots. 1564, Duke of Alva. Tasso, 
Italian poet. 1568, Camoens, Portuguese poet. 1569, Prince Conde killed at 
Jarnac, France. 1570, Greek victory over Turks atLepanto. 1571, Cyprus taken 
by Turks. Cervantes. 1575, Stephen king of Poland. Murad III. sultan. Sixtus 
pope. 1577, Sir Francis Drake sails round the world. 1588, The first newspaper. 
1590, Telescopes invented. Spanish Armada destroyed. 1592, Spenser, Shake- 
speare, Ben Jonson, Lord Bacon. Edict of Nantes 1598. 

1602. East India Company founded. 1604, Acadia, Nova Scotia, colonized. Union of 
English and Scotch crowns, James I. New translation of Bible begun. 1606, 
Dr. Gilbert discovers the power of eleetrieity; 1686, Hudson's Bay discovered. 
Tobacco first in Turkey. 1607, Jamestown, Virginia, settled. 1608, Quebec 
founded. Telescope invented by Galileo. 1609, Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden. 
Russia overrun by Tartars. Moors expelled from Spain. 1617, Sir Francis 
Bacon lord chancellor. 1618, Synod of Dort, Arminius (b. 1560, d. 1609) con- 
demned. Thirty years' religious war in Germany. Circulation of the blood 
discovered by Harvey. 1620, Puritans landed on Plymouth Rock. 1624, Now 
Amsterdam (New York) settled by the Dutch. Cardinal Richelieu. Kepler 
astronomer. Torricelli invents barometers. 1627, Parian marbles in England. 
Boston founded. 1630, Gazette published in Venice. 1631, The Dutch masters 
in Brazil. 1632, Poles advance to Moscow. 1633, Laud archbishop of Can- 
terbury. 1637, Harvard College founded. Bagdad taken by the Turks. 1639, 
First printing in America at Cambridge by Green. 1640, Madras, India, 
founded by the English. 1642, War of the Roundheads and Cavaliers in 
England. 1645, Louis XIV., "The Great," of France (b. 1638, d. 1715). His 
ministers were Cardinal Mazarin and Colbert, and his wife Madame de Mainte- 
non; his generals Conde and Turenne. The colonies of New England unite. 
Des Cartes philosopher. Stuyvesant governor of New Amsterdam. Massaniello 
in Naples. 1647, First Tartar king in China. 1649, Charles I. beheaded, Eng- 
land. Cromwell (b. 1599, d. 1658) protector 1654, John Milton his secretary. 1650, 
Railroads with wooden rails near Newcastle, England. Jeremy Taylor, Alger, 
Sidney, authors. 1652, John Cotton, Inigo Jones, died. 1654. Air-pumps in- 
vented. 1662, Turks in Hungary. Logwood first cut in Honduras. 1663, Can- 
ada a colony. Salvator Rosa. 1664, French East India Company. 1666, Great 
fire in London. Canal of Languedoc from Mediterranean to Atlantic. Gobelin 
tapestry invented, Paris. 1667, New York ceded to England. 1670, Bayonets 
invented at Bayonne, France. 1672, Turks in Poland. 1675, Wren begins St. 
Paul's, London. King Philip's war. Butler, Dryden, Leighton, Baxter and 
Bunyan authors. 1681, Museum of Natural History, London,- Garden of Plant." 

MODERN CHRONOLOGY FROM A. D. 102 TO 1877.™ Continued. 

Paris. 1681, Penny post and Royal Society, London. Turks besiege Vienna. 
1685, Edict of Nantes revoked in Prance. 1686, SirB. Andros governor of New 
England. 1687, Newton's " Principia." 169?., Bank of England. Newton's re- 
flecting telescopes. Witchcraft in New England. 1699, Phosphorus discovered. 
French colony in Louisiana. Peter the Great in England. 

&?Q1. Yale College founded. 1703, First Russian newspaper. 1704, Marlborough. 
Boston News-Letter, first paper in America. 1707, First United Parliament, Great 
Britain. 1709, First paper money New Jersey. 1710, First post-office New 
¥ork. 1716, Charles XII., Sweden, killed. Cotton Mather, Increase Mather. 
First newspaper in Philadelphia. 1721, First newspaper in New York. 1727, 
Great earthquake in New England. 1728, Diamond mines discovered in Brazil. 
1729, Balloons invented by Gusmac. The Carolinas separated. 1732, George 
Washington born (d. 1799). 1740, Maria Theresa, Austria. 1744, Frederick the 
Great (b. 1712, king 1740, d. 1786). 1745, Louisburg taken by Americans. 1748, 
Mosheim, historian. 1750, Kaunitz, statesman, Austria (b. 1711, d. 1794). Dr. 
Franklin's (b. 1706, d. 1790) discoveries in electricity. 1752, New Style — year 
begins Jan. 1. (Old Style from Augustus b. c. 8, and Gregory at Rome, 1582, 
twelve days taken out.) The Jews' year began in March, the Greeks' in June, 
the Macedonian in Sept., the Egyptian in Aug., the Persian Aug. 11, the English 
March 25. 1753, British Museum. 1755, Washington with Braddock. William 
Pitt, the elder, England. 1759, Wolf died at Quebec. 1760, George III. king 
of England. French lose all Canada to the English. Catherine II. of Russia 
(b. 1729, empress 1762, d. 1796). 1761, Niebuhr travels in Arabia. Wesley, 
Whitefield, preachers. 1764, Philadelphia Medical School, first in America. 
1765, the Stamp Act resisted in Massachusetts and Virginia. First Colonial 
Congress in New York. 1766, Stamp Act repealed. Earl Chatham. 1767. 
Jesuits expelled from Spain (from France 1764). 1768, Cook's first voyage. 
Boston occupied by British troops. Russia and Turkey at war. Genoa cedes 
Corsica to France. Bruce at the Nile head-waters. Royal Academy of Arts 
founded. 1769, Daniel Boone in Kentucky. 1772, Partition of Poland. Pope 
Clement abolishes the order of Jesuits. 1773, Tea destroyed at Boston. 1774, 
Cook discovers New California Congress at Philadelphia. Spinning-jenny 
invented by Arkwright. Louis XVI. and Marie Antoinette, France. Steam- 
engine by Watt and Bolton. Hastings governor in India. 1775, The American 
Revolution began April 19. Washington commander-in-chief. Declaration 
July 4, 1776. Dr. Franklin in 1 aris. Necker prime minister. British army in 
New York. 1777, Lafayette arrived in the United States. Burgoyne surrendered. 
1778, Alliance with France Rochambeau and D'Estaing with French fleet 
arrive. 1781, First Bible printed in America in the English language. Corn- 
wallis surrenders at Yorktown. 1782, Treaty with Holland. Tippoo Sultan in 
India (b. 1749, d. 1799). 1783, Peace of Versailles, and the United States inde- 
pendent of Great Britain. 1784, Chamber of Commerce, New York. Asiatio 
Society, Calcutta, founded by Sir William Jones. Sunday-schools in England 
by Raikes. Herschel's telescopes. 1785, John Adams first minister to England. 
Stenography invented. 1786, Spinning-machine first in France. 1787, First 
Convention at Philadelphia, and the Constitution adopted. 1788, Cotton planted 
in Georgia. King George III. insane. 1789, George Washington first Presi- 
dent. French Revolution. Bastile razed. 1791, First United States bank. 
United States Mint. 1792, France a Republic. 1793, Washington re-elected. 
All Europe, except Sweden and Denmark, form a coalition ?gainst France. 
1795, Napoleon Bonaparte general of the army (b. 1769, emperor 1804, d. 1821). 

1800. Capital moved to Washington, D. C. 1801, Iron railways in England. 1802, 
First book-fair in New York. 1803, Louisiana purchased from France. First 


locomotive used in Wales. 1806, Lewis and Clarke cross the Rocky Mountains, 
1807, Fulton made a steamboat. French University established by Napo* 
leon. Lithography. Duke of Wellington (b. 1769, lieutenant-general 1808, d, 
1852). 1812, American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. War 
with England. Gas-lights in the streets of London. Peace with England at 
Ghent 1814. Wellington defeated Bonaparte at Waterloo June 18, 1815. 1816, 
American Bible Society. Bull by the pope against Bible societies, 1817. 
Earliest in England, 1698, in Scotland, 1709, Franee, 1792, British and foreign ( 
"1801, Irish, 1806, Baptist in United States, 1838. Algiers bombarded. 1817 
First public schools in Russia. 1819, First steamboat crossed the Atlantic, New 
York to Liverpool. Rise of cholera. 1822, The Greek Revolution. Hiero- 
glyphics deciphered by Champollion. 1825, Mail posts in Prussia. Steam on 
the Rhine. 1826, Aniline colors discovered. 1829, Catholio emancipation ia 
England. Algiers taken by the French. 1830, The Niger traced from La! 9 
Tchad to the ocean by the brothers Lander. 1831, Lord John Russell's Reform* 
Bill. 1832, Kingdom of Greece founded. Sir Robert Peel. Captain Ross, Arctio 
discovery. 1833, Girard College in Philadelphia and University of New York 
founded. 1835, Boston and Lowell R. R. completed, first in the United States. 

1836, James Smithson of London founds the Smithsonian Institution, Washing- 
ton, D. C, on $500,000. 1836, Chinese expel English and other " barbarians." 

1837, Morse's patent for the electric telegraph. Talleyrand (b. 1754, d. 1838). 
1840, Penny post in England. Lord Palmerston (b. 1784, d. 1865). 1843, O'Con- 
nell's (b. 1775, d. 1847) "Repeal" agitation in Ireland. 1845, Sir John Franklin 
in the Arctic Seas. 1846. Thames tunnel opened. War with Mexico. City of 
Mexico captured, and California ceded to United States. Pius IX. pope. 1848, 
Suspension bridge over Niagara River. French Revolution. Louis Napoleon 
III. (b. 1808) president. 1849, Rome a republic. Francis Joseph emperor of 
Austria (b. 1830, cr. 1848). 1850, The sultan permits the Jews to build a temple 
on Zion. 1851, The first Great Exhibition, London. 1852, Napoleon III. emperor 
of France (d. 1871). 1854, Crimean War, Russia; Alexander II. emperor (b. 1518, 
cr. 1855). England, France, Italy, Turkey (peace 1856). Astor Library founded. 
1855, First street letter-boxes (in London). 1857, Ocean cable U. S. to England 
attempted (designed 1853 ; laid 185?; second, 1865; third", 1865; several since). 
Rebellion of the Southern States (Abraham Lincoln President). Garibaldi (b. 1807) 
promoted the union of all Italy, and Victor Emanuel II. (b. 1820, king of Sardinia 
1849) king, and end of the temporal power of the pope. 1S63, Emancipation 
proclamation. 1864, Nitro-glycerine discovered. 1865, Peace with the Southern 
States. 1866, Centennial of Methodism in the United States. General assembly of 
Catholics at Rome declared the pope infallible. 1867, Dominion of Canada organ- 
ized. 1868, Suez Canal opened (begun in 1854). 1869, Pacific Railroad com- 
pleted. 1870, German-French war. Paris captured. Mont Cenis tunnel, between 
France and Italy. 1871, Commune hold Paris. Old and New School Presbyte- 
rians reunited (separated 1838). 1872, Old Catholic movement in Europe. 1873, 
Evangelical Alliance, New York (originated in England 1845). Reformed Epis- 
copal Church organized. 1874, First Christian Union convention, Cincinnati. 
Hoosac tunnel completed. 1876, Victoria (b. 1819, cr. 1838), queen of Great 
Britain, declared empress of India. Centennial of the Independence of the 
United States, July 4; great International Exhibition at Philadelphia. 1877, 
April 24, Russia declares war against Turkey to ameliorate the condition of 
Christians in Turkish provinces. 

Prophetic Warnings and Promises of our Lord and Saviour. 


Jerusalem — Temple 


Sychar, in Samaria 

Jerusalem — Temple 


Nain , 

Sea of Galilee 




Reg. of Caes. Philippi.. 
Reg. of Caes. Philippi.. 
Reg. of Cass. Philippi.. 






Near Scythopolis 




Jerusalem — Temple 

Mt. of Olives 

Mt. of Olives 

Mt. of Olives.. 

Mt. of Olives 


Jer. — Upper Chamber.. 
Jer. — Upper Chamber.. 
Jer. — Upper Chamber.. 
Jer. — Upper Chamber.. 


On the way to Calvary. 


Garden of Joseph 

Sea of Galilee 


Bethany............ ........ 


He foretells His Resurrection within Three Days after burial 

His Crucifixion, and its Glorious Object and Result — referring to the Mosaic Type 

the Substitution of the New for the Old Dispensation 

the General Resurrection of the Dead 

the Rejection of the Jews and Acceptance of Gentiles 

the Destruction of Capernaum, Chorazin and Bethsaida 

the Great Judgment 

the Persecutions that should Harass them, with Promise of Deliverance and of final Glory 

His Flesh to be the Food of His People, with Promise of Resurrection and Eternal Life 

one of the Twelve a Devil 

His Sufferings, Rejection, Death and Resurrection 

His Coming in Glory to Reward every Man according to his Works 

the Establishment of His Church 

His Ascension 

the Gift of the Holy Ghost 

the Judgment of Capernaum, Chorazin and Bethsaida 

the Salvation of Gentiles and Rejection of many Jews 

the Destruction of Jerusalem 

His Second Coming to be Sudden, and His Disciples' Sufferings before it 

the Apostles to be Peculiarly Blessed at the Second Coming 

the Utter and Total Destruction of Jerusalem 

the Manner of His Death, and its Great Object and Result. 

the Kingdom to be taken from the Jews and given to "a nation bringing forth fruits thereof". 

the Destruction of the Temple 

the Coming of False Christs ; Commotions and Wars among the Nations, and Active Persecu 

tion of the Church 

the Second Coming and its Signs 

the Judgment 

the Betrayer Pointed Out 

Peter's Denial (two warnings) 

the Holy Ghost (several prophecies) 

His Ascension 

their Forsaking Him... 

His Sitting on the Right Hand of Power and Coming in the Clouds of Heaven 

the Desolation of Jerusalem 

"To-day shalt thou be with Me in Paradise" 

His Ascension 

Peter's Crucifixion 

the Sending of the Holy Spirit 

the Signs that should Follow the Gift of the Holy Spirit.....,.:...,.... ,,...,,.,.....,.,...,,.„.. 



2 : 














see Luke 13 : 




: 20-24 

; see Luke 


: 13-15, 



: 30, 40- 

-43, 49, 50 



: 16-39. 

John 6 : 

39, 40, 54-58. 

John 6 : 

70, 71. 



: 21 ; Mark 8 : 31 

Luke 9 : 22. 



: 27 ; Mark 8 : 38 

Luke 9 : 26. 

Mark 9 : 

1 ; Luke 9 : 27. 

John 7 : 








see Matt. 





: 23-30 , 

see Matt. 


11, 12. 






: 22-36; 

see Matt. 


: 27^4. 






: 41-44 ; 

see Matt. 


: 34-39. 



32, 33. 






:1, 2; Mark 13:1 


■ Luke 21 : 5, 6. 

Matt. 24 : 4-25 ; Mark 13 : 5-23. 

Matt. 24 : 27-44 ; Mark 13 : 24-37 ; Luke 21 : 21^ 

see Luke 17 : 22-36. 
Matt. 25 : 31-46. 

John 13 : 18-29 ; Matt. 26 : 21-25 ; Mark 14 : 18- 
John 13 : 38 and Luke 22 : 34. 
John 14 : 16, 17, 26 ; 15 : 26, 27 ; 16 : 7-14. 
John 16:28. 
John 1 6 : 32. 

Matt. 26:64; Mark 14:62. 
Luke 23 : 27-31. 
Luke 23 : 43. 
John 20:17. 
John 21:18, 19. 
Luke 24 : 49 ; Acts 1 : 4-8. 
Mark 16:17, 18. 



Analytical Table and Harmony of the Mosaic Law. 

- The MoralLaw, written on the Two Tables containing the Ten Commandments. 

The Fl. J Table, which includes 
The first commandment 

The second commandment.. 

The third commandment 

, The fourth commandment 

The Second Table, which includes 

The fifth commandment 

The sixth commandment 

The seventh commandment .. 

The eighth commandment 

The ninth commandment 

The tenth commandment , 

The sum of both tables , 

Exodus, i Leviticus, 
chap. chap. 


20, 23, 24 

20, 23 

20, 23, 31, 


10, 26, 18 

19, 26, 26 













2d Class. — The Ceremonial Lan 

Of the holy place 

Of the structure of the tabernacle... 

Of the instruments of the same, viz. : 

Of the laver of brass 

The altar of burnt-offerings 

The altar of incense 

The candlestick of pure gold 

The table of shew-bread 

The ark 

Of the priests and their vestments.. 

Of the choosing of the Levites 

Of the priests' office in general 

Of their office in teaching 

■ >in blessing 

Of their office in offering, viz. : 

What the sacrifices ought to be 

Of the continual fire 

Of the manner of the burnt-olferings. 
peace-offerings . 

Manner and kinds of sacrifices, viz. : 

For sin in ignorance ot the law 


For witting sin, yet not impious 

The special law of sacrifice for sin 

Tilings belonging to the sacrifices 

Of the shew-bread 

Of the lamps 

Of the sweet incense 

Of the use of ordinary oblations, viz. : 

Of the consecration of priests 

and office of Levites... 

Of the dwellings of the Levites 

Of the anointing of the altar, etc 

Of the continual daily sacrifice , 

Sabbath-day's sacrifice 

Solemn sacrifices for feast-days, viz. : 

Of trumpets 

Of beginning of months 

The three most common feasts in general. ... 
Of the feast of passover 



blowing the trumpets 


Of first-fruits 

Of tithes 

Of fruits growing and not eaten of. 

Of the first-born 

Of the sabbatical year 

Of the year of jubilee 





25, 26 


Of vows in general 

What persons not to make vows... 

What things cannot be vowed 

Of redemption of vows 

Of the vows of the Nazarites 

Laws proper for the priests, viz. : 

Of pollutions 

Of the high-priest's mourning 

Of his marriage 

Mourning of the ordinary priests.. 

Of their marriage 

Forbidden the use of wine, etc 

Of sanctified meats 

Of the office of the Levites. 

In teaching 

In offering 

Other promiscuous ceremonial laws. 
Of uncleanness in general 

Of uncleanness in meats, viz. : 

'Of blood Gen. 9 

Of fat 




23, 34 


23, 24 



22, 23, 34 

13, 22, 24 


19, 10. 











■ 23 










15, 19 

7, 17, 10 




4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 

11, 12, 13,5, 



18, 3, 8 







5, 18 

18, 12, 15, 31 




12, 14, 26 




17, 27, 31 


Of uncleanness of meals, viz. : 

Of dead carcasses 

Other meats and divers ereatures 

Of personal uncleanness 

In the dead bodies of men 

In the leprosy 

Of circumcision Gen. 1" 

Of the water of expiation 

Of the mourning of the Israelites 

Of mixtures 

Garments, and writing the law 

Of not taking young birds with the dam 

Of their paddle-staves 



15, 12 

13, lT' 













3d Class. — The Political Law, 

The magistrate is the keeper of the precepts of both tables, anft to have respect to human 
society, therefore the Political Laws of the Israelites are referred to both the tables, and are 
to be reduced to the several precepts of the Moral Law, viz. 

Laws referred to the First Table, namely, 
I. To the First and Second Commandments, viz.: 

Of idolaters and apostates 

Of abolishing idolatry 

Of diviners and false prophets.. 
Of covenants with other gods ■■ 


23, 24 








13, 17 



II. To the Third Commandment, viz.: 

Of blasphemies. 



III. To the Fourth Commandment, viz.: 

Of breaking the Sabbath . ..| 31,35 | | 15 

Political Laws referred to the Second Table, namely. 
I. To the Fifth Commandment, viz. : 

Of magistrates and their authority I 18,30 I | II 

Of the power of fathers | 21 20 | , 

II. To the Sixth Commandment, viz.: 

Of capital punishments in general 

Of willful murder 21 

Of manslaughter and refuge 21 

Of heinous injury.. 21 24 

Of punishments, not capital 

Of the law of war 


III. To Vie Seventh Commandment, vis. : 

Of unlawful marriages 

Of fornication 

Of whoredom 

Of adultery and jealousy 

Of copulation against nature.. 

Of divorcements 

Other matrimonial laws 


18, 20 


18, 20 


IV. To the Eighth Commandment, viz, : 

Of the punishment of thefts 

Of sacrilege Josh. 7 

Of not injuring strangers 

Of not defrauding hirelings 

Of just weights 

Of removing the landmark 

Of lost goods 

Of stray cattle 

Of corrupted judgments 

Of fire breaking out by chance 

Of men-stealing 

Of the fugitive servant 

Of gathering fruits „ 

Of contracts, viz. : 

Of borrowing 

Of the pledge 

Of usury 

Of selling 

Of a thing lent 

Of a thing committed to be kept., 

Of heirs 


22, 23 


22, 23 





26, 27, 33, 

, 16, 17, 23 



19, 21. 22 





21,22,24, 25 1 

26, 28 




23, 2«- 



V. To the Ninth Commandment, viz. : 


Of witnesses 

Establishing of the political law 

The establishing of the divine law in general... 

From the dignity of the lawgiver 

From the excellency of the laws 

From the promises 

From the threatenings 


19, 20, 22 




17, 19 


6, 11, 29, 36. 


4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 

10, 26, 27 


4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 

11, 12, 28 

4, 7, 11,27, 

28, 29, 30 


THE SABBATH.— Signifies rest. Observed every seventh day. 
FEAST OF THE NEW MOON— Marked the completion of the Lunar month. 
SABBATICAL MONTH.— The seventh of the Sacred Year, but the first of the Civil. 
FEAST OF TRUMPETS— New Year's Day. Ushered in by blowing of trumpets. 
SABBATICAL YEAR. — Each seventh day and month and year were holy. The land rested 

and creditors and slaves were released. 
YEAR OF JUBILEE— Every fiftieth year. 
THE PASSOVER— Lasted for seven days, from the 14th to 21st of Nisan. A memorial of 

the Nation's birth and typical of Christ. 
PENTECOST, OR FEAST OF WEEKS.— A supplement to the Passover, lasting one day. 
FEAST OF TABERNACLES.— A harvest Home, or Thanksgiving time, lasting seven days. 

DAY OF ATONEMENT.— A day of humiliation and fasting. Observed five days before the 

Feast of Tabernacles. 
FEAST OF PURIM. — An annual feast to commemorate the preservation of the Jews in Persia. 
FEAST OF DEDICATION.— A rededication of the Temple after the expulsion of the Syrians 

by Judas Maecabaeus. 






-- — — ™ — s 


B. C. 6 (about Feb. 22). Birth of John the Bap- 
tist ; the time of Elisabeth's conception 
being inferred from the calculation that 
the course of Abia went out of office on 
May 22, b. c. 7. 

B. C. 6 (about Aug. 1). The Nativity of Jesus 
Christ; nearly two years before the 
death of Herod (Matt. 2 : 16). 
The Census under SentiusSaturninus, who 
displaced Varus before Sept. 2, b. c. 6. 

B. C. 4, April 1. Death of Herod at Jericho. 
Beturn of the Holy Family from Egypt. 

A. D. 6. Banishment of Archelaus. Cyrenius, 
prefect of Syria. 

A. D. 7. Completion of the Census of Cyrenius. 
Christ at the Passover. (April 9th.) 

A. D. 28 (about August or September). Preach- 
ing of John the Baptist, in the first pear 
of the Sabbatic eyclr, in the sixth year of 
which our Lord's Ministry closed. 

A. D. 29 (February). Baptism of Jesus. Age 33.* 
(February to March.) The Temptation. 

*Mr. Lewin gives this latitude to the about thirty 
(oKrei) of Luke 8 . 23. 

A. D. 29-A. D. 33. The Duration of Christ's Min- 
istry, from Passover to Passover, four full 
years, in accordance with Luke 13: 7. 
A. D. 29. First Passover, ending April 2. 
Opening of our Lord's Ministry at Jeru- 
Imprisonment of John. 
A. D. 29 (Autumn). Beginning of Christ's Min- 
istry in Galilee. Its duration — three 
years and six months. 
First Circuit in Galilee, including (about 
October) his rejection at Nazareth.f 
A. D. 29 to A. D. 30 (Spring). Second Galilean 
Circuit: duration — four or five months. 
A. D. 30 (Spring). Third Galilean Circuit. 

April 22. The o'evTepoTrpwroi' trd^arov, 
i. e., the first Sabbath of the second 
month (Jyar). 
May 27. The Pentecost, this year on a Sab- 
bath. The " Feast. " of John 5. 
Jesus returns to Galilee. 
Sermon on the Mount. 

tMr. Lewin's authority for this date is in the fact that 
Isaiah 61 was the appointed lesson of the daily Bervice 
aoout the Feast of Tabernacles, which in this year fell 
on October 11. 

A. D. 30. Fourth Galilean Circuit. 

(Autumn). Return to Capernaum. 

A. D. 31 (about April). Death of John the 

April 19 (10 of Nisan). Feeding of the 

Five Thousand. 
April 21. The discourse of John 6 on the 

Sabbath before the Passover. 

Sept. 20. Feast of the Tabernacles (John 

7: 1). 
Sept, 23 (about). Jesus reaches Jerusalem. 

He withdraws, probably to Bethabara. 

Nov. 28 to Dec. 5. Feast of Dedication 

(John 10). 
Jesus returned to Bethabara (John 10 : 31 ). 

A. D. 32. (beginning). Death and raising of 
Jesus retires to Ephraim, and thence to 

Csesarea Philippi. 
Return to Capernaum. Tribute Money. 

Passover, April 13. Beginning of our 
Lord's last circuit, occupying a year 
and terminating at Jerusalem. 

The warning to flee out 

A. D. 32 (Autumn). 
of dalilee. 

A. D. 33 (Spring). The circuit resumed from 
West to East, along the borders of Sama- 
ria and Galilee, in the direction of Persea, 
and so across the Jordan 

Recrosses the Jordan to Jericho. 

Friday, March 27. Arrives at Bethany, 
six days before the Passover. 

Satu/v»y, March 28. Rest at Bethany or 
thf aabbath evening. Supper at th< 
house of Simon. 

Palm Sunday, March 29. Jesus enters Je- 

Monday, March 30-Thursday, April 2. As 

in our narrative. 
Thursday, A pril 2 (evening). The Passover 

and Lord's Supper. 
Good Friday, April 3. The Crucifixion 

Jesus expires at 3 p. M. 
Easter Sunday, April 5. The Resurrection. 
Thursday, May 14. The Ascension. 
Sunday, May 24. Day of Pentecost. 









{Passable of ths 

Parable of the 

— . i^ 



Matt. xiii. 1-23. 

Lost sheep. 


Luke xv. Z-1. 




Lost piece of money. 


- 8-10. 


Prodigal son. 



Seed springing up imperfectly. 
Grain of mustard seed. 


Mark iv. 26-29. 

Dishonest steward. 


— xvi. 1-12. 


Matt. xii. 31, 32. 

Rich man and Lazarus 





— xiii. 33. 

Unjust judge. 

Perse a. 

— xviii. 1-8. 

Found treasure, 


— 44. 

Pharisee and publican. 



Precious pearl. 


45, 46. 

Laborers in the vineyard. 


Matt. xx. 1-16. 






Luke xix. 12- 27. 

Two debtors. 


Luke vii. 36-50. 

Two sons. 


Matt. xxi. 2o-32. 

Unmereiful servant. 


Matt, xviii. 23-35. 





Near Jericho. 

Luke x. 25-37. 

Marriage feast. 


— xxii. 1-14. 

Rich fool. 


— xii. 16-21, 

The virgins. 


— xxv, 1-13. 

Servants who waited for their lord. 


— xii. 35-48. 




Barren fig tree. 


— xiii. 6-9. 

Sheep and the goats. 













Turns water into wine. 


John ii. 1-11. 

Cures a man with a withered hand. 


Matt. xii. 10-13. 

Cures the nobleman's son of Caper- 

Cures a demoniac. 


22, 23, 



— iv. 46-61. 

Feeds miraculously five thousand. 


— xiv.; xv. 21. 

Causes a miraculous draught of fishes. 

Sea of Galilee. 

Luke v. 1-11. 

Heals the woman of Canaan's daugh- 

Cures a demoniac. 


Mark i. 22-28. 


Near Tyre. 

— xv. 22-28. 

Heals Peter's wife's mother of a fever. 



Heals a man who was dumb and deaf. 


Mark vii. 31-37. 

Heals a leper. 



Feeds miraculously four thousand. 


Matt. xv. 32-39. 

Heals the centurion's servant. 


Matt. viii. 5-13. 

Gives sight to a blind man. 


Mark xiii. 22-26. 

Raises the widow's son. 


Luke vii. 11-17. 

Cures a boy possessed of a devil. 


Matt. xvii. 14-21 

Calms the tempest. 

Sea of Galilee. 

Matt. viii. 23-27. 

Gives sight to a man born blind. 


John ix. 

Cures the demoniacs of Gadara. 



Heals a woman under an infirmity 

Cures a man of the palsy. 


— ix. 1-8. 

eighteen years. 


Luke xiii. 11-17 

Restores to life the daughter of Jairus. 


18, 19. 23- 

Cures a dropsy. 


— xiv. 1-6. 


Cleanses ten lepers. 


— xvii. 11-19. 

Cures a woman diseased with a flux 

Raises Lazarus from the dead. 


John xi. 

of blood. 


Luke viii. 43-48. 

Restores to sight two blind men. 


Matt. xx. 30-34, 

Restores to sight two blind men. 


Matt. ix. 27-31. 

Blasts the fig tree. 


— xxi. 18-22. 

Heals one possessed with a dumb 

Heals the ear of Malchus. 


Luke xxii. 50-51. 



82, 33. 

Causes the miraculous draughts of 

Cures an infirm man at Bethesda. 


John v. 1-9. 


Sea. of Ga.lii-(w 

John xxi. 1-14. 









Conversation with Nicodemus. 


John iii. 1-21. 

Discourse at the feast of tabernacles. 


John vii. 

Conversation with the woman of Samaria. 


— iv. 1-42. 

Discourse on occasion of woman taken in 

Discourse in the synagogue of Nazareth. 

Nazareth. • 

Luke iv. 16-31. 



— viii. 1-12, 

Sermon upon the mount. 


Matt, v., vii. 

Discourse concerning the sheep. 



Instructions to the apostles. 



Denunciations against the Scribes and Pha- 

Denunciations against Chorazin, etc 


— xi. 20-24 



Luke xi. 29-36. 

Discourse on occasion of healing the infirm 

Discourse concerning humility and pru- 

man at Bethesda. 


John v. 



— xiv. 7--.<V 

Discourse concerning the disciples' plucking 

Directions how to attain heaven. 

Perse a. 

Matt. xix. 1 fi— 3*V. 

of oorn on the Sabbath. 


Matt. xii. 1-8. 

Discourse concerning his sufferings. 


— xx. 17--X*. 

Reputation of his working miracles by the 

Denunciations against the Pharisees. 


— XX111. 

agency of Beelzebub. 



Prediction of the destruction of Jerusalem. 



Discourse on the bread of Hfa. 


John vii. 

The consolatory discourse. 


John xv., xvii. 

Disoourse about internal purity. 


Matt. xv. 1-20. 

Discourse as he went to Gethsemane. 


Matt. xxvi. 31-3U. 

Piscourse against giving or taking offence, 

Discourse to the disciples before hie ascen- 

fcnd concerning forgiveness of injuries. 


— xviii, 



— xviii. 16-2S, 









Aaron's rod changed. 


Ex. vii. 10-12. 

Thunder destroys Philistines. 


[I Sam. vii. 10-11 
'• . xii. 18. 

Waters made blood. 



Thunder and rain in harvest. 


Progs produced. 


viii. 5-14. 

Sound in the mulberry trees. 


2 Sam. v- 23-25. 




Uzzah struck dead. 


vi. 7. 




Jeroboam's hand withered. 


1 Kings xiii. 4. 



x. 3-6. 

Widow of Zarephath's meaL 


xvii. 14-16. 




Widow's son raised. 



Thunder, ete« 



Sacrifice consumed. 

Mount Carmel, 

xviii. 30-38 



x. 12-19. 

Rain obtained. 

Land of Israel. 





Ahaziah's captains eonsumetL 

Near Samaria. 

2 Kings i. 10-12 

Death of the firsi-borft, 


xii. 29, 30. 

River Jordan divided. 

River Jordan. 

ii. 7, 8, 14. 

Red Sea. 


xiv. 21-31. 

Waters of Jericho healed, 


21, 22. 

Marah's waters sweetened* 


xv. 23-25. 

Water for Jehoshaphat's army. 

Land of Moab. 

iii. 16-20. 

Manna ssnt. 

In wilderness. 

xvi. 14-35. 

The widow's oil multiplied. 

iv. 2-7. 

Water from the rock Rephidiirw 


xvii. 5-7. 

Shunammite's son raised. 



Aaron's rod budded. 


Num. xvii. 1, etc. 

The deadly pottage cured. 



Nadab and Abihu consumed. 


Lev. x. 1, 2. 

Hundred men fed with twenty loaves. 



The burning of Taberah. 


Num. xi. 1-3. 

Naaman cured of his leprosy. 


v. 10-14. 

Earthquake and fire. 

xvi. 31-35. 

Leprosy inflicted on Gehazi. 



Water flowing from the rook. 

Desert of Zin. 

xx. 7-11. 

Iron swims. 

River Jordan. 

vi. 5-7. 

Serpent healing the Israelites, 

Desert of Ein. 

xxi. 8, 9. 

King of Syria's army smitten. 



Balaam's ass speaking. 


xxii. 21-35. 

Elisha's bones revive the dead. 

xiii. 21, 

The river Jordan divided. 

River Jordan. 

Josh. iii. 14-17. 

Sennacherib's array destroyed. 


xix. 35. 

Walls of Jericho fall down. 


vi. 6-20. 

Sun goeth back. 


xx. 9-11. 

Sun and moon stand still. 


x. 12-14. 

Uzziah struck with leprosy. 


2 Ch. xxvi. 16-2 J 

Water flowing from the rock. 


Judg. xv. 19. 

Shadrach, Meshach, etc., delivered. 


Dan. iii. 19-27. 

Philistines slain before the ark. 


1 Sam. v. 1-12. 

Daniel in the den of lions. 


vi. 16-23, 

Men of Bethshemesh smitten. 


vi. 19. 

Jonah in the whale's belly. 

Jonah ii. 1 -10. 










3fum. xxxiii. 48. 



On this range of mountains Ba- 
lak tempted Balaam to curse 

1 Sam. xxxi. 1. 



Here Saul and his sons fell in 
battle with the Philistines. 


Gen. xxxi. 21. 


On this mount Laban overtook 

Sen. vii. 4. 



Here the ark rested at the 

Jacob, and searched for hi* 

lea. Ixviii. 15. 



Remarkable for its height. 

1 Sam. xxiii. 19. 



On this hill David hid a whil« 

i T 'Uke xxiii. 33. 



A common place of execution, 

from Saul. 

where Christ was crucified. 

Ps. cxxxiii. 3. 



Celebrated for its dews. 

Kings xviii. 19.. 



On this mount Elijah had his 
trial against the priests of 

Deut. xxxii. 49. 



From this mount Mos >s viewed 
the promised land. 


Matt. xxiv. 3. 

Olives, or Olivet, 


Here Christ preached his ser- 

7SQ. viii. 30. 



Here Moses pronounced twelve 
curses against the disobe- 

John viii. 1. 
1 Sam. xv. 30. 

the ancient name. 

By this mount David escaped 
from the conspiracy of Ab- 

Sam. L 1. 



This mount was the birthplace 


of Samuel. 

Num. xxiii. 28. 



Here Balaam blessed instead of 

.,'st. viii. 32. 



Here Moses pronounced twelve 

cursing Israel. 


Deut. xxxiv. 1. 



The highest point of Mounf 

Here Joshua wrote the law on 

Nebo, where Moses stood to 


view the good land. 

Here Jotham delivered his par- 

1 Kings xvi. 24. 



On this hill Omri built the city 


Ahab was buried here. 









Country verdant with young corn, 
groves and meadows adorned witb 
many flowers. Oranges begin to 

N. W., N., N. E. 

Heavy rains; thunder 
storms; occasionally 
snow, and thin ice; 
ground neverfrozen. 


Various fruits: apples, pears, pmms, 
etc. Grapes fully ripe. Pump- 
kins. Harvest of corn in the high- 
er mountains. 


Greatest heat in goa 
eral; sky serene. 

Almond tree and peach tree in blos- 
som; in the lower and warmer 
parts, orange tree laden with ripe 

N. W., N., N. E. 

Heavy rains, etc., in 
Jan. andFeb., called 
by the Arabs the 
"fathers of rain." 


Principal fruit month. Grapes, 
figs, etc.; in the plains, walnut 
and olive. 


Dew begins to fall; 
at times large an<J 
dense clouds (Nile 

All trees in full leaf, many in bloom. 
In the lowlands, orange and lem- 
on trees laden with fruits. Palm 
tree blossoms ; barley ripening. 


Rain, hurricanes, 
sometimes snow ; 
rivers much swol- 


Commencement of vintage. Har- 
vest of the dourra and maize. 
Cotton and pomegranate begins. 

N. i- 

Mueh lightning with- 
out thunder; verj 
rarely rain. 

Fruits of oleaster and white mul- 
berry ripen. Barley harvest. 
Wheat harvest beginning. 


Occasionally rain ; 
sometimes Sirocco 
from the s. E. 


End of Vintage. Gathering of cot- 
ton. Ploughing and sowing com- 
mence. Pistachio-nuts ripen. 

N. E. 

Dews very heavy ; au- 
tumnal rains begin 

Principal harvest month, especial- 
ly of wheat. Aprieots and apples 
ripen (in Jordan valley vegetation 
withered and burnt up). 


Rain very seldom ; 
from this to Sep- 
tember no rain oc- 


Month of ploughing and sowing. 
Rice harvest. Fig tree laden with 
fruit. Orange and citron tree in 

N. W., N., K. E. 

Rainy month. Thun- 
der storms. Rainf 
from the w. or s. w 

1 Almonds ripe. (Beyrouk honey of 
the Jordan valley colleoted in 
May, June and July.) Grapes 
begin to ripen. 

- 3, 

Frequent hot winds 
(Simoons); air 


Trees lose their leaves. The brown 
and desolate plains and deserts be- 
come green pastures. 

H. W., H,, H. B. 

Rainy, etc. In Dec, 
Jan. and Feb. great- 
est amount of rain 
in the year. 









Jar. x. 6, to 

iPsa. cxlv. 30 

—lxv. Ji 

'Dan. u. 5. 

3 John i. 8. 

jtsa. Ixiv. 6. 

Psa. Ixvii. I. 

— Ixxxv. 7. 

- 8. 

■ — lxvii. S 

— vli. 9. 

— ovii. 15. 


Foradmuch as there is none like unto thee, Lord ; thou art great, 

and thy name is great in might : who would not fear thee, King 

■»f nations? 
AH thy works shall praise thee, Lord, and thy saints shall bless 

thee. They shall speak of the glory of thy kingdom, an<i ts-'^'of 

thy power. 
thou that nearest prayer, unto thee shall all flesh come 


We have sinned, and have committed iniquity, and have dune Wick- 
edly, and have rebelled, even by departing from thy precepts and 
from thy judgments. 

If we say we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not 
in us. 

We arc all as an unclean thing. 


God be merciful unto us, and bless us; and cause his face to shine 

upon us. 
Wilt thou not revive us again, that thy people may rejoice in thee? 
Show us thy mercy, Lord, and grant us thy salvation. 


Let the people praise thee, God ; let all the people praise thee. 
Oh let the wickedness of the wicked come to an end; W; establish 
the just. 


Oh that men would praise the Lord for his goodness, for his wonder- 
ful works to the children of men ! 

Psa. cviii. 4. 

— cxiii. 2. 

— cxiii. 3. 
5, 6. 

2 Cor. ix. 15. 


1 Pet. i R 4. 

Eph. i. 3. 

Isa. xxvi 13. 

— Ixiii. 19, 

Phil. iv. 20. 
Rev. vii. 10. 

— vi. 12. 

For thy mercy is great above the heavens, and thy truth reached 

unto the clouds. 
Blessed be the name of the Lord from this time forth, and for 679?. 

From the rising of the sun unto the going down of the same, th'i 

Lord's name is to be praised. 
Who is Jike unto the Lord our God, who dwelleth on high, who hum= 

bleth himself to behold the things that are in heaven and in tfe 

earth 7 
Thanks be unto God for his unspeakable gift. 
In whom we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness a 

sins according to the richness of his grace. 
Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, .7hich ao* 

cording to his abundant mercy hath begotten us again unto a 

lively hope by the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, to 

an inheritance incorruptible and undefiled, and that fadeth aoi 

Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who hatfc 

blessed us with all spiritual blessings in Christ. 


Lord our God, other lords besides thee have had dominion qtoe 

us ; but by thee only will we make mention of thy name. 
We are thine. 


Now unto God and our Father be glory for ever and ever. Amen, 
Salvation to our God which sitteth on the throne, and unto the 

Blessing, and glory, and wisdom, and thanksgiving, and honor, and 

power, and might, be unto our God for ever and ever. Amen. 


X"iii. 1. 
— 2. 

*- Ixii. 1. 


— li. 3, 
Rom. vii. 18. 


Job xi. 4. 

tmke xviii. A3, 
Psa. li. 10. 

>— li. L 

• XXV. 11. 

• XXV. 1- 

— 11. 



■ xvii. 7. 
• exix. 149. 

•*- nsxix. 18. 
dChron. i- 10 

Psa, li. 9. 


I will love thee, O Lord, my strength. 

The Lord is my rock, and my fortress, and my deliverer; my God, 

my strength, in whom I will trust ; my buckler and the horn of 

my salvation, and my high tower. 
Truly my soul waitcth upon God; from him cometh my salvation. 
He only is my rock and my salvation; he is my defence ; I shall not 

be greatly moved. 


I acknowledge my transgression, and my sin is ever before me. 

For I know that in me, that is in my flesh, dwelleth no good thing ; 

for to will is present with me; but how to perform that which is 

good I find not. 
O wretched mat. that I am, who shall deliver me from the body of 

this death ? 
Behold, I am vile ; what shall I answer thee ? I will lay my hand 
/ upon my mouth. 


God be merciful to me a sinner. 

Create in me a clean heart, O God, and renew a right spirit within 

Have mercy upon me, O God, according to thy loving-kindness; ac- 
cording unto the multitude of thy tender mercies, blot out my 

For thy name's sake, O Lord, pardon mine iniquity, for it is great ! 

Remember not the sins of my youth, nor my transgressions ; accord- 

v ing to thy mercy remember thou me for thy goodness' sake, O 
i Lord. 

'Oast me not away from thy presence, and take not thy holy spirit 
from me. 

Restore unto me the joy of thy salvation, and uphold me with thy 
free spirit. 

Lord, open thou my lips, and my mouth shall show forth thy 

Hold up my goings in thy paths, that my footsteps slip not. 

Hear my voice according unto thy loving-kindness; O Lord,quicken 

me according to thy judgment. 
Let my soul live, and it shall praise thee; and let thy judgments 

help me. 

1 have gone astray like a lost sheep ; seek thy servant, for I do not 
forget thy commandments. 

Search me, God, and know my heart; try me, and know my 
thoughts ; 

And see if there be any wicked way in me, and lead me in the way 

'Shew me thy ways, Lord ; teach me thy paths. 

Lead me in thy truth, and teach me, for thou art the God of my sal- 
vation ; on thee do I wait all the day. 

Open thou mine eyes, that I may behold wondrous things out of thy 

Oh that thou wouldst bless me indeed, and enlarge my coast, and that 
thine hand might be with me, and that thou wouldst keep me from 
evil, that it may not grieve me ! 

Hide thy face from my sins, and blot out all mine iniquities,, 

Gen. xxxii. 
Prov. xxx. 


Job xvi. 22. 
Psa. xxxix. 4. 

Eph. vi. 24. 
Psa. exxv. 4. 

Isa. Ixiv. 1. 

Psa. xliii. 3. 

— lvii. 11. 

— lxxii. 18. 

— xl. 1„ 

— exxxix. 17. 

— exxxix. 18. 

— cxlix. 4. 

— cxvi. 16. 

1 Tim. i. 17. 
Rom. xvi. 27. 

I will not let thee go, except thou bless me. 

Remove far from me vanity and lies ; give me neither poverty no? 

riches; feed me with food convenient for me. 
Lest I be full, and deny thee, and say, Who is the Lord ? or lest I 

be poor, and steal, and take the name of my God in vain. 
When a few years _are come, then I shall go the way whence ? 

shall not return. 
Lord, make me to know mine end, and the measure of my days, 

what it is, that I may know how frail I am. 


Grace be with all them that love our Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity. 

Do good, Lord, unto those that be good, and to them that are up-, 
right in their hearts. 

Oh that thou wouldst rend the heavens, that thou wouldst come dowBj 
that the mountains might flow down at thy presence. 

Oh send out thy light and thy truth. 

Be thou exalted, God, above the heavens; let thy glory be abov-j 
all the earth. 

Blessed be the Lord God, the God of Israel, who only doeth won- 
drous things. 

And blessed be his glorious name for ever; and let the whole earth 
be filled with his glory. Amen and Amen. 


I waited patiently for the Lord, and he inclined unto me and heard] 

my cry. 
Many, O Lord my God, are thy wonderful works which thou hast 

done, and thy thoughts which are to us-ward: they car.not be 

reckoned up in order unto thee : if I would declare and speak of 

them, they are more than can be numbered. 
How precious also are thy thoughts unto me, O God! how great is 

the sum of them ! 
If I should count them, they are more in number than the sand : 

when I awake, I am still with thee. 
Bless the Lord, my soul, and all that is within me, bless his holy 

Bless the Lord, O my soul, and forget not all his benefits. 
Who forgiveth all thine iniquities, who healeth all thy diseases. 
Who redeemeth thy life from destruction : who crowneth thee witJs 

loving-kindness and tender mercies. 
What shall I render unto the Lord for all his benefits toward me ? 
I will take the cup of salvation and call upon the name of the Lord. 
All thy works shall praise thee, O Lord, and thy saints shall bless 

For the Lord taketh pleasure in his people, he will beautify the 

meek with salvation. 


Lord, truly I am thy servant; I am thy servant, and the son of 
thine handmaid : thou hast loosed my bonds. 

1 will walk before the Lord in the land of the living, 


Now unto the King eternal, immortal, invisible, the only wist God, 

be honor and glory for ever and ever. Amen. 
To God, only wise, be glory, through Jesus Christ, for ever. Amen, 








3ff BAI/AAM. — Concerning the Moabites and 

The Smitten Prophet. — The escaped pris- 


Mount Pisgah. 

Num. xxiii. 24. 


Near Samaria. 

1 Kings xx. 3&-^& 

foTHAM. — Trees making a king. 

Mount Gerizim. 

Judg. ix. 7-15. 

Jehoash, King op Israel.— The thistle and 

Samson. — Strong bringing forth sweetness. 


Judg. xiv. 14. 



2 Kings xiv. 9. 

Nathan. — Poor man's ewe lamb. 


i 2 Sam. xii. 1-4. 

Isaiah. — Vineyard yielding wild grapeg. 


Isa. v. 1-6. 

3/oman C8" Tbk.oah.-Two brothers striv- 


Ezekiel. — Lion's whelps. 


Ezek. xiv. 2 



S Bsm. xiv, 1. 

The boiling pot. 


Ezek. xxiv< 3-S, 


( I 

The great sagles &n& She Tia©. 


Eiek. xvii. 3-10. 

Haemont of the Fouk Gospels, 

i. Luke's preface 

God the Word" 

Birth of John Baptist foretold 
Annunciation of the birth of 


Mary visits Elizabeth 

Birth of John the Baptist 

The two genealogies 

Birth of Jesus Christ 

The watching shepherds 

The circumcision 

Presentation in the temple.... 
The wise men from the East.. 
Flight into Egypt, and return 

to Nazareth 

Christ in the temple with the 


Ministry of John the Baptist.. 
Baptism of Jesus Christ... 

The temptation 

Andrew and another disciple 

and Simon Peter , 

Philip and Nathanael 

The marriage in Cana of Gali 


Passover (first) and cleansing 

the temple 

Nicodemus comes to Jesus by 


Christ and John baptizing 

Christ at the well of Sychar... 

John the Baptist in prison 

Christ returns to Galilee 

The synagogue at Nazareth ... 
The nobleman's son at Caper- 
naum healed 

Andrew and Simon, James and 

John called 

The demoniac in the syna- 
gogue healed 

Simon's wife's mother healed.. 

Circuit round Galilee 

Healing a leper 

Christ stills the storm 

Demoniacs in the land of the 


Jairus' daughter. Woman 


Blind men and demoniac 

Healing the paralytic 

Matthew the publican 

"Thy disciples fast not" 

The "feast" at Jerusalem 

(passover, second?). The 

pool of Bethesda 

Plucking ears of corn on the 


The withered hand. Miracles. 

The twelve apostles 

The sermon on the mount 

The centurion's servant healed 

The widow's son at Nam 

Messengers from John 

Woe denounced to the cities 

of Galilee 

Call to the meek and suffering. 

Anointing the feet of Jesus 

Second cirouit round Galilee... 

Parable of the sower 

Parable of the candle under a 


Parable of the seed growing 


Parable of the wheatand tares. 
Parable of the grain of mus- 
tard seed 

Parable of the leaven 

jn teaching by parables 

The wheat and tares explained 
The hid treasure, the pearl, 

the net 

His mother and his brethren.. 

Reception at Nazareth 

T^'rd circuit round Galilee 

St. Matt. 

i. 1 



beading forth of the twelve.... 

Herod's opinion of Jesus 

&>eath of John the Baptist...... 

She passover (third?) nigh at 

H»Edl.,...o... J ..o....„ ...,...„.., 

ii. 1-12 

ii. 13-23 

iii. 1-12 
iii. 13-17 
iv. 1-11 

iv. 12; xiv. 
iv. 12 

iv. 13-22 

viii. 14-17 
iv. 23-25 
viii. 1-4 
viii. 18-27 

viii. 28-34 

ix. 18-26 
ix. 27-34 
ix. 9-13 
ix. 14-17 

xii. 1-8 
xii. 0-21 
x. 2-4 
v. 1 — vii. 
viii. 5-13 


xi. 2-19 

xi. 20-24 
xi. 25-30 


xiii. 24-30 

xiii. 31, 32 
xiii. 33 
xiii. 34, 35 
xiii. 36-43 

xiii. 44-52 ' 
xii. 46-50 
xiii. 53-58 
ix. 35-38; 

xi. 7 
x. 5-42 
xiv, 2, 1 
ziT. VU 

St. Mark. 

i. 1-8 
i. 9-11 
i. 12, 13 

14; vi. 


i. 16-20 

iv. 35-41 


v. 21-43 

ii. 18-22 

. 1-12 
. 13-19 


iv. 21-25 

iv. 26-29 

iv. 30-32 


St. Luke. 

i. 1-4 

St. John. 


i. 26-38 
i. 39-56 
i. 57-80 
iii. 23-38 
ii. 1-7 
ii. 8-20 
ii. 21 
ii. 22-38 

ii. 39 

iii. 1-18 
iii. 21, 22 
iv. 1-13 







iii. 19, 20 
iv. 14, 15 
iv. 16-30 

v. 1-11. 

iv. 31-37 
iv. 38-41 
iv. 42-44 ■ 
v. 12-16 
viii. 22-25 

viii. 26-39 

viii. 40-56 

v. 17-26 
v. 27-32 
v. 33-39 

vi. 1-5 
vi. 6-11 
vi. 12-16 
vi. 17-49 
vii. 1-10 
vii. 11-17 
vii. 18-35 

vii. 36-50 
viii. 1-3 
viii. 4-15 

viii, 16-18 

xiii. 18, 19 
xiii. 20, 21 

viii. 19-21 

ix. 1-6 

ix. 7-9 

i. 1-14 

i. 15-31 
i. 32-34 

i. 35-42 
i. 43-51 


ii. 12-25 

iii. 1-21 
iii. 22 ; iv. 
iv. 3-42 
iii. 24 
iv. 43-45 

iv. 46-54 

v. 1-47 

vi, 4 

Feeding of the five thousand 

Christ walking on the sea 

Miracles in Gennesaret 

"The bread of life" 

The washed hands 

The Syrophoenician woman.... 

Miracles of healing 

Feeding of the four thousand.. 

The sign from heaven 

The leaven of the Pharisees 

Blind man healed 

Peter's profession of faith.., 

The passion foretold 

The transfiguration 

Tho coming of Elias 

The lunatic healed 

The passion again foretold.. 

The fish caught for the tribute 

The little child 

One casting out devils 


Tho lost sheep 

Forgiveness of injuries 

"Binding and loosing" 

Parable of the unmerciful ser- 

" Salted with fire " 

Journey to Jerusalem 

Fire from heaven 

Answers to disciples 

Mission of the seventy 

Teaching at the feast of tab- 

Woman taken in adultery 

Dispute with the Pharisees 

The man born blind 

The good shepherd 

The return of the seventy 

The good Samaritan 

Mary and Martha 

The Lord's prayer 

Prayer effectual 

The blasphemous Pharisees 

The unclean spirit returning... 

The sign of Jonah 

The light of the body 




22, 23 


xv. 1-20 
xv. 21-28 
xv. 29-31 
xv. 32-39 
xvi. 1-4 
xvi. 5-12 

xvi. 13-19 

xvi. 20-28 
xvii. 1-9 
xvii. 10-13 
xvii. 14-21 
xvii. 22, 23 
xvii. 24-27 
xviii. 1-5 

St. Make. 

vi. 30-44 
vi. 45-52 
vi. 53-56 

The Pharisees 

What to fear 



Galileans that perished 

Woman healed on the Sabbath 

The grain of mustard-seed 

The leaven 

Journey towards Jerusalem.... 

" Are there few that be saved?" 

Warning against Herod 

Prophecy against Jerusalem- 
Dropsy healed on the Sabbath- 

Choosing the chief rooms 

Parable of the great supper... 

Following Christ with the 

Parables of the lost sheep, 
piece of money, prodigal 

Parables of the unjust steward, 
rich man and Lazarus 


Faith and merit 

The ten lepers 

How the kingdom eometh 

Parable of the unjust judge... 

Parable of the Pharisee and 
the publican 

Divorce „ 

Infants brought to Jesus 

The rich man inquiring 

Promises to the disciples 

Laborers in the vineyard 

Death of Christ foretold 

Bequest of James and John... 

Blind men at Jericho 


Parable of the ten talents 

Feast of the dedication 

Departure beyond Jordaa..,.., 

xviii. 6-9 
xviii. 10-14 
xviii. 15-17 
xviii. 18-20 

xviii. 21-35 

viii. 19-22 

vi. 9-13 
vii. 7-11 

xii. 22-37 
xii. 43-45 
xii. 38-42 
v. 15 ; vi. 22, 

x. 26-33 
vi. 25. 33 

xiii. 31,32 
xiii. 33 

xxiii. 37-39 

xxii. 1-14 
x. 37, 38 

xviii. 6-15 
xvii. 20. 

xix. 1-12 
xix. 13-15 
xix. 16-26 
xix. 27-30 
xx. 1-16 
xx. 17-19 
xx. 20-28 
xx. 29-34 

xxv. 14-30 

vii. 1-23 

vii. 24-30 
vii. 31-37 
viii. 1-9 
viii. 10-13 
viii. 14-21 
viii. 22-26 
viii. 27-29 
viii. 30-ix. 
ix. 2-1 
ix. 11-13 
ix. 14-29 
ix. 30-32 

ix. 33-37 

ix. 38-41 
ix. 42-48 

ix. 49-50 

iii. 20-30 

iv. 30-3-2 

x. 1-12 
x. 13-16 
x. 17-27 

x. 46-52 

St. Luke. 

ix. 10-17 

ix. 18-20 
ix. 21-27 
ix. 28-36 

ix. 37-42 
ix. 43-45 

ix. 46-48 
ix. 49, 50 
xvii. 2 
xv. 4-7 

ix. 51 
ix. 52-56 
ix. 57-62 
x. 1-16 

x. 17-24 
x. 25-37 
x. 38-42 
xi. 1-4 
xi. 5-13 

xi. 14-23 

xi. 24-28 
xi. 29-32 
xi. 33-36 

xi. 37-54 
xii. 1-12 
xii. 13-31 
xi. 32-59 
xiii. 1-9 
xiii. 10-17 
xiii. 18, 19 
iii. 20, 21 
xiii. 22 
xiii. 23-30 
xiii. 31-33 

xiii. 34, 35 
xiv. 1-6 
xiv. 7-14 
xiv. 15-24 

xiv. 25-34 


xvii. 1-4 
xvii. 5-10 
xvii. 11-19 
xvii. 20-37 
xviii. 1--8 

xviii. 9-14 

xviii. 15-17 
xviii. 1S-27 
xviii. 28-30 

xviii. 31-34 

xviii. 35-43 
xix. 1-10 
xix ■ ,1 -28 

St. Jom& 

vi. 1-15 
vi. 16-21 

vi. 22-**, 

vi. m-n. 

■si. l-JC 

vii. 11-68- 
viii. 1-11 
viii. 12-5; 
ix. 1-41 
x. 1-21. 

x. 23 



JSoising of Lazarus 

Jfeeting of the Banhedrim... 
Gliiist departs to Ephraim... 

The anointing by Mary 

Christ enters Jerusalem 

Clodnsing the temple (second) 
The barren fig tree 

St. Matt. 

'Sxhc rtation to prayer and for 
giveness , 

e he questioning of the chief 

Parable of the two sons 

Parable of the wicked hus- 

Parable of the wedding-gar- 

the tribute money 

Ehe Sadducees confuted 

The great commandment 

David's Son and David's Lord 

The hypocrisy and ambition 
of the Pharisees.... 

The widow's mite .. 

Christ's second coming fore- 

Parable of the ten virgins 

Parable of the talents 

Che last judgment 

jlreeks visit Jesus. Voice 
from heaven 

The judgment of unbelief 

Last passover. Conspiracy of 
Jews , 

Judas Iseariot , 

Pa6ohal supper . , 

Contention of the apostles- 
Peter's fall foretold , 

Last discourse. The depa 
ture. The Comforter , 

xvi. 6-13 
xxi. 1-11 
xxi. 12-16 
xxi. 17-22 

vi. 14-15 

xxi. 23-27 
xxi. 28-32 

xxi. 33-46 

xxii. 1-14 
xxii. 15-22 
xxii. 23-33 
xxii. 34-40 
xxii. 41-46 

xxiii. 1-39 

xxiv. 1-51 
xxv. 1-13 
xxv. 14-30 
xxv. 31-16 

St. Mark. 

xiv. 3-9 
xi. 1-10 
xi. 15-18 
xi. 11-14, 

xi. 24-26 

xi. 27-33 

xii. 1-12 

St. Luke. 

xii. 13-17 
xii. 18-27 
xii. 23-34 
xii. 35-37 

xii. 38-40 
xii. 41-44 

xiii. 1-37 

xxvi. 1-5 
xxvi. 14-16 
xxvi. 17-30 

xxvi. 31-35 

xiv. 1, 2 
xiv. 10, 11 
xiv. 12-26 

xiv. 27-31 

vii. 36-50 
xix. 29-44 
xix. 45-48 

xx. 1-8 

xx. 9-18 

xiv. 16-24 
xx. 20-26 
xx. 27-40 

xx. 41-44 

xx. 45-47 
xxi. 1-4 

xxi. 5-36 

xix. 11-27 

St. John. 

xi. 1-44 
xi. 45-53 
xi. 54-57 
xii. 1-11 
xii. 12-19 

xxii. 1, 2 
xxii. 3-6 
xxii. 7-23 
xxii. 24-30 
xxii. 31-39 

xii. 20-36 
xii. 37-50 

xiii. 1-S5 
xiii. 36-38 
xiv. 1-31 

The vine and the branches, 
Abiding in love 

Work of the Comforter in the 

The prayer of Christ for them 


The betrayal 

Christ before Annas and Caia- 
phas. Peter's denial 

Christ before the sanhedrim.. 

Christ before Pilate „..., 

The traitor's death 

Christ before Herod 

Accusation and condemnation 

Treatment by the soldiers 

The crucifixion 

The mother of Jesus at the 


Mockings and railings 

The penitent malefactor 

The death of Christ 

Darkness and other portents. 

The bystanders 

The side pierced.... 

The burial 

The guard of the sepulchre... 

The resurrection 

Disciples going to Emmaus.... 

Appearances in Jerusalem. 
Doubts of Thomas 

Appearance at the sea of Ti- 

Appearance on the mount in 

Unrecorded works 

The ascension. 

St. Matt. 

xxvi. 36-46 
xxvi. 47-56 
xvii. 57, 58, 

xxvi. 59-68 
xx vii. 1, 2, 

xxvii. 3-10 

xxvii. 15-26 

xxvii. 27-31 
xxvii. 32-38 

xxvii. 39-44 

xxvii. 50 
xxvii. 45-53 
xxvii. 54-56 

xxvii. 57-61 
xxvii. 62-66 
xxviii. 11-15 
xxviii. 1-10 

xxviii. 16-20 

St. Mark. 

xiv. 32-42 
xiv. 43-52 
xiv. 53, 54 

xiv. 55-65 
xv. 1-5 

xv. 6-15 

xv. 16-20 
xv. 21-28 

xv. 29-32 

xv. 37 
xv. 33-38 
xv. 39-41 

xv. 42-47 

xvi. 1-11 
xvi. 12, 13 

xvi. 14-18 

xvi. 19-20 

St. Luke. 

xxii. 40-46 
xxii. 47-53 
xxii. 54-65 

xxii. 66-71 
xxiii. 1-6 

xxiii. 7-12 
xxiii. 13-25 

xxiii. 36, 37 
xxiii. 26-34 

xxiii. 35-39 
xxiii. 40-43 
xxiii. 46 
xxiii. 44, 45 
xxiii. 47-49 

xxiii. 50-56 

xxiv. 1-12 
xxiv. 13-35 

xxiv. 36-49 

xxiv. 50-53 

St. Johh. 

xv. I if 

xvi. 1-3? 
xvii. 1- 2$ 
xviii. 1 
xviii. 2-11 
xviii. 12 -Si 

xviii. 12=* 

xviii. 29-scbt 

xix. 1, 2, $ 
xix. 17-24 

xix. 25-27 

xix. 28-30 

xix. 31-37 
xix. 38-42 

xx. 1-18 

xx. 19-28 
xxi. 1-23 

xx. 30, 31 
xxi. 24, 25 








Deuteronomy .. 




1 Samuel 1 

2 Samuel J 

1 Kings \ 

2 Kings j 

1 Chronicles 1 

2 Chronicles J 





Moses , 

Moses , 







Compiled by Samuel, 
Nathan, Gad, or others. 

Probably Jeremiah.... 

Ezra and others. 



In doubt 

YEARS B. 0. 




4004 to 
1635 to 

1491 to 

1451 to 
1425 to 
1241 to 
1135 to 
1055 to 
1016 to 
889 to 






From 4004 to 532. 

From 536 to 456. 

From 456 to 433. 

From 521 to 495. (Outof line of narrative.) 





Solomon's Song 




Job, or perhaps Moses. 

David and others \ 


Solomon, and perhaps others., 


Unknown, but before the Exode, B.C. 1491. 
Written at various times, those by David 

between 1060 and 1016. 
About 1016. 
About 1000. 
About 976, or in Solomon's old age. 



B. C. 










r.33 — 662 


( Jehu and Jehoahaz, or Joash and Jero- 
j boam II. 

Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, Hezekiah 
Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, Hezekiah. 

/Zechariah, Shallum, Monahem, Peka- 
| hiah, Pekah and Hoshea. 

Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah 

Israel led captive. 



f Supposed to have been written on 
\ tlie death o/Josiah. 

During the Captivity. 
(After the capture of Jerusalem. 
( Nebuchadnezzar. 

After the return from Babylon. 







The number of Abraham's seed 

Bondage of his descendants 

Concerning the deliverance from Egypt 

Concerning Isaac 

Joseph's advancement 

Builder of Jericho 

Death of Eli's son 

Death of Saul 

Birth of Josiah 

Death of a prophet 

Destruction of the house of Jeroboam 

Death of Jeroboam's son 

Destruction of Baasha's house 

Great drought in the reign of Ahab 

Syrian invasion. 

Punishment for the murder of Naboth 

Destruction of the house of Ahab 

Death of Jezebel 

Miraculous supply of water 

Plentiful supply of food 

Death of the unbelieving lord 

Reign of Jehu's sons to the fourth generation. 

Death of the king of Assyria 

Babylonish captivity 


Gen. xv. 5, 6 

Gen. xv. 13 

Gen. xv. 14-16... 

Gen. xviii. 10 

Gen. xxxvii. 5.... 

Josh. vi. 26 

1 Sam, ii. 34 

1 Sam. xxviii. 19. 
1 Kings xiii. 2... 
1 Kings xiii. 22.. 
1 Kings xiv. 10.. 
1 Kings xiv. 12.. 
1 Kings xvi. 3_.. 
1 Kings xvii. 1... 
1 Kings xx. 22... 
1 Kings xxi. 19.. 
1 Kings xxi. 21.. 

1 Kings xxi. 23.. 

2 Kings iii. 17.... 

2 Kings vii. 1 

2 Kings vii. 2 

2 Kings x. 30 

2 Kings xix. 7 ... 
2 Kings xx. 17.... 


1 Chron. xxi. 5, 6= 
Gen. xlvi. 3-7. 
Exod. xii. 34-37. 
Gen. xxi. 1. 
Gen. xiii. 6. 
1 Kings xvi. 34. 
1 Sam. iv. 11. 

1 Sam. xxxi. 2. 

2 Kings xxiii. 15. 
1 Kings xiii. 30. 
1 Kings xv. 29. 

1 Kings xiv. 17. 
1 Kings xvi. 11. 
1 Kings xviii. 41. 
1 Kings xx. 26. 

1 Kings xx-ii.38. 

2 Kings x. 11. 
2 Kings ix. 36. 
2 Kings iii. 20. 
2 Kings vii. 18. 

2 Kings vii. 17-20. 
2 Kings xv. 12. 
2 Kings xix. 35, 37 
2 Kings xxiv. 10-16. 



Peter heals a lame man 

Ananias and Sapphira struck dead 

Apostles perform many wonders 

Peter and John communicate the Holy 


Peter healeth Eneas of a palsy 

— raiseth Tabitha, or Dorcas, to life 

— delivered outof prison by an angel... 

God smites Herod, so that he dies 

Elymas, the sorcerer, smitten with blindness 
Paul converted 

— heals a cripple 

— casts out a spirit of divination 

— and Silas's prison doors opened by an 


— communicates the Holy Ghost 

— heals multitudes 

— restores Eutyohus to life 

— shakes off a viper 

— heals the father of Publius and others 






Lydda , 





Road to Damascus. 


Philippi , 


Corinth , 





Acts iii. 1-11. 
v. 1-10. 
t. 12-16. 

viii. 14-Ti 
ix. 33, 34. 
ix. 36-41. 
xii. 7-17. 
xii. 21-23, 
xiii. 6-11. 
ix. 1-9. 
xiv. 8-10. 
xvi. 16-18. 

xvi. 25, 26. 
xix. 1-6. 
tix. 11, 12. 
is. 9-12. 
xxviii. 3-6. 
xxviii. 7-9. 






4004 1st Century. 

2d Century. 

3d Century, 

4th Century. 

5th Century. 

6th Century. 

3404 7th Century. 3304 8th Century. 









16th Century. 

15th Century. 

The Missionary Travels and Events in the Life of Saint Paul 







Born in Tarsus, in Cilicia 

^ Roman citizen by birthright. 
A Pharisee .... 

By trade a tent-maker. (Goat's 
hair — Cilicia) . 

At the school of Gamaliel, Jeru- 
salem .... 

Assists in stoning Stephen . 

Makes havoc of the Church . 

Goes to Damascus to persecute the 
disciples .... 

Baptized. Begins to preach Jesus 
the Crucified 

Journey into Arabia; return to 
Damascus .... 

Escape from Damascus in a bas- 
ket (2 Cor. xi. 33) 

Goes up to Jerusalem. Disciples 
afraid of him 

Introduced by Barnabas: preached 
the Lord Jesus . 

Driven out of Jerusalem ; goes to 
Tarsus .... 

At Antioch. Preaches to the Gen- 

Disciples first called Christians in 
Antioch .... 

Two Roman, three Jewish scourg- 
ings(2Cor. xi. 24-26). 

Agabus prophesies a famine . 

Barnabas and Saul sent to Jeru- 
salem with money 

Joined by Mark, Barnabas' sis- 
ter's son .... 

Barnabas and Saul "separated" 
for the work 

First Missionary Joueney. 
Antioch to Seleucia . 

In Cyprus at Salamis. Paphos 

Saul's name changed to Paul. 
Elymas blinded 

Sailed from Paphos to Perga, in 
Pamphylia .... 

Antioch in Pisidia. Discourse to 
the Jews .... 

The Gospel preached to the Gen- 
tiles ..... 

Paul and Barnabas expelled from 
Pisidia .... 

They came to Iconium . 

To Lystra. A cripple healed 

The people propose to sacrifice to 

Paul stoned, and supposed to be 

He recovers, and they go to Derbe 

Lystra, Iconium, and Antioch 

Passed through Pisidia to Pam- 
phylia .... 

Preached in Perga, Attalia, and 
Antioch .... 

End of the first missionary journey 

Visit to Jerusalem with Barnabas 
and Titus (Gal. ii.). 

The Council at Jerusalem 

Barnabas and Silas sent with Paul 
to Antioch 

Paul and Barnabas preach in An- 

Second Missionary Journey . 

Paul and Silas go through Syria 
and Cilicia 

Derbe. Lystra. Timothy called 
to help . 

Phrygia, Galatia, Mysia (Gal. i. 2) 

Forbidden by the Spirit to go into 

Troas. Paul's vision, " Come over 
and help us" . 

Samothracia and Neapolis. Phi- 
lippi ...... 





xxii. 3 

iii. 5 

xviii. 3 

xxii. 3 

vii. 58 
viii. 4 

ix. 2 

ix. 18, 20 

i. 17, 18 

ix. 25 

" 26' 

" 27 

" 30 

xi. 25 

" 26 

" 28 

" 30 

xii. 25 

xiii. 2 

" 4 
" 8 

" 9 

"■ 13 

" 14 

" 46 

" 50 
" 51 

xiv. 6 

" 13 

" 19 
" 20 
" 21 

" 24 

xiv. 25, 26 



" 22 

" 35 
" 36 

" 41 

" 6 

" 7 
" 9 

" 12 

A. D. 

52 Lydia of Thyatira baptized . 
Slave-girl cured of sorcery . 
Paul and Cyrus whipped and im- 
prisoned .... 

Delivered from prison . 
Amphipolis. Apollonia. Thes- 

salonica .... 
Jason persecuted on account of 

Paul and Silas . 
They go to Berea . 
Paul goes to Athens. Silas and 

Timothy remain . 
Discourse to the Greeks on Mars 

Hill . . ... 
Dionysius and Damaris believe 

53 Corinth. Tent-making with Aqui- 

laandPriscilla . 
Silas and Timothy join him at 

Corinth .... 
The two epistles to the Thessalo- 

nians written. 
Crispus and many Corinthians 

believe .... 
Paul before Gallio, the proconsul. 

Sosthenes beaten 

54 On the way to Jerusalem. At 

Ephesus .... 
Csesarea. Jerusalem. Antioch. 

Dispute with Peter (Gal. ii.). 
Third Missionary Journey. 

Galatia and Phrygia . 
Epistle to the Galatians written at 

Apollos instructed by Aquila and 


56 Paul baptizes and gives the Holy 


Two years in the hall of Tyran- 


Special miracles wrought by Paul 
Books of divination burned . 
Supposed visit to Corinth (2 Cor. 

xii. 14, xiii. 1). 

57 First Epistle to the Corinthians 

written at Ephesus. 
Plans another journey, and sends 

Timothy and Erastus . 
Great tumult raised by Demetrius 

in the theatre . 
Departs for Macedonia . 
Timothy joins Paul at Philippi (2 

Cor. i. 1, xiii. 14). 
Second Epistle to the Corinthians 

sent by Titus. 
Travels through Macedonia as far 

as Illyria (Rom. xv. 19). 

58 Corinth. Epistle to the Romans, 
Luke joins Paul at Corinth . 
Troas. Eutychus killed by a fall, 

and restored . 

By land to Assos; by ship to Mi- 
tylene ...... 

Chios. Samos. Trogyllium. Mi- 
letus ...... 

Coos. Rhodes. Patara, past Cy- 
prus to Tyre . 

Paul urged to go to Jerusalem . . 

59 Ptolemais (Acre). Caesarea, at 

Philip's house . 

Agabus prophesies Paul's danger 
at Jerusalem . . . . 

Fifth and last visit to Jerusalem . 

Performs the Nazarite's vow in 
the Temple 

The Jews arrest him in the Tem- 
ple . . . 

Beaten by the Jews, rescued by 
the Romans . . . . 

Bound with chains 

Paul's defense, spoken in the He- 
brew tongue . , . . 


xvi. 15 

" 18 

* 22 
"' 25 


" 9 
" 10 

" 15 

" 22 
" 34 

xviii. 1 

" 5 

" 8 

" 13 

xviii. 18 

" 22 

" 23 

" 24 

xix. 1 

" 9 
a n 

" 19 

« 21 

« 23 

XX. 1 

« 5 

« 12 

u 14 

" 17 

zxi. 3 
" 4 

" 8 

« 11 
" 17 

" 26 

" 30 

" 32 
" 33 

xxii. 1 














A. D. 

59 Persecuted for his mission to the 

Gentiles Acts xxii. 22 

Saved by his Roman citizenship . " " 27 

Before the council. Ananias the 

high -priest . . . . . " sxiii. I 

The dispute between Pharisees 

and Sadducees . . . . " "6 

Vision of the Lord Jesus. Paul 

cheered s " "' II 

Conspiracy of the Jews to kill 

him " "' 12 

The plot exposed by his sister's 

son to Claudius Lysias . " ' 16 

Paul sent under guard to Anti- 

patris " 

Delivered to Felix at Csesarea . " 
Accused by Tertullus . . . " 
Paul defends himself before Felix " 
Plot of the high-priest to kill him 

(Festus) . . . . . " 
Paul before Festus . . . " 
Paul appeals to Caesar . . . " 
He is brought before Agrippa and 

Bernice " "23 

Defends himself before the king 

and queen " xxvi. 

60 Paul sent to Rome with other 

prisoners " xxvii. 

Sidon. Cyprus. Sea of Cilicia 

and Pamphylia . • . . " "6 

Myra in Lycia, Cnidus, Crete, Sa- 
lome " "7 

Fair Havens, near Lasea . . " "8 

Aug. — Storm in Adria. Clauda . " " 14 

The ship lightened by casting over- 
board the tackle ..." "18 

Vision of the angel by Paul . . " " 23 

Prophesies the events of the voy- 
age " "26 

All escaped safe to land. Ship 

wrecked " "44 

A viper fastens on Paul's hand. 

Malta " xxxviii. 3 

The father of Publius healed bv 

Paul ". " "8 

After three months they sail for 

Syracuse " 11, 12 

Rhegium. Puteoli. Appii Forum " " 13 

Three Taverns . . . . " 13-15 

61 Rome. In his own house . " " 16 
He persuades the Jews ..." A 23 

62 Writes to Philemon, Colossians, Ephesians, ami 

Philippians at Rome. 

63 Goes to Macedonia (Phil. ii. 23;. 
Asia Minor (Phil. xx. ii.). 

64 Spain. Supposed visit (Rom. xv. *,1). 

66 Asia Minor (1 Tim. i. 3). 

67 Writes First Epistle to Timothy from Macedonia. 
Epistle to Titus from Ephesus. Nicopolis. 

68 In prison at Rome. Writes Second Epistle to Tim° 

Beheaded in May or June. 

The date of the beheading of Paul is placed in the 
14th of Nero's reign. Dionysius, bishop of Corinth, 
A. D. 170, says that Peter and Paul went to Italy, 
preached together there, and suffered martyrdom about 
the same time. Caius of Rome, in the 2d century, 
names the grave of Peter on the Vatican, and of Paul 
on the Ostian Way; and others, as Eusebius, Tertullian, 
and Jerome, agree in this account. The locality around 
Paul's grave is now used as a cemetery for strangers 
who die in Rome. 

The principle which harmonizes all the acts, and 
preaching, and letters of Paul, was a belief in Jesus as 
the Divine Spirit — a living Master, intimately related 
to every living soul, of whose Gospel he, was the special 
Messenger. This purified his love of his own peoplei 
and opened his heart toward all mankind. 



josEA./aSS v - 12. 

*,ra via. 15, 21. 
Z Judges xi. 18. 

jEzek. L 1. 
Ezek. xlvii. 18, 

posh sv. 4. 
Sec. ii. 14. 
Ma tfc iv. 18. 
John vi. 1, op 

Sunk xsiiTo 11. 








East Sea (see Salt 
Sea, Sea of the 

Egypt, River of. 


Galilee, Sea of, Ti- 
berias, Cinneroth 
or Chinnereth. 

Ancient Chal 




Commended by Naaman. 
Here John baptized. 
Here Ezra proclaimed a 

fast prior to returning 

from captivity. 
The boundary of Moab. 
Near this river Ezekiel 

saw hii, first vision. 
Salt (or B«,»d) Sea. 

A principal river ii Eden. 

Luke v. 1. 

Gen. ii. 13. 
Matt. iii. 5, 6. 13. 

2 Kings v. U, 

Gen. ii. 11, 
Deut. iv. 4C 

Exod. xiii. 13 : 

Num. rxxiy. 3. 



Pharpar (now Bar- 

Plain, Sea of (see 

East and Salt 

Red Sea. 

StTt Sea (see East 







Miraculous draught of 

Second river in Eden. 
Christ baptized in th> 

river — the principal on« 

in Palestine. 
Commended by Naaman. 

The first river of Paradise. 

Here Pharaofe's host w " 





The Chuech of G-od. 


" I speak concerning Christ and the Church." 


I.— Jesus Christ— The SON. 

Now are we the Sons of God. 

Sons of God (he gave them power to become). 

Sons of God (led by the Spirits 

Sons of God (blameless aud harmless). 

Sons. Gal. 4 : 5, 6, 7 ; Heb. 2:10; 12:7,8. 

Sons of the living God. 

Sons and Daughters of the Lord Almighty. 

Children of God. 

Children of the living God. 

Children of God (by faith in Christ Jesus). 

Dear "Children. 

Obedient Children. 

Heirs of God, and Joint Heirs with Christ. 

Heirs according to the Promise. 

Heirs of Salvation. 

II.— Jesus Christ— GOD. 

Partakers of the Divine Nature. 

Begotten of God. 

Begotten again to a Lively Hope. 

Born again. 

Born of the Spirit. 

Born of God. 

Born of him. 

New-born babes. 

In Christ Jesus. 

Gods, to whom the Word of God came. 

Man created in God's own image. 

The image and glory of God. 

The godly. 

One with the Pather and the Son. 

Partakers of the glory of Christ. 

III.— Jesus Christ — JEHOVAH, JE- 

He shall be called Jehovah-tsidkenu. 

Covered with the robe of Righteousness. 

Arrayed in fine linen, clean and white, for the 

fine linen is the righteousness of saints. 

Clothed in white raiment. 

The Righteous. 

The righteousness of God in him. 

His Name in their foreheads. 

His Father's Name in their foreheads. 

The Seal of God in their foreheads. 

Called by a new name. 

The disciples were called Christians. 

That worthy Name by which ye are called. 

The Gentiles upon whom my Name is called. 

They that love his Name. 

IV.— Jesus Christ— The CREATOR, 

Created by him, and for him. 

By the breath of the Almighty. 

Called unto Eternal Life. 

His workmanship created in Christ Jesus. 

The new man after God created in righteousness 

and true holiness. 

Created by Jesus Christ. 

In Christ, a new creature. 

Life given by the Spirit. 

Life in Christ Jesus. 

The Life of Jesus manifested. 

Believing, having life through his Name. 

Our life hid with Christ in God. 

The living. 

Living by the Faith of the Son of God. 

They that are heavenly. 

V.— Jesus Christ— The WORD. 

Born again by the Word of God. 

Begotten with the Word of Truth. 

Quickened by the Word. 


1 John 3: 2. 
John 1 : 12. 
Rom. 8 : 14. 
Phil. 2 : 15. 

Hos. 1 : 10. 

2 Cor. 6 : 18. 
Matt. 5:9; 

John 11 :52. 
Rom. 8 : 9 ; 9 

Gal. 3: 26. 
Eph. 5: 1. 
1 Pet. 1 : 14. 
Rom. 8 : 17. 
Gal. 3: 29; 4: 7 
Heb.l: 14. 

2 Pet. 1:4; 

James 1 : 18. 
1 Pet, 1 : 3. 
1 Pet. 1 : 23. 
John 3 : 5, 6. 
John 1: 18 j 
1 John3:9,4: 

7;5: 1,4,18. 
1 John 2 : 29. 
1 Pet. 2 : 2. 
1 Cor. 1 : 30. 
Ps. 82: 6; 
John 10 : 34,35. 
Gen. 1 : 27. 

1 Cor. 11 : 7. 

2 Pet. 2 : 9. 
John 17: 21. 
John 17: 22,23 

Jer. 33: 16. 
Isa. 61 : 10. 

Rev. 19 : 8. 
Rev. 4 : 4. 
Ps. 34 : 15. 
2 Cor. 5: 21. 
Rev. 22 : 4. 
Rev. 14 : 1. 
Rev. 9 : 4. 
Isa. 62 : 2, 12. 
Acts 11 : 26. 
James 2 : 7. 
Acts 13 : 17. 
Ps. 69 : 36. 

Col. 1 : 16 ; 

Rev. 4: 11. 
Job 33 : 4 ; 

Ps. 66 : 9. 

1 Tim. 6:12; 
Ps. 133 : 3. 

Eph. 2 : 10. 

Eph. 4 : 24 ; 

Col. 3 : 10. 
Eph. 3: 9; 

Col. 1 : 16. 

2 Cor. 5 : 17 ; 
Gal. 6: 15. 

2 Cor. 3:6; 

John 3 : 3-8. 
2 Tim. 1 : 1. 
2 Cor. 4 : 10. 
John 20 : 31 
Col. 3 : 3, 4. 
Ps. 69 : 28. 
Gal. 2 : 20. 
1 Cor. 15 : 48- 


1 Pet. 1 : 23. 
James 1 : 18. 
Ps. 119: 50; 
John 5 : 24. 


Living by God's Word. 

The Church sanctified and cleansed with the 

washing of water by the Word. 

Clean through the Word. 

Taught in the Word. 

The Word in the heart. 

Disciples indeed, if holding God's Word. 

Brethren who hear the Word of God, and do it. 

Doers of the Word. 

Holding fast the faithful Word. 



VI.— Jesus Christ — The MAN. 


His brethren. 

Earthen vessels. 

Partakers of flesh and blood. 

The new man . . . renewed. 

Renewed day by day. 

Shall be fashioned like his glorious body. 

Shall be like him when he appears. 

Shall awake in his likeness. 

Strangers and pilgrims on earth. 

VII.— Jesus Christ— The CHILD, the 

Christ's Servants. 

My servants and my handmaidens. 

My servants. 

Thy servants. 
Servants of God, of our God. 

His servants. 

Servants of the Most High God. 
My servants the Prophets. 



Meek. Ps. 22:26; 25:9:37:11; 149:4; Isa. 11: 

4; 61: 1 j Matt. 5 : 5. 

Poor in spirit. 

Honored of God. 

Taught of God. John 6 : 45 ; Isa. 54 : 13 ; 1 Thess. 

4:9; 1 John 2: 27. 


Prophets appointed by God. 

My Prophets. 
Holy Apostles and Prophets. 

VIII.— Jesus Christ— Jesus the SA- 
VIOUR, Christ the MESSIAH. 

Heirs of salvation. 

Chosen to salvation. 

Appointed to obtain salvation. 

Clothed with the garments of salvation. 

Saved with an everlasting salvation. 

Wise to salvation. 

Such as love thy salvation. 

Anointed of God. 
Grace given in Christ Jesus. 

Apprehended in Christ Jesus. 

Reconciled by Jesus Christ. 

No condemnation in Christ Jesus. 

Forgiven for Christ's sake. 

Justified by the Faith of Jesus Christ. 

Belonging to Christ. 

Dead to the Law by the body of Christ. 
Made free by Christ. 

Preserved in Christ Jesus. 
Sitting in heavenly places in Christ Jesus. 

Deut. 8:3; 
Luke 4: 4. 

Eph. 5: 25,26 
John 15: 3. 
Gal. 6:6; 

Acts 17 : 11. 
Deut. 30: 14; 

Rom. 10: 8. 
John 8: 31. 
Luke 8: 21. 
James 1 : 22. 
Tit. 1:9; John 

17: 6. 
Acts 5: 14; 

lTim. 4: 12. 

Rom. 8 : 29 : 

12. 1; Heb. 

2: 11, 12. 
Heb. 2: 17. 
2 Cor. 4 : 7. 
Heb. 2 : 14. 
Col. 3: 10; 

Eph. 4: 13. 
2 Cor. 4: 16; 

Ps. 103 5. 
Phil. 3: 21. 
1 John 3- 2. 
Ps. 17: 15. 
Heb. 11: 13; 

Ps. 119 : 19. 

1 Cor. 7 : 22. 
Acts 2: 18. 
John 18 : 36. 
Acts 4: 29. 

1 Pet. 2: 16; 
Rev. 7: 3. 

Ps. 35 : 27 ; Col. 

3: 24. 
Acts 16: 17. 

2 Kings 9:7; 
Jer. 7 : 25. 

Isa. 57 : 15. 

Ps. 138:6; 
Prov. 3 : 34. 

Matt. 5: 3; 
Isa. 66 : 2. 
John 12 : 26. 

Acts 9 : 1, 26 ; 
30 ; 20 : 7. 

1 Cor. 12 : 28 ; 
Eph. 4: 11. 

Ps. 105 : 15. 

Rev. 18 : 20. 

Heb. 1 : 14. 
2 Thess. 2: 13. 
85:9; 37:39. 
Isa. 61 : 10. 
Isa. 45 : 1,7. 
2 Tim. 3 : 15. 
Ps. 40 : 16. 

1 John 2 : 27. 

2 Tim. 1:9; 
1 Cor. 1:4; 
Rom. 5 : 15. 

Phil. 3: 12. 
2 Cor. 5: 18,19. 
Rom. 8 : 1. 
Eph. 4 : 32. 
Gal. 2: 16; 

Rom. 3 : 24. 
Mark 9 : 41 ; 

1 Cor. 3 : 23 
Rom. 7 : 4. 
Gal. 5:1; 

1 Cor. 7 : 22 
Jude 1. 
Eph. 2 : 6. 


Christ living in his people. 

The Church's Head is Christ. 

The Church received by Christ to God's glory. 

Blessing on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ. 

Christ's, then Abraham's, seed and heirs. 

Sinners for whom Christ died. 

IX.— Jesus Christ— The LAMB, 



The Bride, the Lamb's wife. 

The Bride of the Bridegroom. 

A Bride adorned for her Husband. 

Clothed as a Bride adorned with jewels. 

Perfect, through the comeliness put on her. 

All fair, no spot in her. 

Black, but comely. 

Fairest among women. 

A lily among thorns. 

A chaste virgin. 

Worthy to walk in white with Christ. 

Robes washed white in the blood of the Lamb. 

Prince's daughter. 

God's jewels, his peculiar treasure. 

One, the choice one. 

My fair one. 

My dove. Song Sol. 2 : 14 ; 5 : 2 ; 6 : 9. 

My love. Song Sol. 1 : 9, 15 ; 2:2, 10, 13. 

My spouse. 

My sister. 

My undefiled. 

Beloved. Jude 20 ; Song Sol. 5 : 1. 

My beloved. 

His beloved. Ps. 127 : 2 ; 108 : 6 ; Jude 20. 

Dearly beloved of his soul. 

The Church loved by Christ. 

The Church cherished by Christ. 

Leaning on her Beloved. 

The Church subject to Christ. 

The Church, his body. 

Beloved of God. 
The Church of God. 

A glorious Church. 

Called Hephzibah (delight). 

Sought out, a city not forsaken. 

The city of righteousness, the faithful city. 

Jerusalem, the city of Truth. 

The name of the city, the Lord is there. 

NeVi Jerusalem. 

The h >ly Jerusalem. 

The heav <nly Jerusalem. 

The City, *he holy City. 

The city of vfe£ living God. 

That griat city. 

A multitude which no man can number. 

The general assembly. 

The Church in the Wilderness. 

Congregation of Saints. 

One body. 

The Church, a garden enclosed. 

A vineyard. 

X.— Jesus Christ— The SHEPHERD. 

The flock. 1 Pet. 5:3; John 10 : 16 ; Acts 20 : 28. 

The flock of God. 

The flock of his people. 

The flock of his pasture. 

The little flock. 

Kept by the power of God. 

Led like a flock. 

His own people . . . sheep. 

His sheeD 

Sheep of his pasture. Ps. 74 : 1 ; 79: 13 ; Jer. 23: 1. 

My sheep. Ezek. 34 : 11, 12 ; John 10 : 14, 26 ; 

21 : 16, 17. 

The sheep. Zech. 13 : 7 ; Matt. 25 : 33 ; John 10 : 

2, etc. ; Heb. 13 : 20. 

The sheep of the flock. 

Lost sheep. Matt. 10 : 6 ; 15 : 24 ; Luke 15 : 4, 6 ; 

Isa. 53 : 6 ; Jer. 50 : 6. 

Sheep going astray. 

Sheep for the slaughter. Ps. 44 : 22 ; Rom. 8 : 36. 

Sheep in the midst of wolves. 

Led in the paths of righteousness. 

Led beside still waters. 

People of his pasture. Ps. 23 : 2 ; 95 : 7 ; 100 : 3. 

The lambs. 

The little ones. 

My lambs. 

Gal. 2 : 20 ; 

2 Cor. 13:5, 
Eph. 5 : 23. 
Rom. 15: 7. 
Gal. 3 : 9. 
Gal. 3 : 29. 
Rom. 5 : 6-8. 

Rev. 21 : 9 ; 

19: 7. 
John 3: 29. 
Rev. 21 : 2. 
Isa. 61 : 10. 
Ezek. 16 : 8-14. 
Song Sol. 4 : 7, 
Song Sol. 1 : 5. 
Song Sol. 1 :8. 
Song Sol. 2 : 2, 
2 Cor. 11:2; 

Jer. 31 : 4. 
Rev. 3 : 4, 5. 
Rev. 7 : 14. 
Song Sol. 7 : 1, 
Mai. 3 : 17. 
Song Sol. 6 : 9, 
Song Sol. 2: 10, 

Song Sol. 4 : 8. 
Song Sol. 4 : 9. 
Song Sol. 5: 2. 

Song Sol. 7: 13, 

Jer. 12 : 7. 
Eph. 5: 25 ; 

Gal. 2 : 20. 
Eph. 5 : 29. 
Song Sol. 8 : 5. 
Eph. 5 : -24. 
Col. 1 : 24. 
Rom. 1 : 7. 
1 Cor. 1 • 2 ; 

Acts 20 : 28. 
Eph. 5 : 27. 
Isa. 62 : 4. 
Isa. 62: 12. 
Isa. 1 : 26. 
Zech. 8- 3. 
Ezek. 48 : 35. 
Rev. 21 : 2. 
Rev. 21 : 10. 
Heb. 12 : 22. 
Rev. 21: 23, 24. 
Heb. 12 : 22. 
Rev. 21 : 10 
Rev. 7 : 9 
Heb. 12 
Acts 7 
Ps. 149 

Col. 3 : 

Song 8c 
Isa. 5:1, 

1 Pet. 5:2. . 
Zech. 9: 16. . 
Ezek. 34 : 31. 
Luke 12 : 32. / 
1 pet. 1 : 5. 
Ps. 7.-.-52. 
John 10 :1L 

Matt. 26:31. 

1 Pet. 2 : 25. 

Matt, 10 : 16. 
Ps. 23 : 3. 
Ps. 23 : 3. 

Isa. 40:11. 
Zech. 13:7. 
John 21 : 15. 




XI.— Jesus Cheist— The TREE OF 
LIFE, the BRANCH, the VINE, the 

A palm tree, a cedar. 

The Lord called thy name a green olive tree. 

Called trees of Righteousness. 

Branches of the olive. 

Holy branches. 

The Branch of the Lord's planting. 

Branches (of the Vine). 

Fruitful in every good work. 

First fruits. 

Planted in the Lord's House. 

Planted by the Lord. 

A tree planted by rivers. 

Bringing forth fruit in season. 

A tree with unwithered leaves. 

Full of sap. 

God's husbandry. 

The fruit of " The corn of wheat." 

Planted U. e. buried). 


My threshing, the corn of my floor. 

Being many, are one bread. 
Feeding on Christ, living for ever. 

XII— Jesus Christ— The LIGHT, the 

Children of light. 

Called . . . into his marvelous light. 

Children of the light. 

Children of the day. 

Clear as the sun. 

Fair as the moon. 

A woman clothed with the sun. 

The lights of the world. 

A candlestick. Matt, 5 : 14-16 ; Rev. 1 : 12; 2 : 5. 

A shining light, shining more and more. 

Changed from glory to glory. 

Her light like a stone most precious. 

Virgins with lamps burning. 

Stars shining for ever and ever. 

Stars differing in glory. 

XIII.— Jesus Christ— HOPE, 

Christ in you the hope of glory. 

Looking for that blessed hope. 

Heirs, according to that hope, of eternal life. 

Begotten again to a lively hope. 

Called in one hope of our calling. 

Saved (or sustained) by hope. 

Rejoicing in hope. Rom. 12 : 12 ; 5 : 2, 5. 

Blessed whose strength is in God. 

Strong when the word of God abides in us. 

Strong in the Lord, in the power of his might. 

Strength made perfect in weakness. 

Shoes, iron and brass. 

Having fled for refuge. 

Laying hold of the hope. 

Without fear, because God is our refuge and 


XIV.— Jesus Cheist— The ROCK. 

Upon this Rock I will build my Church. 

XV.— Jesus Christ — The BUILDER. 

Ye are God's building. 

A building fitly framed together. 

Built on the Foundation. 

Rooted and built up in him. 

Her walls salvation, her gates pra:^e. 

Salvation . . . for walls and bulwarks. 

£■* walls great and high, her gates pearls. 

Paly stones, built up a spiritual house. 

a Corner-stones, polished. 
j) e . The House of God. 

.The Church of the Living God. 
lie pillar and ground of the truth. 
P Citizens. 

S2 P Citizenship (Gr.) in heaven. 

x.— Jesus Cheist — The TEMPLE, 

The temple of God, which temple ye are. 

The temple of God, the Spirit of God dwelling 

, within. 

The temple of the Holy Ghost. 

An holy temple in the Lord. 

An hjbitation of God through the Spirit. 

A spiritual house. 

Priests. Rev. 1 : 6 ; 5 : 10; 20 : 6. 

A holy priesthood. 

A royal priesthood. 

God's heritage. 

The Lord's portion. 

His inheritance. 

Our bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable 

to God. 


True worshipers. 

XVII.— Jesus Cheist— Mine ELECT. 


Num. 24 : 6. 
Jer. 11 : 16. 
Isa. 61 : 3. 
Zech. 4 : 12. 
Rom. 11 : 16. 
Isa. 60 : 21. 
Jno. 15 : 2, 4-6. 
Col. 1 : 10. 
James 1 : 18. 
Ps.92: 13. 
Ps. 80 : 15. 
Ps. 1 : 3. 
Ter. 17 : 8. 
Ps. 92 : 14. 
Ps. 104 : 16. 
1 Cor. 3 : 9. 
John 12 : 24. 
Rom. 6 : 5. 
Luke 3 : 17. 
Isa. 21 : 10. 
1 Cor. 10: 16,17 
John 0:31,51 

Luke 16 : 8. 
1 Pet, 2 : 9. 
1 Thess. 5 : 5. 

1 Thess. 5 : 5. 
Song Sol. 6: 10. 
Rev. 12: 1. 
Matt. 5 : 14. 

Prov. 4 : 18. 

2 Cor. 3: 18. 
Rev. 21 : 11. 
Matt. 25 : 1-12. 
Dan. 12 : 3. 

1 Cor. 15 : 41. 

Col. 1 : 27. 
Tit. 2 : 13. 
Tit. 3 : 7. 
1 Pet, 1 : 3. 
Eph. 4 : 4. 
Rom. 8 : 24. 

Ps. 84 : 5. 

1 John 2 : 14. 
Eph. 6 : 10. 

2 Cor. 12 : 9, 10 
Dent. 33:25-27 
Heb. 6:18. 
Heb. 6:18. 
Ps. 46 : 1 ; 31 : 

13-15; 27:1 
62 : 5-7. 

Matt. 16 : 18. 

1 Cor. 3 : 9. 
Eph. 2:21. 
Eph. 2:20. 
Col. 2 : 7. 
Isa. 60 : 18. 
Isa. 26 : 1. 
Rev. 21 : 12. 
1 Pet. 2 : 5. 
Ps. 144 : 12. 
1 Tim. 3 : 15. 
1 Tim. 3 : 15. 
1 Tim. 3 : 15. 
Eph. 2:19. 
Phil. 3:20,21. 

1 Cor. 3 : 17. 

1 Cor. 3 : 16. 
1 Cor. 6 : 19. 
Eph. 2 : 21. 
Eph. 2 : 22. 
1 Pet. 2 : 5. 

1 Pet. 2 : 5. 
1 Pet. 2 : 9. 
1 Pet. 5 : 3. 
Luke 8 : 30. 
Eph. 1 : 18. 

Rom. 12 : 1. 
Heb. 10 : 2. 
John 4:23. 

The elect, Matt. 24 : 22. 

Elect according to the foreknowledge of God. 1 Pet. 1 : 2. 
Mine elect called by name. Isa. 45:4 ; 65 :9, 22.1 


His own elect. 

Chosen out of the world. 

A chosen generation. 

Those whom the Father has given to Christ. 

God's elect. Rom. 8 : 33 ; Tit. 1:1; Col. 3 : 12. 

The election of grace. Rom. 9 : 11 ; 11 : 5. 

Called and chosen. 

Called to be saints. Rom. 1 : 6, 7 ; 1 Cor. 1 : 2. 

Called according to His purpose. 

Called to glory and virtue. 

Called to inherit a blessing. 

Called ou^ of darkness into light. 

Called to liberty. 

Called to the fellowship of His Son. 

Called of Jesus Christ. Rom. 1 : 6 ; 1 Th. 5 : 24. 

Called, justified. 

Israel my called. 

His people which he foreknew. 

A remnant according to the election of grace. 

The election. 

Called not Jews only, but also Gentiles. 

His hidden ones. 

Sought out. 


Redeemed of the Lord. Isa. 51 : 11 ; 62 : 12. 

Blessed, whom God chooses. 

Blessed, whom Jesus blesses. 

Blessed of God the Father. 

Blessed, whose iniquities are forgiven. 

Blessed, to whom Jesus is not an offence. 

Blessed, who have not seen him, but have 


Blessed, who know the joyful sound. 

Blessed, who hear the word of God and keep it, 

Luke 11 : 28 ; Isa. 56 : 1 , etc, ; Prov. 8 : 34 ; Rev. 

1:3; 22 : 7 ; Ps. 1 : 1-3 ; 119 : 2 ; 106 : 3. 

Blessed, who put their trust in God. 

Blessed, whose strength is in God. 

Blessed, who dwell in God's house. 

Blessed with all spiritual blessings. 

Blessed, who fear the Lord. 

Blessed are the undented. 

Blessed, who consider the poor. 

Blessed, who faithfully work. 

Blessed, with faithful" Adam. 

Blessed, whom the Lord chastens. 

Blessed, who endures temptation. 

Blessed, who watcheth. 

Blessed, those who die in the Lord. 

Blessed is the memory of the just. 

Blessed, who are called to the marriage supper 

of the Lamb. 

Blessed, who have part in the first resuirection. 

Blessed for ever, if blessed by the Lord. 


XVIIL— Jesus Cheist— The TRUTH, 



The righteous nation that keepeth the truth. 
The generation of the upright. 
Upright in heart. 
The just. Job 12 : 4 ; Hab. 2:4; Heb. 10 
Prov. 4 : 18. 
Perfect and upright, 
The upright. Ps. 11 : 7 ; 18 : 25 ; 33 : 1 ; 37 : 37 
49 : 14 ; 111 : 1 ; 140.: 13 ; Prov. 2 : 21 ; 10 
11 : 3, 6, 11, 20; 12:6; 13:6; 14 : 11 ; 16 
21 : 18, 29 ; 28 : 10. 
The upright an abomination to the wicked. 
The upright in their way, God's delight. 
The upright, their prayer God's delight. 
The upright, gracious, full of compassion. 
The upright love the Bridegroom. 
Faithful brethren in Christ. 
Faithful in Christ Jesus. 
Good and faithful. 
The spirits of just men made perfect. 

XIX.— Jesus Christ— The HOLY ONE. 

Sanctified. Acts 20 : 32 ; Heb. 10 : 14. 
He that sanctifieth and they who are sanctified 

are all of one. 

Sanctified through the offering of the body of 

Jesus Christ once for all. 

Sanctified in Christ Jesus. 

Sanctified by the Holy Ghost. 

Sanctified by faith in Jesus. 

Sanctified by God the Father. 

Sanctified through the Truth. 

Sanctified by the blood of the covenant. 

Sanctified in the name of the Lord. 

Sanctified for the Master's use. 
Holy and without blame before Him. 
The holy people. 
The spiritual. 
Redeemed from all iniquity. 
Purified to Himself. 
Zealous of good works. • 

The saints, the excellent, God's delight. 
Holy men of God. 
Saints. Ps. 149 : 1; Rom. 12 : 13; 15 : 26, 31; 
Col. 1 :2;Phil3.5;Rev. 8:3;Eph. 3: 8,18;5: 3; 
Phil. 1:1. 

The saints. Job. 5:1; Ps. 89 : 5, 7 ; 149 : 5 ; Dan. 
7:21; Hos. 11 : 12 ; Zech. 14 : 5 ; Matt, 27 : 52 ; 
Acts 9 : 32, 41 ; 26 : 10 : Col. 1 : 4 ; 1 Tim. 5 : 10 
Phile. 7 ; Heb. 6 : 10 ; Jude 3 ; Rev. 8 : 4 ; 13 : 7 
10 ; 14 : 12; 16 : 6 ; 17 : 6 ; 18 : 24 ; 19 : 8 ; 20 : 9 
2 Cor. 9: 1,12; 13: 13; Phil. 4 : 22; Eph. 1 : 1 
15, 18 ; 2 : 19 ; 4 : 12 ; Rom. 8 : 27 ; 15 : 25 ; 16 : 15 
Heb. 13 : 24 : 1 Cor. 6:1,2. 
Thy saints. 2 Chron. 6 : 41 ; Ps. 52 : 9 ; 132 : 9 ; 

145 : 10 ; Acts 9 : 13. 
His saints. 1 Sam. 2:9; Job 15 : 15 ; Ps. 31 : 23 
37 : 28 ; 116 : 15 ; 148 : 14 ; 149 : 9 ; Prov. 2:8; 
Col. 1 : 26 ; 1 Thes. 3 : 13 ; 2 Thes. 1:10; Jude 14. 
The saints of the Most High. Dan. 7 : 18, 22, 25, 27 


Luke 18 : 7. 
John 15 : 19. 
1 Pet. 2 : 9. 
Jno. 17: 11, 12. 

Rev. 17 : 14. 

Rom. 8 : 28. 
2 Pet. 1 : 3. 
1 Pet. 3 : 9. 
1 Pet. 2 : 9. 
Gal. 5 : 18. 
1 Cor. 1 : 9. 

Rom. 8 : 30. 
Isa. 48 : 12. 
Rom. 11 : 2. 
Rom. 11 : 5. 
Rom. 11:7. 
Rom. 9:24. 
Ps. 83 : 3. 
Isa. 62 : 12. 
Isa. 51 : 10. 

Ps. 65 : 4. 
Matt, 5 : 3-11. 
Matt, 25 : 34. 
Rom. 4 : 7, 8. 
Matt. 11:6. 

John 20:29. 
Ps. 89 : 15. 

Ps. 34 : 8. 
Ps. 84 : 5. 
Ps. 84 : 4. 
Eph. 1 : 3. 
Ps. 128:1. 
Ps. 119:1. 
Ps. 41 : 1. 
James 1 : 26. 
Gal. 3 : 9. 
Ps. 94 : 12. 
James 1 : 12. 
Rev. 16:15. 
Rev. 14 : 13. 
Prov. 10 : 6, 7. 

Rev. 19:9. 
Rev. 20 : 6. 
IChron. 17:27. 

Isa. 62 : 2. 
Ps. 112:2. 
Ps. 97 : 11. 

Job 1 : 1, 8. 

Pro. 29: 10, 27 
Prov. 11 :20. 
Prov. 15 : 8. 
Ps. 112:4. 
Soug. Sol. 1:2. 
Col. 1 : 2. 
Eph. 1 : 1. 
Matt. 25 : 21. 
Heb. 12 : 23. 

Heb. 2 : 11. 

Heb. 10:10. 
1 Cor. 1 : 2. 
Rom. 15:16. 
Acts 26 : 18. 
Jude 1. 
John 17:19. 
Heb. 10:29. 

1 Cor. 6 : 11. 

2 Tim. 2:21. 
Eph. 1 : 4. 
Isa. 62 : 12. 
Gal. 6:1. 
Tit. 2:14. 
Tit. 2 : 14. 
Tit, 2 : 14. 
Ps. 16: 3. 

2 Pet. 1 : 21. 


My saints, who have made a covenant with me 

by sacrifice. 
Saints, who give thanks at the remembrance of 

God's holiness. 
Made meet to be partakers of the inheritance 

of the saints in light. 
Faultless before the presence of God's glory. 


XX.— Jesus Cheist— The FIRST- 

The Church of the first-born. 
My brethren. Ps. 22 : 22: Heb. 2 : 12; Matt, 
12 : 48, 49 ; Mark 8 : 33, 34; Matt. 25 : 40 : 28 : 10 ; 
Luke 8 : 21 ; John 20 : 17. 

His brethren. 
The whole family in heaven and earth. 
The Israel of God. 
Children of the resurrection. 
Begotten . . . unto a lively hope by the resur- 
rection of Jesus Christ. 
The Church, which is the body of Christ. Eph 
1 : 23 ; 4 : 12 ; Col. 1 : 24 ; 1 Cor. 12 : 27. 
One Body, one Spirit. 
Members of his body, his flesh, and his bones. 
By one Spirit baptized into one Body. 
Our bodies members of Christ. 
Complete in him the Head. 

XXL— Jesus Christ— CAPTAIN, 



Terrible as an array with banners. 

Compared to two armies (Mahanaim). 

Who through faith subdued kingdoms. 

Who fight the fight of faith. 

Defeated without God. Deut. 1 : 42, 45 ; Acts 

5 : 38, 39 ; 23 : 9. 

Conquerors with God. 2 Chron. 20 : 1-29 ; 

Zech. 10 : 5. 

Defended by angelic agency. 2 Kings 6 : 8-17 ; 

Ps. 34 : 7 ; Gen. 32 : 1, 2 ; Dan. 10 : 1, etc. ; 12 : 1. 

Clothed in the armor of God. 

Looking unto Jesus. 

Fighting, not as beating the air. 

Her warfare taught by Christ, 

Watchman. Ezek. 33 : 2, etc. ; Isa. 21 : 6-9 ; 

52 : 8 ; 62 : 6 ; Matt. 24 : 42. 

More than conquerors. 

Victors through Jesus Christ. 

XXII.— Jesus Cheist— The LORD, the 

The Church crowned. 

The elders crowned. 


Translated into Christ's kingdom. 

Children of the kingdom. 

Heirs of the kingdom. 

Worthy of the kingdom of God. 

Called ... to his kingdom and glory. 

Sent forth to preach the kingdom of God. 

Knowing the mystery of the kingdom. 

New birth the preparation for the kingdom. 

Doing the Father's will, belonging to the 

kingdom of heaven. 

XXIII.— Jesus Cheist— The PRINCE 
OF PEACE, the GLORY of his 
People Israel. 

Peace on them and on the Israel of God. 
Peace, from God the Father and our Lord Jesus 
Christ. Rom. 1:7; 1 Cor. 1 : 3 ; 2 Cor. 1:2; 
Gal. 1:3; Eph. 1:2; Phil. 1 : 2. 

Peace which passeth understanding. 

Peace in believing. 

Peace the fruit of the Spirit. 

Peace from Him that is, was, and is to come. 

Peace with God through Christ. 

Peace in Christ. John 16 : 33 ; 14 : 27. 

God has called us to peace. 

Called unto his eternal glory. 

Glorified together. 

Appearing with him in glory. 

Christ in them the hope of glory. 

Christ glorified in his saints. 

Grace and glory given. 

Rejoicing in hope of the glory of God. 

Partakers of the glory to be revealed. 

Glory in the Church by Christ Jesus, through- 
out all ages, world without end, Amen. 

XXIV— Jesus Cheist— The JLDGE. 

The saints will sit in judgment with Christ. 

Themselves judged hy Christ. 

His throne the place of their sanctuary. 

His saints gathered to him before the general 


Placed at his right hand. 

"Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither 
have entered into the heart of man, the things 
which God hath prepared for them that love 
him. But God hath revealed them unto us by 
his Spirit: for the Spirit searcheth all things, 
yea, the deep things of God." 1 Cor. 2 : 9, 10. 

Ps. 50 : 5. 

Ps. 30:4. 

Col. 1 : 12. 
Jude 24. 

Heb. 12 : 23. 

Heb. 2 : 17. 
Eph. 3 : 15. 
Gal. 6 : 16. 
Luke 20 : 36. 

1 Pet. 1 : 3. 

Eph. 4 : 4. 
Eph. 5 : 30. 
ICor. 12:13. 
1 Cor. 6 : 15. 
Col. 2 : 10. 

2 Tim. 2 : 3, 4. 
1 Tim. 1 : 18; 
2 Cor. 10 : 3. 
Eph. 6 : 12 ; 
Gen. 32: 24, 25. 
Song Sol. 6: 10. 
Song Sol. 6: 13. 
Heb. 11 : 33. 
1 Tim. 6 : 12 

Eph. 6:10-17; 
1 Thess. 5 : 8. 
Heb. 12 : 2. 
1 Cor. 9 : 26. 
Matt. 4 : 1-11. 

Rom. 8 : 37. 

1 Cor. 15 : 57 ; 

Ps. 144 : 1, 2. 

Rev. 12:1; 

Ezek. 16:12 
Rev. 4:4-10. 
Rev. 1:6:5-10, 
Col. 1:13. 
James 2 : 5. 
2 Thess. 1 : 5. 
1 Thess. 2 : 12, 
Mark 4 : 11. 
John 3 : 3, 5. 
Matt. 7:21. 

Gal. 6 : 16. 

Phil. 4: 7. 
Rom. 15:13, 33. 
Gal. 5 : 22. 
Rev. 1 : 4. 
Rom. 5 : 1. 

1 Cor. 7 : 15. 

1 Pet. 5 : 10. 
Rom. 8 : 17. 
Col. 3 : 4. 
Col. 1 : 27. 

2 Thess. 1 : 10. 
Ps. 84 : 11. 
Rom. 5 : 2. 

1 Pet. 5 : 1 ; 1 : 

Eph. 3 : 21. 

1 Cor. 6 : 2, 3. 
Rom. 14: 10. 
Jer. 17 : 12. 

Ps. 50 : 3-6. 

Names and Titles Applied to the Holy Ghost. 



Holy Ghost. 

Holy Spirit 

Holy Spirit of God 
The Spirit 

The Spirit of God.. 

The Spirit of the Lord 

The Spirit of the Lord God 

The Spirit of the Father 

The Spirit of Jesus Christ... 

The Spirit of Christ 

The Spirit of the Son 

The Eternal Spirit 

The Free Spirit 

The Good Spirit 

The Seven Spirits of God 

The Voice of the Almighty.. 
The Voice of the Lord 


Matt. 1 : 18, 20 ; 12 : 31 ; 28 : 19 ; Mark 
12: 36 ; 13 : 11 ; Luke 1:15, 35, 41, 67 
2 : 25, 26 ; 3 : 22 ; 4 : 1 ; John 7 : 39 
14 : 26 ; 20 : 22; Acts 1 : 2, 8 ; 2 : 4, 33 
4 : 8, 31 ; 5 : 3 ; in all, this name occurs 
in the New Testament nearly one hun- 
dred times. 

Ps. 51 : 11 ; Isa. 63 : 10, 11 ; Luke 11:13; 
Eph. 1 : 13 ; 1 These. 4 : 8. 

Eph. 4 : 30. 

Isa. 32 : 15 ; Ezek. 2:2; 3:12; Matt. 4 : 
1 ; Mark 1 : 10 (see Luke 3 : 22), 12 ; 
John 1 : 32, 33 ; Luke 2 : 27 (see 25, 
26); Luke4:14; John 3:34; 7:39; 
Acts 2:4; 8 : 29 ; 10 : 19, and so in 
nearly a hundred passages. 

Gen. 1 : 2 ; 41 : 38 ; Ex. 31 : 3 ; Job 27 : 
3 ; 33 : 4 ; Ezek. 11 : 24 ; Matt. 3:16; 
12 : 28; Eom. 8 : 9, 14, and so in a 
large number of passages in Old and 
New Testaments. 

Isa. 11 : 2 ; 59 : 19 ; 63 : 14; 2 Cor. 3 : 17 ; 
Acts 5 r 9. 

Isa. 61 : 1 (Christ's text, Luke 4 : 18). 

Matt. 10 : 20. 

Phil. 1 : 19. 

Rom. 8 : 9 ; 1 Pet. 1 : 11. 

Gal. 4 : 6. 

Heb. 9 : 14. 

Ps. 51 : 12. 

Neh. 9 : 20. 

Rev. 1 : 4. 

Ezek. 1 : 24. 

Isa. 6 : 8 ; Gen. 3:8; Deut. 4>i&X: 8 : 20. 


My Spirit (God speaking) 
Thy Spirit (addressing God) 
His Spirit (speaking of God) 

The Spirit of Adoption 

The Spirit of Burning 

The Spirit of Counsel 

The Spirit of Faith 

The Spirit of the Fear of the 


The Spirit of Glory 

The Spirit of Grace , 

The Spirit of Holiness 

The Spirit of Judgment , 

The Spirit of Knowledge 

The Spirit of Life 

The Spirit of Love 

The Spirit of Might , 

The Spirit of Promise 

The Spirit of Prophecy' 

The Spirit of Revelation 

The Spirit of Supplication , 

TnE Spirit of Truth 

The Spirit of Understanding 

The Spirit of Wisdom 

The Breath of the Almighty 

The Comforter , 

The Power of the Highest 

An Unction from the Holy One 



Gen. 6:3; Isa. 42 : 1 ; 44 : 3 ; Ezek. 39 : 

29 ; Joel 2 : 28 (quoted Acts 2 : 17) ; 
Matt. 12 : 18 ; Num. 11 : 29 ; Neh. 9 : 

30 ; Job 26 : 13 ; Ps. 104 : 30 ; 139 : 7 ; 
Isa. 48 : 16 ; Zech. 7 : 12 ; 1 Cor. 2 : 10; 
1 John 4 : 13. 

Rom. 8 : 15. 
Isa. 4 : 4. 
Isa. 11 : 2. 
2 Cor. 4 : 13. 

Isa. 11 : 2. 

1 Peter 4 : 14. 

Heb. 10 : 29 ; Zech. 12 : 10. 

Rom. 1 : 4. 

Isa. 4:4; 28 : 6. 

Isa. 11 : 2. 

Rom. 8:2; Rev. 11 : 11. 

1 Tim. 1 : 7. 

Isa. 11 : 2. 

Eph. 1 : 13. 

Rev. 19:10. 

Eph. 1 : 17. 

Zech. 12 : 10. 

John 14: 17; 15:26; 16:13; Uohn4:6. 

Isa. 11 : 2. 

Eph. 1 : 17 ; Ex. 28 : 3 ; Deut. 34 : 9 ; Isa. 

Job 33 : 4. 

John 14 : 16, 26 ; 16 : 7. 
Luke 1 : 35. 
1 John 2 : 20 ; compare John 14 : 26 ; 16 : 

13, 14. 
1 John 5 : 6. 

The Personality and Divinity of the Holy Ghost. 


He is called God.. 

He is called The Lord or Jehovah. 

Blasphemy against him the one 

Unpardonable Sin , 

Essential Perfections of God are 
Ascribed to him: 

Eternal existence 



Omnipotence , 

Works of Divine Power are 
Attributed to him: 

Begets the Son of God 

Anoints Jesus for his work 

Communicates supernatural 


Acts 5 : 3, 4 ; 1 Cor. 3 : 16 (with 1 Cor. 
6 : 19). 

Acts 28 : 25 (compare Isa. 6 : 8, 9) ; Heb. 
3 : 7-9 (compare Ex. 17 : 7) ; Heb. 10 : 
15, 16 (compare Jer. 31 : 31-34). 

Matt. 12 : 31, 32. 

Heb. 9 : 14. 

1 Cor. 2:10-12. 

1 Cor. 3 : 16 ; Ps. 139 : 7 ; 1 Cor. G : 19. 

1 Cor. 12 : 4-11. 

Luke 1 : 27-35 ; Matt. 1 : 18-25. 
Luke 4 : 18, 21. 

1 Cor. 12 : 1-11. 


Works of Divine Powrr, etc. : 

Convinces man of sin. 

Admits him to the Father 

Enlightens his mind 

Regenerates his soul < ... 

Sanctifies his nature .\. 

Endows him with Christian 


Seals him to eternal life 

Reveals future events 

Inspires the prophets 



He is Distinctly Named 
Person in the Godhead: 

In the baptismal formula 

In the apostolic benediction 

One of the witnesses in liea- 

John 16 : 8. 
Eph. 2 : 18. 
1 Cor 2 : 10. 
John 3 : 5, 6. 

1 Cor .6:11. 

Gal. 5 : 22, 23. 
Eph. 4 : 30 ; 1 
Luke 2 : 26. 

2 Peter 1 : 21 ; 
6 « i" 

Matt. 28 : 19. 
2 Cor. 13 : 14. 

1 John 5 : 7. 

: 13, 14. 

Acts 1 : 16 ; 28 : 25 ; Epl 




Instructs Man: 

By inspiration of the Bible 

By direct teaching 

Regenerates Man 

Makes Man the Child of God.... 
Gives the Power of Prayer 

and Prays with and for Man.. 
Gives and Increases Faith 


Enables Man to bring Forth 
good Fruit to God's Glory 

2 Pet. 1 : 21 ; 2 Tim. 3 : 16 ; Acts 1 : 16 ; 

28 : 25 ; 1 Cor. 2 : 12, 13 ; Eph. 6 : 17 ; 

Heb. 3 : 7 ; 1 Pet. 1 : 11, 12. 
John 14 : 26 ; 16 : 13, 14 ; 1 Cor. 2 : 9-14; 

Eph. 1 : 17 ; 1 John 2 : 20, 27 ; Luke 

1:67,70; 2:26, 27. 
John 3 : 5, 6 (with Matt. 28 : 19 ; John 

6 : 63) ; Rom. 8 : 4, 13 ; Titus 3:5; 

Job 33 : 4. 
Rom. 8:14-17; Gal. 4:6, 7. 

Rom. 8 : 26, 27 ; Eph. 6 : 18 ; 2 : 18. 
1 Cor. 12 : 3, 9 ; 1 John 4:2; Jude 20; 
Gal. 5 : 5 ; 2 Cor. 4 : 13; 1 Cor. 2 : 14. 

Gal. 5 : 22, 23 ; 1 Pet. 1 : 22 ; 2 Tim. 1 : 
7 ; Eph. 5 : 9. 


Sanctifies Man 

How we may Obtain the Holy 
Spirit : 

In answer to prayer 

By faith 

By repentance and obedience.... 

If we Keep our Lord's Command- 
ments, the Holy Ghost will 
Abide with us for Ever 

If we are Christians, we are 
his Temple 

We must Live as Becomes his 
Holy Presence 

And Must not Grieve him 


2 These. 2 : 13 ; 1 Pet. 1 : 2, 22 ; 1 Cor. 12 : 
13 ; 6 : 11 ; Rom. 8 : 2, 5, 9. 13 ; 15 : 16. 

Luke 11 : 13 ; James 1 : 5-7. 

Eph. 1 : 13 ; Gal. 3 : 2, 3, 14; John 7 : 

38 39 
Acts'2 : 38 ; Titus 3:5; 1 Pet. 3 : 21. 

John 14 : 15-17. 

1 Cor. 3 : 16 ; 6 : 19. 

1 Cor. 3 : 17 ; 6 : 19, 20. 
Eph. 4 : 30. 








6: 3-15. 


ANT. JUD., 1. x. 

c. 8; 1. xx. 

c. 10. 

















i 711 

6,' .5 

































Ph in eh as. 



Ahimaaz, under Ke- 

Azariah, under 

Jehoachash, under 

Jehoiarib, under Je- 

Jehoshaphat, under 

Jehoiadah, "t under 
Phadaiah, J Joash. 

Zedekiah, under 

Joel, under Uzziah. 

Jotham, under Joa- 

Uriah, under Ahaz. 

Neraiah, under 

Hosaiah, under Ma- 

Shallum, under 

Hilkiah, under 

Azariah, under Je- 
hoiakim and Zede- 

Jehozadak, after the 
taking of Jerusa- 

Jesus, son of Joza- 
dak, after Cap- 
























Simon II., b. c. 217 ; died 195. 

Onias III., b. c. 195; deposed 175, and died 

Jesus, or Jason, b. c. 175 ; deposed 172. 

Onias IV., otherwise called Menelaus, b. c. 
172 ; died 163. 

Lysimachus, vicegerent of Menelaus, killed 
b. c. 170. 

Alcimus, Jacimus or Joachim, b. c. 160. 

Onias V., did not exercise his office in Jeru- 
salem, but retired into Egypt, where he 
built the temple Onion, B. c. 157. 

Judas Maccabeus restored the altar and the 
sacrifices in 165 ; died in 153. 

Jonathan, the Asamonsean, brother of Judas 
Maccabseus, consecrated 153 ; died 143. 

Simon Maccabseus, b. c. 143; died 136. 

John Hyrcanus, b. c. 136 ; died 106. 

Aristobulus, king and pontiff, died 106. 

Alexander Jannseus, king and pontiff, 105. 

Hyrcanus, from 68 to 42. 

Aristobulus, brother of Hyrcanus, usurped 
the high priesthood, and held it three years 
and three months, from 69 to 66. 

Antigonus, his son, also usurped the office 
and held it from 42 to 37, when he was 
taken by Socius. 

Ananeel of Babylon, made High Priest by 
Herod, b. c. 37 ; held the office till 36. 

Aristobulus, the last of the Asamonseans, held 
the position less than one year, and Ananeel 
was made High Priest again in 35. 

Jesus, son of Phabis, deposed B. C. 20. 

Simon, son of Boethns, b. c. 20 ; deposed 5 B. c. 

Matthias, son of Theophilus, B. C. 5 ; meeting 
with an accident that prevented the dis- 
charge of his duties, Ellem was elevated for 
one day. 

Joazar, son of Simon, b. c. 4 ; relieved A. d. 1. 

Eleazar, brother of Joazar, A. D. 1. 

Jesus, son of Siali, a. d. 6 ; Joazar was re- 
stored A. D. 7 ; deposed 13. 

Ananus, son of Seth, A. d. 13 to 24. 

Ishmael, son of Phala, in 24. 

Eleazar, son of Ananus, made in 24. 

Simon, son of Camithus, made High Priest 
in 25. 

Joseph, surnamed Caiaphas, made in 26, and 
continued till 35. 

Jonathan, son of Ananus, made in 35, and 
continued till 37. 

Theophilus, son of Jonathan, made in 37, and 
continued till 41. 

Simon, surnamed Cantharus, and son of Simon 
Boethus, was made High Priest in 41. 

Matthias, son of Ananus, made High Priest 
in 42. 

Elioneus, made in 44, and continued till 45. 
Simon, son of Cantharus, was a second time 
made High Priest A. d. 45, and deposed the 
same year. 

Joseph, son of Caneus, was made High Priest 
in A. D. 45, till 57. 

Ananias, the son of Nebodeus, was made High 
Priest in the year of the vulgar era 47, and 
enjoyed the priesthood -till 63. 

Ismael was ordained High Priest A. D. 63. 

Joseph, surnamed Cabei, in 63. 

Ananus, the son of Ananus, in 63. 

Jesus, the son of Ananus, in 64. 

Jesus, the son of Gamaliel, in 64. 

Matthias, the son of Theophilus, was made 
High Priest in A. D. 70. 

Phannias, the son of Samuel, was made High 
Priest in 70, the year Jerusalem and the 
temple were destroyed, and a final period 
was put to the Jewish priesthood. 






Abiezer, or Abishua, | During the 
Bukki, [rule of the 
Uzzi, J Judges. 
Eli, of the race of Ishamar, con- 




Ahitub I 

Zadok I 

6 : 9, 10. 

Ahitub II 

Zadok II 





Murdered by Saul. 
Abiathar, Ahimelech or Abime- 

Zadok consecrated. 




Azariah, perhaps Amariah of 2 
Chron. 19: 11. 

Johanan, perhaps Jehoiada of 2 
Chron. 24 : 15. 

Died at the age of one hun- 
dred and thirty. 
Azariah, perhaps Zechariah, son 
of Jehoiada. 
Amariah, perhaps Azariah, under 
Ahitub II. \ under Jotham, king 
Zadok II. / of Judah. 


Azariah, under Hezekiah (2 Chron. 

31: 10). 
Hilkiah, unde,r. Hezekiah 



EliaVJim, or Joakim, under Manas- 
seh, continued to live under 
Josiah, B. c. 609, and longer. 

Azariah, perhaps Neriali 



Seraiah, at commencement of Cap- 
Put to death. 
Jozadak, during Captivity 


Jesus, or Joshua 

Joshua, or Jesus, son of Jozadak.. 


:e oaptiyit 





Joachim under the reign of Xerxes, Jos. Ant., 1 
Eliashib, Joasib or Chazib, consecrated High P 

miah, b. c. 420. 
Joiada, or Judas, Neh. 12 : 10, 33. C. 413. 
Jonathan, or John, 373. 
Jaddua, or Jaddus, who received Alexander the 

died in 321. 
Onias I., b. c. 321 ; died 301. 
Simon I., called the Just, 300 ; died 291. 
Eleazar, b. c. 291 ; under this pontiff the Septus 

made about B. c. 285 ; died 276. 
Manasseh, B. c. 276 ; died 250. 
Onias II., b. o. 250; died 217. 

ii. 5. 

riest during gov 

Great at Jerusal 
gint translation i 

ernorship of Nehe- 
em in b, c. 341, and 
is said to have been 




Son of GlOD, Jesus Christ our Lord, 


"They are they which testify of me." 




I. — And Simon Peter answered and 
said, Thou art the Christ, the SON 
of the Living GOD. Matt. 16 : 16. 

The Son. 

The Son of God. 

The Son of the living God. 

His only begotten Son. 

The only begotten Son of God. 

The Son of the Father. 

The only begotten of the Father. 

The only begotten Son, which is in the bosom 

of the Father. 

The first-born of every creature. 

His own Son. 

A Son given. 

One Son (his well-beloved). 

My Son. 

His dear Son (or the Son of his love). 

The Son of the Highest. 

The Son of the Blessed. 




Testimony borne to the SON by the 
Father, by Jesus himself, by the 
Spirit, by angels, saints, men and 


The Father, "My Beloved Son." 

Jesus himself, "I am the Son of God." 

The Spirit, "The Son of God." 

Gabriel, "The Son of God." 

John Baptist, " This is the Son of God." 
John, Apostle, " The Christ, the Son of God." 

Paul, Apostle, "He is the Son of God." 

Disciples, "Thou art the Son of God." 
Nathaniel, "Rabbi, thou art the Son of God." 

Martha, "The Christ, the Son of God." 

Eunuch, "Jesus Christ is the Son of God." 

Centurion, "Truly this was the Son of God." 

Unclean spirits, "Thou art the Son of God." 

The Legion, "Thou Son of the Most High God.' 

II. — Unto the SON he saith, Thy 
throne, O GOD, is for ever and 
ever. Heb. 1 : 8. 


Thy throne, God, is for ever and ever. 

The Mighty God. 

The Everlasting God. 

The True God. 

My Lord and my God. 

God my Saviour. 

Over all, God blessed for ever, amen. 

The God of the whole earth. 

God manifest in the flesh. 

Our God and Saviour. 

The great God and our Saviour, Jesus Christ. 

Emanuel, God with us. 
The God of Abraham, The God of Isaac, The 

God of Jacob. 
The Highest. 

III.— Verily, verily, I say unto you, 
Before Abraham was, I AM. John 
8: 58. Holy, holy, holy is Jeho- 
vah of Hosts. Isa. 6 : 3. 


The Lord Jehovah. 

Jehovah my God. 

Jehovah of Hosts. 

Jehovah, God of Hosts. 

The King, Jehovah of Hosts. 

The Strong and Mighty Jehovah. 

Jehovah, mighty in battle. 

The Man, Jehovah's Fellow. 

Jehovah-tsidkenu (the Lord our righteousness) 

The Lord. 

The Lord of Glory. 
The Same. 

I am. 

I am (before Abraham was). 

I am (whom they sought to kill). 

I am (the Son of Man lifted up). 

I am (the Resurrection and the Life). 

1 John 4: 14. 
John 1 : 34. 
Matt. 16: 16. 
John 3: 16. 
John 3 : 18. 

2 John 3. 
John 1 : 14. 

John 1 : 18. 
Col. 1 : 15. 
Rom. 8 : 32. 
Isa. 9 : 6. 
Mark 12: 6. 
Ps. 2 : 7. 
Col. 1 : 13. 
Luke 1 : 32. 
Mark 14: 61. 
Judg. 13 : 18. 
Isa. 9 : 6. 

Matt. 17 : 5. 
John 10: 36. 
Mark 1 : 1. 
Luke 1 : 35 ; 

Luke 2: 11. 
John 1 : 34. 
John 20 : 31. 
Acts 9: 20. 
Matt. 14: 33. 
John 1 : 49. 
John 11 : 27. 
Acts 8 : 37. 
Mark 15: 39. 
Mark 3: 11. 
Mark 5 : 7. 

John 1:1; 

Matt. 1:23; 

Isa. 40 : 3. 
Heb. 1 : 8. 
Isa. 9 : 6. 
Isa. 40 : 28. 
1 John 5: 20. 
John 20 : 28. 
Luke 1 : 47. 
Rom. 9 : 5. 
Isa. 54: 5. 

1 Tim. 3: 16. 

2 Pet. 1 : 1. 
Tit. 2: 13. 
Matt. 1 : 23. 

Ex. 3: 2,6. 
Luke 1 : 76. 

Isa. 40 : 3. 
Isa. 40 : 10. 
Zech. 14: 5. 
Isa. 6:3; John 

12: 41. 
Hos. 12: 4,5; 

Gen. 32: 24. 
Isa. 6 : 5. 
Ps. 24 : 8. 
Ps. 24 : 8. 
Zech. 13 : 7. 
Jer. 23: 6. 
Rom. 10: 13; 

Joel 2 : 32. 
1 Cor. 2 : 8. 

102: 27. 
Ex.3: 14; 

John 8 : 24. 
John 8 : 58. 
John 18: 5,6. 
John 8: 28. 
John 11 : 25. 


IV. — He is before ALL things, and 
by HIM ALL things consist. Col. 
1: 17. 

VI.— Thou hast made HIM a little 
lower than the angels. Heb. 2 : 7. 

The Almighty, which is, and which was, and 

which is to come. 

The Creator of all things. 

The Upholder of all things. 

The Everlasting Father (or Father of Eternity). 

The Beginning. 

The Beginning and the Ending. 

The Alpha and the Omega. 

The First and the Last. 

The Life. 

Eternal Life. 

That Eternal Life which was with the Father. 

He that liveth. 


time; he hath DECLARED HIM 
John 1 : 18. 


Rev. 1 : 8. 
Col. 1 : 16. 
Heb. 1 : 3. 
Isa. 9 : 6. 
Col. 1 : 18. 
Rev. 1 : 8. 
Rev. 1 : 8. 
Rev. 1 : 17. 
1 John 1 : 2. 
1 John 5 : 20. 
1 John 1 : 2. 
Rev. 1 : 18. 


The Word. 

The Word was with God. 

The Word was God. 

The Word of God. 

The Word of Life. 

The Word was made flesh. 

The Image of God. 

The Image of the Invisible God. 

The Express Image of his Person. 

The Brightness of his Glory. 


The Wisdom of God. 

The Power of God. 

My Messenger. 

The Messenger of the Covenant. 

The Angel of Jehovah. 

The Angel of God. 

The Angel of his presence. 

The Man. 

The Man Christ Jesus. 

A Man approved of God. 

The Second Man, the Lord from heaven. 

The Son of Man. 

The Son of Abraham. 

The Son of David. 

The Son of Mary. 

The Son of Joseph (reputed). 

The Seed of the Woman. 

The Seed of Abraham. 

Of the Seed of David. 


OGod. Heb. 10: 9. 

The Babe. 

The Child. 

The Young Child. 

A Child Born. 

The Child Jesus. 

Her First-Born Son. 

The Sent of the Father. 

The Apostle. 

A Prophet. 

A Great Prophet. 

The Prophet of Nazareth. 

A Prophet mighty in deed and word. 

A Servant. 

The Servant of the Father. 

My Servant, Israel. 

My Servant, the Branch. 

My Righteous Servant. 

A Servant of Rulers. 

A Nazarene, or Nazarlte. 

The Carpenter. 

The Carpenter's Son (reputed). 

He humbled himself . . . unto death. 

A Stranger and an Alien. 

A Man of Sorrows. 

A Worm, and no Man. 

Accursed of God (or the Curse of God). 

John 1 : 1. 
John 1 : 1. 
John 1 : 1. 
Rev. 19 : 13. 

1 John 1 : 1. 
John 1 : 14. 

2 Cor. 4: 4. 
Col. 1 : 15. 
Heb. 1 : 3. 
Heb. 1:3.' 
1 Cor. 1 : 24. 

1 Cor. 1 : 24. 
Isa. 42 : 19. 
Mai. 3: 1. 
Gen. 22: 15. 
Gen. 31: 11, 
13; Ex. 14: 19. 
Isa. 63 : 9. 

John 19 : 5. 
1 Tim. 2 : 5. 
Acts 2 : 22. 
1 Cor. 15: 47. 
Mark 10: 33. 
Matt. 1 : 1. 
Matt. 1:1. 
Mark 6 : 3. 
John 1 : 45. 
Gen. 3: 15. 
Gal. 3 : 16, 19. 
Rom. 1 : 3. 

Luke 2 : 12. 
Isa. 7 : 16. 
Matt. 2: 20. 
Isa. 9 : 6. 
Luke 2 : 43. 
Luke 2 : 7. 
John 10: 36. 
Heb. 3 : 1. 
Acts 3 : 22, 23. 
Luke 7: 16. 
Matt. 21 : 11. 
Luke 24 : 19. 
Phil. 2 : 7. 
Matt. 12 : 18. 
Isa. 49 : 3. 
Zech. 3 : 8. 
Isa. 53 : 11. 
Isa. 49 : 7. 
Matt. 2 : 23. 
Mark 6 : 3. 
Matt. 13 : 55. 

Ps. 69 : 8. 
Isa. 53 : 3. 
Ps. 22 : 6. 
Deut. 21 : 23. 

VIII.— God hath given him A NAME 


2 : 9, 10. 


Jesus himself. 

I, Jesus. 

A Saviour, Jesus. 

The Saviour of the World. 

A Saviour, which is Christ the Lord. 

Jesus Christ. 

The Lord Jesus Christ. 

Our Lord Jesus Christ himself. 

Jesus the Christ. 

Jesus Christ our Lord. 

Jesus Christ the Righteous. 

Jesus Christ, the same yesterday, to-day and 

for ever. 

Jesus of Nazareth. 

Jesus Christ of Nazareth. 

Lord Jesus. 

Christ Jesus. 


Messiah, which is called Christ. 


Christ the Lord. 

The Lord Christ. 

The Christ of God. 

The Lord's Christ. 

The Christ, the Son of the Blessed. 

The Christ, the Saviour of the World. 



Matt. 1 : 21. 
Luke 24: 15. 
Rev. 22: 16. 
Acts 13 : 23. 

1 John 4: 14 
Luke 2: 11. 
Rev. 1 : 5. 
Col. 1 ; 2. 

2 Thess. 2 : 16. 
Matt. 16 : 20. 
Rom. 5 : 21. 

1 John 2 : 1. 

Heb. 13 : 8. 
Acts 22 : 8. 
Acts 4: 10. 
Acts 7 : 59. 
1 Tim. 1 : 15. 
Matt. 23 : 8. 
John 4: 25. 
Ps. 2 : 2 j Acts! 

4: 27. 
Luke 2: 11. 
Col. 3 : 24. 
Luke 9 : 20. 
Luke 2: 26. 
Mark 14 : 61 
John 4 : 42. 

IX. — Worthy is the LAMB that was 

AND BLESSING. Rev. 5 : 12. 

The Lamb of God. 

A Lamb without blemish and without spot. 

The Lamb that was slain. 

~ A Lamb as it had been slain. 

Vie Lamb in the midst of the throne. 

The Bridegroom. 

The >mb (the Temple of the City). 

The Lamb (the Light of the City;. 

The Lamb (the Overcomer). 

X.— I will set up ONE SHEPHERD 


them. Ezek. 34 : 23. 

One Shepheri>,j^ 
Jehovah's Shepherd.-_ 
The Shepherd of the ShetV '- 
The Way. 
The Door of the Sheep. 
The Shepherd of Israel. 
The Shepherd and Bishop of Souls. 

John 1 : 29. 
1 Pet. 1 : 19. 
Rev. 5 : 12. 
Rev. 5 : 6. 
Rev. 7 : 17. 
Matt. 9:15; 
Rev. 21 : 9. 
Rev. 21 : 22. 
Rev. 21 : 23. 
Rev. 17: 14. 


The Good Shepherd (that laid down his life). 
The Great Shepherd (that was brought again 

from the dead). 
The Chief Shepherd (that shall again appear). 

' jnk. 
1 Pet. i : zd. 
John 10: 11. 

XL— The TREE OF LIFE in the midst 
of the Paradise of God. Rev. 2 : 7. 

The Root of Jesse. 

The Root of David. 

The Root and Offspring of David. 

A Rod out of the stem of Jesse. 

A Branch out of his roots. 

The Branch. 

The Branch of the Lord. 

The Branch of Righteousness. 

A Righteous Branch. 

The Branch strong for thyself. 

The Vine. 

The True Vine. 

The Tree of Life. 

The Corn of Wheat. 

The Bread of God. 

The True Bread from Heaven. 

The Bread which came down from Heaven. 

The Bread which cometh down from Heaven. 

The Bread of Life. 

The Living Bread. 

The Hidden Manna. 

A Plant of Renown. 

The Rose of Sharon. 

The Lily of the Valley. 

A Bundle of Myrrh. 

A Cluster of Camphire. 

Heb. 13: 20. 
1 Pet. 5 : 4. 

Isa. 11 : 10. 
Rev. 5 : 5. 
Rev. 22 : 16. 
Isa. 11: 1. 
Isa. 11 : 1. 
Zech. 6 : 12. 
Isa. 4 : 2. 
Jer. 33 : 15. 
Jer. 23: 5. 
Ps. 80 : 15. 
John 15: 5. 
John 15: 1. 
Rev. 2 : 7. 
John 12 : 24. 
John 6 : 33. 
John 6 : 32. 
John 6: 41. 
John 6 : 50. 
John 6 : 35. ' 
John 6 : 51. 
Rev. 2 : 17. i 
Ezek. 34 : 29. ' 
Song Sol. 2: 1. 
Song Sol. 2: 1. 
Song Sol. 1:13. 




the Light of Life. John 8 : 12. 

The Light. 

The True Light. 

A Great Light. 

A Light came into the world. 

The Light of the world. 

The Light of men. 

A Light to lighten the Gentiles. 

A Light of the Gentiles. 

A Star. 

The Morning Star. 

The Bright and Morning Star. 

The Day Star. 

The Day-spring from on High. 

The Sun of Righteousness. 

XIII.— The name of the Lord is a 
Strong tower. Prov. 18 : 10. 

The Strength of the children of Israel. 

A Strength to the. Poor. 

A Strength to the needy in distress. 

A Refuge from the Storm. 

A Covert from the Tempest. 

The Hope of his people. 

A Horn of Salvation. 

XIV.— They drank of that spiritual 
Rock that followed them, and 
that ROCK was Christ. 1 Cor. 10 : 4. 

The Rock. 

My Strong Rock. 

The Rock of Ages. 

The Rock that is higher than I. 

My Rock and my Fortress. 

The Rock of my Strength. 

The Rock of my Refuge. 

A Rock of Habitation. 

The Rock of my Heart. 

The Rock of my Salvation. 

My Rock and my Redeemer. 

That Spiritual Rock. 

The Rock that followed them. 

A Shadow from the Heat. 

XV.— Other FOUNDATION can no 


is Jesus Christ. 1 Cor. 3 : 11. 

The Builder. 

The Foundation. 

A Sure Foundation. 

A Stone. 

A Living Stone. 

A Tried Stone. 

A Chief Corner-stone, 

An Elect Stone. 

A Precious Stone. 

The Head Stone of the Corner. 

A Stone cut out without hands. 

But unto /hem which are disobedient, 

A Sto^e of Stumbling. 

A Rock of Offence. 


John 12 : 35. 
John 1 : 9. 
Isa. 9 : 2. 
John 12: 46. 
John 8: 12. 
John 1: 4. 
Luke 2 : 32. 
Isa. 42 : 6. 
Num. 24: 17. 
Rev. 2 : 28. 
Rev. 22: 16. 
2 Pet. 1 : 19. 
Luke 1 78. 
Mai. 4 : 2. 

Joel 3 : 


Isa, 25 


Isa. 25 : 


Isa. 25 


Isa. 32 : 


Joel S : 


Luke 1 

: 69. 

Matt. 16: 18. 
Ps. 31 : 2. 
Isa. 26 : 4. 
Ps. 61 : 2. 

Ps. 31 : 
Ps. 62 : 
Ps. 94 : 
Ps. 71 : 
Ps. 73 : 



XVI.— In his TEMPLE every WHIT 
of it uttereth his glory. Ps. 29: 9. 



The Temple. 
A Sanctuary. 

>f the Sanctuary and of the 
ue Taherp. .cle. 
of Vr J/ircuracision. 
L v e i (his flesh). 
fi.'.5 24 The Altar. 

The Offerer. 
The Offering. 
The Sacrifice. 
A Ransom (his life). 
The Lamb. 
The Lamb Slain. 
Within the Veil — 
The Forerunner (for us entered, even Jesua). 
The Mercy-seat (or Propitiation). 
The Priest. 
The High Priest. 
The Great High Priest. 
The Mediator. 
The Daysman. 
The Interpreter. 
The Intercessor. 
The Advocate. 
The Surety. 

2 Sam. 22 : 47. 
Ps. 19 : 14. 
1 Cor. 10 : 4. 
1 Cor. 10 : 4. 
Isa. 25 : 4. 

Heb. 3: 3; 
Matt. 16 : 18. 
ICor. 3: 11. 
Isa. 28 : 16. 
Isa. 28 : 16. 
1 Pet. 2: 4. 
Isa. 28 : 16. 
1 Pet. 2 : 6. 
1 Pet. 2 : 6. 
1 Pet.J?.. 6. 
Ps. lrj: 22. 
Dan. 2: 34,45, 

x Pet. 2 : 8. 
1 Pet. 2 : 8. 

Rev. 21 : 22. 
Isa. 8 : 14. 

Heb. 8 : 2. 
Rom. 15 : 8. 
Heb. 10 : 20. 
Heb. 13: 10. 
Heb. 7 : 27. 
Eph. 5 : 2. 
Eph. 5 : 2. 
Mark 10: 49. 
Rev. 7 : 9. 
Rev. 13 : 8. 

Heb. 6 : 20. 
Rom. 3 : 25. 
Heb. 5 : 6. 
Heb. 3 : 1. 
Heb. 4: 11. 
1 Tim. 2 : 5. 
Job 9 : 33. 
Job 33 : 23. 
Heb. 7 : 25. 
1 John 2: 1. 
Heb. 7 : 22. 

PROSPERETH. Prov. 17 : 8. 

The Gift of God. 

His Unspeakable Gift. 

My Beloved, In whom my soul is well pleased. 

Mine Elect, In whom my soul delighteth. 

The Holy Child Jesus. 

The Chosen of God. 

The Salvation of God. 

The Salvation of the daughter of Zion. 

The Redeemer. 

The Shiloh (Peace-Maker). 

The Consolation of Israel. 

The Blessed. 
The Most Blessed for ever. 


2 Cor. 9: 15. 
Matt. 12 : 18. 
Isa. 42 : 1. 
Acts 4 : 27. 
Luke 23: 35. 
Luke 2 : 30. 
Isa. 62 : 11. 
Isa. 59 : 20. 
Gen. 49 : 10. 
Luke 2 : 25. 
Ps. 77: 17. 
Ps. 21 : 6. 


XVIII.— Who was FAITHFUL to Him 


The Truth. 

The Faithful and True. 

A Covenant of the People. 

The Testator or Covenanter. 

The Faithful Witness. 

The Faithful and True Witness. 

A Witness to the People. 

The Amen. 


XIX.— He that is HOLY, he that is 
TRUE. Rev. 3 : 7. 

The Just. 

The Just One. 

Thine Holy One. 

The Holy One and the Just. 

The Holy One of Israel. 

The Holy One of God. 

Holy, Holy, Holy. 

XX. — That in ALL things he might 
have the PRE-EMINENCE. Col. 1 : 18. 

The Beginning of the Creation of God. 

My First-Born. 

The First-Born from the dead. 

The First-Begotten of the dead. 

The First-Born among many Brethren. 

The First-Fruits of them that slept. 

The Last Adam. 

The Resurrection. 

A Quickening Spirit, 

The Head (even Christ). 

The Head of the Body, the Church. 

The Head over all things to the Church. 

The Head of every Man. 
The Head of all Principality and Power. 

XXL— Gird thy SWORD upon thy 
thigh, O Most Mighty, with thy 
glory and thy majesty. Ps. 45 : 3. 

The Captain of the Host of the Lord. 

The Captain of Salvation. 

The Author and Finisher of Faith. 

A Leader. 

A Commander. 

A Ruler. 

A Governor. 

The Deliverer. 

The Lion of the Tribe of Judab. 

An Ensign of the People. 

The Chiefest among Ten Thousand (in an array). 

A Polished Shaft. 

The Shield. 

XXII.— ALL POWER is given unto 


28: 18. 

The Lord. 

One Lord. 

God hath made that same Jesus both Lord 

and Christ. 

Lord of Lords. 

King of Kings. 

Lord both of the dead and living. 

Lord of the Sabbath. 

Lord of Peace. 

Lord of all. 
Lord over all. 

TO be a PRINCE and a SAVIOUR. 
Acts 5 : 31. 

The Messiah the Prince. 

The Prince of Life. 

A Prince and a Saviour. 

The Prince of Peace. 

The Prince of Princes. 

The Prince of the Kings of the earth. 

A Prince (among Israel). 

The Glory of thy people Israel. 

He that filleth all in all. 

John 14 : 6. 
Rev. 19 : 11. 
Isa. 42 : 6. 
Heb. 9: 16,17. 
Rev. 1 : 5. 
Rev. 3 : 14. 
Isa. 55 : 4. 
Rev. 3: 14. 

IPet. 3: 18. 
Acts 7 : 52. 
Acts 2 : 27. 
Acts 3 : 14. 
Isa. 49 : 7. 
Mark 1 : 24. 
Isa. 6: 3; John 
12 : 41. 

Rev. 3 : 14. 
Ps. 89: 27. 
Col. 1 : 18. 
Rev. 1 : 5. 
Rom. 8 : 29. 
1 Cor. 15 : 20. 
1 Cor. 15 : 45. 
John 11 : 25. 
1 Cor. 15 : 45. 
Eph. 4: 15. 
Col. 1:18. 
Eph. 1 : 22. 
1 Cor. 11 : 3. 
Col. 2 : 10. 

Josh. 5: 14. 
Heb. 2 : 10. 
Heb. 12 : 2. 
Isa. 55 : 4. 
Isa. 55 : 4. 
Mic. 5: 2. 
Matt, 2 : 6. 
Rom. 11 : 26. 
Rev. 5 : 5. 
Isa. 11 : 10. 
Song Sol. 5. 10. 
Isa. 49 : 2. 
Ps. 84 : 9. 

ICor. 12: 3. 
Eph. 4: 5. 

Acts. 2 : 36. 
Rev. 17 : 14. 
Rev. 17 : 14. 
Rom. 14 : 9. 
Luke 6 : 5. 
2 Thess. 3 : 16. 
Acts 10 : 36. 
Rom. 10 : 12. 

Dan. 9 : 25. 
Acts 3 : 15. 
Acts 5: 31. 
Isa. 9 : 6. 
Dan. 8: 25. 
Rev. 1 : 5. 
Ezek. 34 : 24. 
Luke 2 : 32. 
Eph. 1 : 23. 

XXIV.— He shall REIGN for ever 
and ever. Rev. 11 : 15. 

The Judge. 
The Righteous Judge. 

The King. 

The King of Kings. 

Lord of Lords. 

A Sceptre (out of Israel). 

The Kiss's Son. 

David their King. 

The King of Israel. 

King of the daughter of Zion. 

The King of the Jews (born). 

The King of the Jews (crucified). 

The King of Saints or King of Nations. 

King over all the Earth. 

The King of Righteousness. 

The King of Peace. 

The King of Glory. 

The King in his beauty. 

He sitteth King for ever. 

Crowned with a Crown of Thorns. 

Crowned with Glory and Honor. 

Crowned with a Crown of Pure Gold. 

Crowned with many Crowns. 

Acts 17 : 31. 
2 Tim. 4: 8. 
Zech. 14: 16. 
Rev. 19 : 16. 
Rev. 19: 16. 
Num.24: 17. 
Ps. 72: 1. 
Jer. 30 : 9. 
John 1 : 49. 
John 12 : 15. 
Matt. 2:2; 

15: 2. 
John 19 : 19. 
Rev. 15 : 8. 
Zech. 14 : 4,5,9 
Heb. 7 : 2. 
Heb. 7 : 2. 
Ps. 24 : 10. 
Isa. 33 : 17. 
Ps. 29 : 10. 
John 19 : 2. 
Heb. 2 : 9. 
Ps. 21 : 3. 
Rev. 19: 12. 


As a Refiner's Fire. As Fuller's Soap. 

As the Light of the Morning when the sun 

riseth, a morning without clouds. 

As the Tender Grass by clear shining after rain. 

As a Tender Plant (to God). 

As a Root out of a dry ground (to man). 

As Rain upon the mown grass. 

As Showers that water the earth. 

As Rivers of Water in a dry place. 

As the Shadow of a great Rock in a weary 


As an Hiding-place from the wind. 

As Ointment poured forth. 

Fairer than the Children of Men. 

A glorious high Throne from the beginning is 

the place of our sanctuary. 

For a Glorious Throne to his father's house. 

A Crown of Glory and Beauty. 

A Stone of Grace. 

Nail fastened in a sure place. 

A Brother born for adversity. 

A Friend that sticketh closer than a brother. 

A Friend that loveth at all times. 

His Countenance is as the sun. 

His Countenance is as Lebanon. 

Yea, He is altogether lovely. 

This is my beloved and my Friend. 


He was Obedient, 
He was Meek, Lowly. 
He was Guileless. 
He was Tempted. 
He was Oppressed. 
He was Despised. 
He was Rejected. 
He was Betrayed. 
He was Condemned. 

He was Reviled. 
He was Scourged. 

He was Mocked. 
He was Wounded. 

He was Bruised. 
He was Stricken. 
He was Smitten. 
He was Crucified. 
He was Forsaken. 

He is Merciful. 

He is Faithful. 
He is Holy, Harmless. 

He is Undented. 

He is Separate. 
He is Perfect. 

He is Glorious. 

He is Mighty. 

He is Justified. 

He is Exalted. 
He is Risen. 

He is Glorified. 


My Maker, Husband. 

"My Well-beloved. 

My Saviour. 

My Hope. 

My Brother. 

My Portion. 

My Helper. 

My Physician. 

My Healer. 

My Refiner. 

My Purifier. 

My Lord, Master. 

My Servant. 

My Example. 

My Teacher. 

My Shepherd. 

My Keeper. 

My Feeder. 

My Leader. 

My Restorer. 

My Resting-place. 

My Meat (his flesh). 

My Drink (his blood). 

My Passover. 

My Peace. 

My Wisdom. 

My Righteousness. 

My Sanctification. 

My Redemption. 

My All in All. 

Unto us a Child is born, unto us a SON Is 
given; and bis name shall be called Wonder- 
ful, Counsellor, the Mighty God, the Everlast- 
ing Father, the Prince of Peace. Isa. 9 : 6. 

Then he said unto them, O fools, and slow of 
heart to believe ALL that the Prophets have 
spoken ! 

And beginning at Moses, and ALL the Proph- 
ets, he expounded unto them in ALL the Scrip- 
tures the things concerning HIMSELF. Luke 
24 : 25, 27. 

That all should honor the SON, even as they'; 
honor the Father. He that honoreth not the 
SON, honoreth not the Father which has sent 
him. John 5 : 23. 


Mai. 3 : 2. 

2 Sam. 23 : 4. 
Isa. 53 : 2. 
Ps. 72 : 6. 

Isa. 32 : 2. 
Song Sol. 1 : 3, 
Ps. 45 : 2. 

Jer. 17 : 12. 
Isa. 22 : 23. 
Isa. 28 : 5. 
Prov. 17: 8. 
Isa. 22 : 23. 
Prov. 17 : 17. 
Prov. 18 : 24. 
Prov. 17 : 17. 
Rev. 1 : 16. 

Song. Sol.5: 16. 

Phil. 2: 8. 
Matt. 11: 29. 
1 Pet, 2 : 22. 
Heb. 4: 15. 
Isa. 53 : 7. 
Isa. 53 : 3. 
Isa. 53: 3. 
Matt. 27 : 3. 
Mark 14 : 64. 
1 Pet. 2 : 23. 
John 19: 1. 
Matt, 27 : 29. 
Isa. 53 : 5. 
Isa. 53 : 5. 
Isa. 53 : 4. 
Isa. 53 : 4. 
Matt. 27 : 35. 

Ps. 22 
Heb. 2 
Heb. 2 
Heb. 7 
Heb. 7 
Heb. 7 
Heb. 5 
Isa. 49 
Isa. 63 
1 Tim. 
Acts 2 
Luke 24: 6. 
Acts 3: 13. 


; 17. 
: 17. 
: 26. 
: 26. 
: 26. 
: 9. 
; 5. 
: 1. 
3: 16. 

Isa. 54 : 5. 
Song Sol. l:ia 
2 Pet, 3: 18. 
1 Tim. 1 : 1. 
Mark 3 : 35. 
Jer. 10: 16. 
Heb. 13 : 6. 
Jer. 8 : 22. 
Luke 9: 11. 
Mai. 3 : 3. 
Mai. 3: 3. 
John 13 : 13. 
Luke 12 : 37. 
John 13 : 15. 
John 3 : 2. 
Ps. 23 : 1. 
John 17: 12. 
Ezek. 34: 23. 
Isa. 40 : 11. 
Ps. 23 : 3. 
Jer. 50 : 6. 
John 6 : 55. 
John 6 : 55. 
1 Cor. 5 : 7. 
Eph. 2 : 14. 
1 Cor. 1 : 30. 
1 Cor. 1 : 30. 
1 Cor. 1 : 30. 
1 Cor. 1 : 30. 
Col. 3 : 11. 

Symbolical Language used by the Poets and Prophets of the Old and New Testaments. 







Jer. 3:8, 9: 5:7. 



Esth. 8 : 16. 


Joy — prosperity. 

Rev. 1:20; 2:1, eta. 


Messenger, hence minister. 

Isa. 8 : 20. 

Knowledge — bitterness. 

Ps. 10 : 15. 



Eph. 5 : 8, etc. 

Ezra 30 : 21, etc. 

Moon [see Sun]. 

Job 6 : 4. 



Zech. 4 : 7. 


A state — Christ's Church. 

Rev. 17 : 18. 



Isa. 2 : 2. 

Dan. 7 : 17. 


A tyrannical heathen monarch. 

Rom. 16 : 25, etc. 


Not a thing unintelligible, but never be- 

Job 30 : 30. 


Affliction— anguish. 

fore made plain. 

Joel 2 : 5. 

Rev. 3 : 17. 


In the sinful state of nature. 

Isa. 29 : 18. 



Isa. 21 : 12. 


Adversity — affliction— ignorance. 

Rom. 11 : 25. 

Rev. 21 : 25. 

Isa. 34 : 3. 


Slaughter — depth. 

Isa. 2 : 13. 


Men of rank and power. 

| Ezek. 32 : 6. 

Ps. 23 : 5. 


Abundance— fertility— joy. 

1 Job 18 : 15. 


Desolation — torments. 

— 92 : 11, etc. 

j Rev. 14 : 10. 

Rev. 7 : 5. 



J Rev. 21 : 9. 


The Church of God. 

Luke 23: 43. 



( John 3 : 29. 


Christ wedded to his Church. 

Rev. 2 : 7. 

1 Ps. 22 : 12, etc. 


Violent enemies. 

Ps. 18 : 2. 


A secure refuge. 

Rev. 2 : 10. 



— 2:9, etc. 


Authority — correction. 

Ps. 68 : 18, etc. 


Heavenly hosts. 

Job 9 : 34, etc. 

James 1 : 12. 


Victory — reward. 

Col. 4 : 6, etc. 


Purity — barrenness. 

Rev. 2 : 10. 
Ps. 23 . 5. 

Deut. 29 : 23. 


Divine blessings. 

Isa. 51 : 42. 

S«a in commotion. 

An army. 

Isa. 51 : 17. 

Divine judgments. 

Sol. Song 4 : 12. 


Security — secrecy. 

Jer. 23 : 1. 


Misery — adversity — ignorance. 

Isa. 29:11. 

Amos 4 : 13. 

Gen. 3 : 1, etc. 


The devil. 

Rom. 13 : 12. 

2 Cor. 11 : 3. 

Isa. 34 : 8, etc. 


An indefinite time — a prophetic year — 

Rev. 12 : 9. 

Rev. 2:10, etc. 

gospel period. 

John 10:11, 16, etc. 


Christ's disciplea. 

1 Thess. 5 : 5, etc. 

Nahum 3:18. 

Rulers, civil or ecclesiastical 

Matt. 15 : 26. 


Gentiles — impure persons — persecutors. 

Ezek. 34 : 2, etc. 

Rev. 21:8. 

Ps. 84 : 9. 


Defence — protection. 

Ps. 22 : 16. 

Eph. 6:16. 

1 Cor. 16 : 9. 


An opening. 

1 Thess. 4 : 14. 



Rev. 12:9. 



Isa. 1 : 6, etc. 


Spiritual maladies. 

Isa. 29 : 9. 


Effects of divine judgments. 

Num.24: 17, etc. 


A prince or ruler. 

Rev. 6 : 12, etc. 



Joel 2 : 31, etc. 

Sun, moon, and stars. 

The various governors in a state 

Prov. 15 : 3, etc. 



Isa. 34 : 5. 


War and slaughter. 

Ps. 36 : 16, etc. 


The divine favor. 

Ezek. 21 : 3, etc. 

Jer. 5 : 28. 



Deut. 28:13. 


Subjection — degradation. 

Isa. 42 : 25, etc. 



Prov. 30 : 14. 



Rev. 7 : 3, etc. 


A public profession. 

Gen. 12 : 4, etc. 


Kingdom or government. 

Jer. 11 : 4. 



Jer. 4:31. 


Anguish — anxiety. 

Rev. 3 : 4, etc. 


Outward appearance. 

Gal. 4 : 19. 

Ps. 147 : 13. 


Power — security. 

Zech. 2:1,2. 


The great and noble. 
The Church of God. 

Job 12 : 18. 



Ps. 80 8, etc. 


Matt. 25 : 33. 


Wicked persons. 

Isa. 5 : 1, etc. 


11 11 It 

Ezek. 38 : 2. 

Gog and Mageg. 

God's enemies. 

Ezek. 3 : 17. 


The prophets. 

~ 39 : 11. 

Ps. 69 : 1. 


Afflictions — multitudes— ordinances. 

Rev. 20 : 8. 

Isa. 8 : 7, etc. 

Rev . S : 7. 


The lower orders, opposed to trees, the 

— 55 : 1. 

higher orders. 

Dan. 9 : 24. 


Seven years. 

Rev. 11 : 19. 


Divine vengeance. 

Rev. 12 : 6. 


Afflicted state. 

Ps. 18 : 35. 

Hand, right. 

Protection — support. 

Isa. 28 : 8. 


Judgments— destructive war. 

— 73 : 23. 

Jer. 51 : 1. 

Ezek. 8 : 1. 

Hand of the Lord. 

Divine influence. 

Isa. 25 : 6. 


Spiritual blessings — divine judgment*. 

Joel 3:13, etc. 


A time of destruction. 

— 55 : 1, etc. 

Eph. 1 : 23, etc 


Rule or ruler. 

Ps. SO : 3, etc. 

Isa. 13:33. 


Political or ecclesiastical governments. 

Isa. 63 : 3. 



Hag. 2 : 2, 21. 

Rev. 14 : 19. 

Zech. 10:23. 


War and conquest. 

Ps. 17 : 8, etc. 



Matt. 5 : 6. 

Hunger and thirst. 

Spiritual desires. 

Isa. 11 : 6. 


Furious, ungodly persona. 

Rev. 5 : 8. 



— 65 : 25. 

Ps. 120 : 6. 


Church of God. 

Ezek. 26 : 2, 3. 


City, or body politic. 

Heb. 12 : 22; <Jtc. 

The heavenly state. 

Rev. 12 : 1. 

The Church of Christ, 

Rev. 1 : 8. 


Power and authority. 

Deut, 28 : 48. 


Labor — restraint. "'',' 

1 KiDgs 15 : 4. 


A successor or offspring. 

Matt. 10 : 29, 30. 


Ps. 132 : 17. 

Lam. 3 : 27. 

i>d in ii 

Words of Scripture Requiring Explanation in the Old and 

, he dep. 
NEW TEST^MTOexandei-' 











COMMv- \ 










Gen. 41:2. 



Josh. 13 : 25. 

Children of Am- 


1 Kings 6 : 18. 



Luke 12 : 58. 



Ex. 3 : 5. 




— 7 : 16. 



— 17:9. 



— 22. 



— 20 : 3. 



— 9. 

Rulers of cha- 


Acts 1 : 2. 



— 4:24. 





— 7 : 45. 



— 5:24. 



— 22. 

Strieken in age. 

Advanced in 

— 10 : 26. 



— 9:5 



— 5:8. 




— 11:22. 



— 9 : 26. 



— 13:18. 


In ranks. 

Judg. 3 : 24. 

Covereth his 



— 10 : 42. 



— 28:40. 




— 11 : 28. 



Rom. 1 : 13. 



— 34:15. 



— 7 : 10. 


Camp army. 

— 14 : 3. 



— 7:8. 


Evil desires. 





— 20:12,16. 
2 Kings 4 : 43. 



To kill 


Wish. ' 


— 14:13. 

— 15:11. 



— 35:11. 



— 15 : 4. 



— 5 : 24. 


Secret place. 

1 Cor. 10: 11. 



— 37:29. 



— 18 : 2. 

Children of Dan. 


— 24:16. 



— 11 : 29. 




Me. it - offer- 

Coat of mail. 
Wheat - offer- 

1 Sam. 1 : 15. 

Daughter of Be- 

Worthless wo- 

— 22 : 5. 



Lev. 2 : 1. 

— 13:1. 





— 2:5. 



2 Chron. 26 : 



2 Cor. 1 : 12. 



1 Sara. 2 : 12. 

Sons of Belial. 

Worthless men. 

Isa. 7 : 23. 


Pieces of silver. 


— 5:21. 






— 30 : 24. 



Job 1 : 1. 



— 8:1. 

Do you to wit. 

Make known to 

— 3 : 18. 

Every whit. 
Secret parts. 


Hoi pen. 



Go up before. 

— 5:9. 

— 44 : 9. 

— 3 : 12. 


1 Thess. 4:15. 


— 8 : 12. 



Jer. 4 : 30. 

Rentest thy face. 

Distend thine 

— 9 : 33. 



Heb. 1 : 1. 







— 12:26. 



— 1:3. 






— 7 : 33. 



Ps. 4 : 2. 


Falsehood, ly- 

— 2:11. 



— 17:24. 



— 10 : 22. 




— 4:8. 





Ezek. 13:18. 

Sew pillows. 

Apply cushions. 

— 7:10. 



James 3 : 4. 

Governor list- 

Pilot chooseth. 


Dan. 3 : 21. 



— 16:10. 

Soul in hell. 

Body in the 





Zech. 13:6. 

My fellows. 

United to me. 


— 13. 

Good conversa- 

Consistent con- 

— 22 : 17. 



Matt. 3 : 12. 



— 44:19. 





— 26 : 5. 




— 59 : 10. 


Come before — 

1 Pet. 2 : 2. 



— 27. 



— 5 : 45. 



i.e., give time- 

— 3:11. 



30' 13 



— 6 : 24. 

— 12 : 29. 



Set in order. 

ly aid. 


2 Sam. 3 : 12. 

— 79 : 8. 


2 Pet. 3 : 9. 


— 17 : 10. 

Utterly melt. 

Be utterly dis- 

— 13 : 20. 



— 107 : 3. 



— 3 : 12. 

Hastening unto. 

Earnestly desir- 


— 17:12. 



— 119 : 148. 




— 32. 



Mark 11 : 13. 



Eccles. 4 : 4. 



1 John 2 : 17. 



Num. 1 : 2. 


One by one. 

1 Kings 2 : 8. 



Isa. 3-: 22. 



— 20. 





— 3:7. 

Go out or come 

Conduct affairs. 



— 5 : 6, 8, 9. 
Rev. 1 : 13. 



— 16 : 1-4. 

Luke 2 : 49. 

Josh. 6 : 9. 

i ■ 



— 4:2. 


Chief officers. 

— 7:1. 



— 21 : 19. 



Prophecies in Old and New Testaments Literally Fulfilled. 


Gen. 9:25, 27. 

Gen. 16 : 10, 12 
Gen. 17 : 20. 
Gen. 49 : 10. 

Lev. 26 : 38, 39. 
Deut. 28 : 62, 67, 
Ezek. 5 : 10, 15. 
Hos. 3 : 4. 

Num. 23 : 9. 
Num. 24 : 20. 

Ps. 2 : 8. 
Mai. 1 : 11. 

Jer. 49 : 17, etc. 
Ezek. 25: 12, etc, 
Joel 3 : 19. 
Amos 1:11, etc. 


The descendants of Shem and Japheth are "ruling" and "en- 
larged," but the descendants of Ham are still " the servants of 

The posterity of Ishmael have " multiplied exceedingly," living 
like "wild men," "their hand against every man," free in "the 
presence of all their brethren," and of all their enemies. 

" The sceptre has departed from Judah." 

The Jews have been "led away into all nations," "Jerusalem has 
been trodden down by the Gentiles," the people have been 
"plucked from off their own land," "removed into all the 
kingdoms of the earth," "scattered among the heathen," 
"among all people," "sifted among all nations," have "be- 
come a proverb," have found " among these nations no ease, 
and the sole of their foot had no rest," have " been many days 
without a king and without a sacrifice." 

The Jews "dwell alone," and are not "reckoned among the 

" The remembrance of Amalek " is " utterly put out from under 

The Lord has given to the Messiah " the heathen for his inherit- 
ance," and the progress of the gospel is hastening the time 
when "from the rising of the sun, even to the going down of 
the same, his name shall be great among the Gentiles. " 

The family of Esau has become extinct, " cut off for ever," so 
that there is "none remaining of the house of Esau." The 
" palaces of Bozrah " have been " devoured by fire." Fire was 
" kindled in Rabbah and in the palaces thereof," and Ammon 
was destroyed as in " the day of the whirlwind." 


Nah. 1 : 3. 
Isa. 13:14. 

Ezek. 26 : 4, 5. 
Ezek. 29 : 14, 15. 
Dan. 11 : 37, 39. 

Luke 21 : 24. 
1 Tim. 4 : 1-3. 

Eev. 2 : 3. 

Rev. 13-17. 


Nineveh is completely destroyed, and for ages its locality was 

Babylon has been swept with " the besom of destruction," is made 

" a desolation for ever," " a possession for the bittern and pools 

of water," "a dwelling-place for dragons, an astonishment and 

hissing, without an inhabitant." 
Tyre has become " like the top of a rock, a place for fishers to 

spread their nets upon." 
Egypt became "a base kingdom," tributary to strangers, and 

never able to " exalt itself above the nations." 
The fourth and last of the four great kingdoms was divided into 

ten kingdoms, and among them has arisen a power with a triple 

crown, "diverse from the first," "with a mouth speaking very 

great things," "wearing out the saints of the Most High," 

"changing times and laws," ruling "over many and dividing 

the land for gain." 
The Jews have been led into all nations, and Jerusalem has been 

trodden down of the Gentiles. 
The apostasy here predicted has taken place. The Roman Church 

has forbidden the priesthood " to marry," and commanded " to 

abstain from meats." 
The decay of the seven Asiatic churches and their fate have been 

literally foretold. 
The rise, power and fury of the mystical Babylon are here set 

forth, and Rome built on seven hills is pointed out as the seat 

of this tyranny. 

The omniscient Lord of all, who seeth the end from the begin- 
ning, could alone have foretold these events, which have al- 
ready come to pass. 



Genesis. Describes the creation ; gives the history of the old world, and of 
the steps taken by God toward the formation of the theocracy. 

Exodus. The history of Israel's departure from Egypt ; the giving of the law; 
the tabernacle. 

Leviticus. The ceremonial law. 

Numbers. The census of . the people ; the story of the wanderings in the 

Deuteronomy. The law rehearsed ; the death of Moses. 

Joshua. The story of the conquest and partition of Canaan. 

Judges. The history of the nation from Joshua to Samson. 

Ruth. The story of the ancestors of the royal family of Judah. 

1 Samuel. The story of the nation during the judgeship of Samuel and the 
reign of Saul. 

2 Samuel. Story of the reign of David. 

1 and 2 Kings. The books of Kings ferm only one book in the Hebrew MSS. 
They contain the history of the nation from David's death and Solomon's accession 
to the destruet^^of the kingdom of Judah and the desolation of Jerusalem, with 

i supplen>= Notice of the liberation of Jehoiachin from his prison at Babylon, 

twenty-si'* his T.ater; they comprehend the whole time of the Israelitish monar- 
chy, ex c JTTERBTH he reigns of Saul and David. 

The xhe TempT NICLES are so called as being the record made by the 

appointea .^y A Sanc^iers of the kingdoms of Judah and Israel ; they are the 
official histov '^^those kingdoms. 

Ezra. The story o r the return of the Jews from the Babylonish captivity, and 
of the rebuilding of the temple. 

Nehemiah. A further account of the rebuilding of the temple and city, and 
of the obstacles encountered and overcome. 

Esther. The story of a Jewess who becomes queen of Persia and saves the 
Jewish people from destruction. 

Job. The story of the trials and patience of a holy man of Edom. 

Psalms. A collection of sacred poems intended for use in the worship of 
Jehovah. Chiefly the productions of David. 

Proverbs. The wise sayings of Solomon. 

Ecclesiastes. A poem respecting the vanity of earthly things. 

Solomon's Song. An allegory relating to the Church. 

Isaiah. Prophecies respecting Christ and his kingdom. 

Jeremiah. Prophecies announcing the captivity of Judah, its sufferings, and 
the final overthrow of its enemies. 

Laimsntations. The utterance of Jeremiah's sorrow upon the capture of 
Jerusalem and the destruction of the temple. 

Ezekiel. Messages of warning and comfort to the Jews in their captivity. 

Daniel. A narrative of some of the occurrences of the captivity, and a series 
of prophecies concerning Christ. 

Hosea. Prophecies relating to Christ and the latter days. 

Joel. Prediction of woes upon Judah, and of the favor with which God will 
receive the penitent people. 

Amos. Prediction that Israel and other neighboring nations will be punished 
by conquerors from the north, and of the fulfillment of the Messiah's kingdom. 

Obadiah. Prediction of the desolation of Edom. 

Jonah. Prophecies relating to Nineveh. 

Micah. Predictions relating to the invasions of Shalmaneser and Sennacherib, 
the Babylonish captivity, the establishment of a theocratic kingdom in Jerusalem, 
and the birt) of the Messiah in Bethlehem. 

Nahum. Prediction of the downfall of Assyria. 

Habak' ck. A prediction of the doom of the Chaldeans. 

Zephaniah. A prediction of the overthrow of Judah for its idolatry and 

Haggai. Prophecies concerning the rebuilding of the temple. 

Zechariah. Prophecies relating to the rebuilding of the temple and the 

Mai.achi. Prophecies relating to the calling of the Gentiles and the coming 
of Christ, 


Gospel of St. Matthew. A brief history of the life of Christ. 

Gospel op St. Mark. A brief history of the life of Christ, supplying some 
incidents omitted by St. Matthew. 

Gospel of St. Luke. The history of the life of Christ, with especial reference 
to his most important acts and discourses. 

Gospel, of St. John. The life of Christ, giving important discourses not 
related by the other evangelists. 

Acts of the Apostles. The history of the labors of the apostles and of the 
foundation of the Christian Church. 

Epistle to the Romans. A treatise by St. Paul on the doctrine of justifica- 
tion by Christ. 

First Epistle to the Corinthians. A letter from St. Paul to the Corinth- 
ians, correcting errors into which they had fallen. 

Second Epistle to the Corinthians. St. Paul confirms his disciples in their 
faith, and vindicates his own character. 

Epistle to the Galatians. St. Paul maintains that we are justified by faith, 
and not by rites. 

Epistle to the Ephesians. A treatise by St. Paul on the power of divine 

Epistle to the Philippians. St. Paul sets forth the beauty of Christian 

Epistle to the Colossians. St. Paul warns his disciples against errors, and 
exhorts to certain duties. 

First Epistle to the Thessalonians. St. Paul exhorts his disciples to con- 
tinue in the faith and in holy conversation. 

Second Epistle to the Thessalonians. St. Paul corrects an error concern- 
ing the speedy coming of Christ the second time. 

First and Second Epistles to Timothy. St. Paul instructs Timothy in the 
duty of a pastor, and encourages him in the work of the ministry. 

Epistle to Titus. St. Paul encourages Titus in the performance of his min- 
isterial duties. 

Epistle to Philemon. An appeal to a converted master to receive a con* 
verted escaped slave with kindness. 

Epistle to the Hebrews. St. Paul maintains that Christ is the substance of 
the ceremonial law. 

Epistle of St. James. A treatise on the efficacy of faith united with goo» 

First and Second Epistles of St. Peter. Exhortations to a Christian life, 
with various warnings and predictions. 

First Epistle 01* St. John. Respecting the person of our Lord, and an ex- 
hortation to Christian love and conduct. 

Second Epistle of St. John. St. John warns a converted lady against false 

Third Epistle of St. John. A letter to Gaius, praising him for his hos- 

Epistle of St. Jude. Warnings against deceivers. 

The Revelation. The future of the Church foretold. 



Bible Text, 




Alexander the Great to the Destruction of Jerusalem, 

336 B.C. TO 138 A.D., 




BY A. L. H^lWSQjjST, LL.D. 

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1881, in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 

Coins op Alexander and his Successors. 

Before the time of Alexander the Great of 
Macedonia there were no portraits on coins, ex- 
cept of Gelon and Hiero at Syracuse in Sicily 
(108). Philip, the father of Alexander, left no 
portrait, his coins bearing a head of Zeus (Jupi- 
ter) or Hercules. The local deity of the country 
was honored on the coins of each — as Minerva 
at Athens (84), Arethusa at Syracuse (107), the 
Minotaur in Crete (142), Apollo and Diana in 


323 B. C.). 

many cities, and nearly every other divinity, 
hero or heroine, or deified ruler, including also 
animal forms and mythical figures, mentioned 
in the ancient classics. 
The Greeks were the earliest people to make 

No. 2.— SELEUCUS I. (312-280 B. C.). 

and use coins with an image stamped >.n them, 
and also to make them depositories of portraits 
and figures of persons and objects which have 
become of great value to the historical student, 
adding much to our knowledge of antiquity. 

No. 3.— ANTIOCHUS I. SOTEK (280-261 B. C.). 

The kingdom of Alexander was too vast to hold 
together under any other ruler, and his generals 
assumed royalty after his death, and each seized 
a portion. Seleucus, who had been made satrap 

of Babylonia, founded the Syrian monarchy; 
Ptolemy (see Dictionary, p. 80), a half-brother 
of Alexander, founded the dynasty of Greek Ptol- 
emies in Egypt; Lysimachus obtained Thrace; 


Antipater and Craterus jointly had Macedonia 
and Greece. Antiochus I. was son and successor 
of Seleucus I., and was honored with the title 
Soter (saviour) for his military successes. Anti- 
ochus II., his son, was called in flattery Theos 

NO. 5. — ANTIOCHUS III., THE GKEAT (222-187 B. C). 

(Ptolemy IV., in Diet., p. 80.) 

(god), and was the first of the name mentioned 
in the Bible. (See Dictionary, p. 7.) The first 
Seleucus mentioned was the Fourth, who was 
called Patriot (Philopator), although he is said 
to have greatly increased the already heavy taxes. 
The third Antiochus earned the title the Great for 

No. 6.— seleucus rv. 

his military genius, although defeated by the Ro- 
man general Glabrio at Thermopylae in Greece, 
and again by Scipio at Magnesia in Asia Minor, 
when he lost a great territory and paid fifteen 
millions to the Romans for the expenses of the 

The custom of the Seleucid kings of Syria 
was to adopt the names Seleucus or Anti- 
ochus alternately in succession ; so the son and 
successor of Antiochus the Great was called Se- 
leucus IV., and his brother, who succeeded him, 
was Antiochus IV. Epiphanes (see his coin in 
Dictionary, p. 8) ; and the student will find 

NO. 7.— ANTIOCHUS V. EUPATOR (164-162 B. C.). 

many incidents of the history of these kings in 
the Apocrypha, in Maccabees, and in Josephus. 
The likeness of Antiochus V. is here, and of the 
Sixth in the Dictionary, p. 8. Demetrius I., 
son of Seleucus IV., was educated in Rome, and 
succeeded Antiochus IV., whom he deposed ; he 
was killed in battle against Alexander I. Balas 

NO. 8.— DEMETRIUS I. AND LAODICE (162-150 B. C.}. 

(A. Balas, Diet., p. 6.) 

(Baal, Lord ; see coin in Dictionary, p. 6), who 
claimed to be a soh of Antiochus IV., and who 
succeeded to the throne. This Cleopatra was the 


third of the name among the Greek kings in 
Syria, was very talented, the wife of three suc- 
cessive kings of Syria, and mother of two others. 
(See coin 15.) 


Mithridates VI. was the last of a Hue of kings 
pf Pontus, said to have had a Persian origin, 

NO. 10.— MITHRIDATES VI. (135-83 B. C.). 

about 337 b. c. He was the most powerful enemy 
the Eomans had to contend with next to Hanni- 
bal, as estimated by Cicero. He was father-in- 
law to Tigranes. (See Dictionary, p. 92.) 

Demetrius II., son of Demetrius I. (No. 8), 
was taken prisoner by Mithridates VI., and held 
nearly nine years, who gave him his daughter for 
a wife, during which time his brother, Antiochus 
VII., held the throne of Syria, and espoused 
Cleopatra, wife of Demetrius, but was deposed 
on his return. He is mentioned in Maccabees 
(1 Mace, x., xi., xii., xiv.) and in Josephus (Ant. 
xiii. 9, 3) as a friend to the Jews, reducing their 
tribute. He wore a beard after the Parthian 
fashion, while nearly every other Syrian king 

NO. 11.— DEMETRIUS II. NIKATOR (146-125 B. C.). 

in that age shaved, as appears on their coins. 
Nearly all of these kings were occupied in wars 
and intrigues to the exclusion of any measures 
for the improvement of the condition of their 

Tryphon was a usurper named Diodotus, from 
near Apamea, and was an officer of the court of 
Alexander Balas, who pretended a friendship for 

NO. 12.— TRYPHON (142-139 B. a). 

the young king Antiochus VI., son of Alexan- 
der, and who usurped the throne after killing 
him. He put his name on the coins of the 
young king, as seen in the Dictionary, p. 8. 
(See 1 Mace, xi., xiii., etc.) 

Antiochus VII. expelled Tryphon and took 
his brother's wife. He made concessions to 
Simon, " high priest and prince of the Jews " 
(1 Mace, xv.; Jos. Ant. xiii. 7, 3). He after- 

No. 13.— ANTIOCHUS VII. SIDETES (138-129 B. C.). 

ward besieged Jerusalem, but made honorable 
terms with John Hyrcanus (133 B.C.), who ac- 
eompanied him against the Parthians, where he 

was killed. This coin was struck at Tarsus. The 
shrine on the reverse of this coin contained a 
figure of the Greek goddess Hera (Juno in Rome) 
standing on a lion, holding in the left hand two 
palm-branches; the right hand extended, hold- 
ing a staff or sceptre. She was called " Queen 
of heaven" in Jeremiah (vii. 18; xliv. 17; etc.). 
On each side of the lion is a vase or cup for the 
drink-offerings mentioned by Diodorus; a star 
over her head refers to the planet which was sa- 
cred to her. She was called the " Goddess of 
Syria," and had a great statue in her honor at 
Hierapolis (Dan. xi. 38). Called also Astarte, 
Ashtaroth, Mylitta, and Alitta. 

Alexander II. was a purchased slave (zebina) 
and a pretender to the throne ; favored by Ptol- 

No. 14. — ALEXANDER II. ZEBINA (128-123 B. C). 

emy Physcon of Egypt for his own purposes, but 
was deposed by him after six years for refusing 
to pay tribute. He imitated the coins of Balas, 
putting a head of Zeus, or of Dionysus, instead 
of his own, and on the reverse Pallas, or an ele- 
phant, horn of plenty, tripod, eagle, anchor, etc. 
The coin of Cleopatra and Antiochus VIII. 
presents the heads of mother and son. She is 
entitled " goddess " on the reverse (theas). See 

NO. 15.— CLEOPATRA AND ANTIOCHUS VIII. (125-121 B. 0.). 
(Tigranes, Diet., p. 92.) 

coin 9 for an earlier portrait of Cleopatra. This 
king does not appear in Scripture, but was an 
active man — sometimes called Illustrious (epiph- 
anes), and also Grypus (hook-nose). He was a 
man of energetic character. 

Antiochus IX. was named Cyzicenus from the 
city where he was educated (by Craterus), and 
his coins add the title Patriot (philopatoros). He 
was a son of Antiochus VII. (13), and born while 
Demetrius was a prisoner among the Parthians ; 

NO. 16.— ANTIOCHUS IX. (116-95 B. C). 

his mother was a Cleopatra. He shared the king- 
dom with his brother, Grypus (15), having Ccele- 
Syria and Palestine, with his residence at Damas- 
cus. His wife had been repudiated by Ptolemy 
Lathyrus of Egypt, and brought him an army as 
a dowry. She was killed by order of her sister, 
Tryphena, at the altar of a sanctuary in Antioch. 
Besides his own head, he put on the coins those 
of Hercules, Zeus, Eros, Pallas and Apollo, 
Tyche, Dionysus, and Artemis, besides the an- 
chor and various emblematic figures. This coin 
was struck at Sidon. 

Demetrius III. Philopator (patriot) was a son 
of Antiochus Grypus (15). He was also flattered 

on his coins with the titles "savior," "god," 
and " thunderer." On the reverse is a figure of 
Demeter, called Ceres by the Romans. 

NO. 17.— DEMETRIUS III. (95-88 B. C... 

(Tigranes, Diet., p. 92.) 

Tigranes (Dictionary, p. 92), was son-in-law 
to Mithridates VI. (10), and after some extensive 
conquests assumed the title " King of kings " in 
Armenia. In 83 B. c. he conquered Syria and 
founded Tigranocerta. After submitting to the 
Romans, he was kept by them on the throne of 
Armenia until he died, 55 B. c. He made cap- 
tive and tributary kings his house-servants. 

Mark Antony, one of the famous Triumvirs 
(three men, Octavius Caesar and Lepidus the other 

NO. 18. — ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA (30. B. C.). 

two), was born 83 B. c. He was a successful cav- 
alry officer in Egypt b. c. 53, was Caesar's lieu= 
tenant in Gaul, chief of the army in Italy iQ 
Caesar's absence, and consul in 44. After Caesar^ 
death, Asia and Egypt were allotted to Antony, 
and with the famous Cleopatra he indulged in 
luxury and repose, neglecting state affairs. He 
was defeated at Actium, when Octavius became 
sole emperor and augustus. Cleopatra, the last 
of the Greek dynasty in Egypt, was celebrated 
for her personal charms and various accomplish- 

No. 19. — ARSACES XII. (70-60 B. G.). 

ments, which fill a large space in the history or 
that age. Born 69, died 30 b. c. She was in 
Rome with Julius Caesar until his death, 44 b. c. 
and with Antony in Egypt 41 b. c. A portrait 
of her son by Caesar is sculptured on the wall of 
a temple at Koom Ombos on the Nile. 

Arsaces also assumed the title of "King of 
kings," and warred with the Romans after iiig 
father, Mithridates, died. His grandson, called 

NO. 20.— PHRAATES IV. (36 B. C.-4 A. D.). 

Phraates IV., made a treaty with Augustus, under 
which he restored some Roman standards taken 
by the Parthians in former wars. (See No. 132.) 



Hebrew Money. 

Demetrius II. (No. 11), before his captivity in 
Parthia, granted the Jews the privilege of strik- 
ing coins with their own devices and superscrip- 

NO. 21. — SILVER SHEKEL, SIMON (139 B. C.). 

tions, and during his absence his brother, Anti- 
ochus VII., confirmed the decree. The first coin 
was made by them 139 b. c. It is called the 
shekel, and was valued at sixty cents. The in- 
scription is read " Shekel of Israel " around, and 
A for year 1 over a cup on one side, and on 
the other, " Jerusalem the Holy " around a triple 
lily. The half-shekel is on page 66 of the Dic- 
tionary, and the copper shekel on page 67. The 
next coins were by John Hyrcanus, son of Simon. 

NO. 22.— JOHN HYRCANUS (135-106 B. C.). 

He was with Antiochus in Parthia, conquered 
the Idumseans, destroyed Samaria, and built Arak 
el-Emir, east of Jordan. His coins were not 
called shekels, and the inscriptions and devices 
differed from the shekel. On this we read " Jo- 
hanan the high priest and the Jews' Union " in 
an olive-wreath, and see two horns of plenty on 
the other side. 

Judas Aristobulus struck coins only in bronze, 
with a similar inscription to that on his brother 

NO. 23.— JUDAS ARISTOBUIUS (106 B. C.). 

John's, calling himself "high priest." He also 
assumed the title of "king," putting an end to the 
theocracy and establishing the monarchy (Jos. 
Ant. xiii. 11, 1) for one year. 

Alexander Jannaeus, his brother, succeeded, 
and reigned twenty-seven years, issuing many 
coins. Ptolemy Lathyrus, king of Cyprus, in- 
vaded Judaea, and was defeated by Jannseus, as- 
sisted by Cleopatra, queen of Egypt, mother of 
Lathyrus. His coins have for devices a rose, 

NO. 24.— ALEXANDER JANN.EUS (105-78 B. C.). 

lily, palm, star, anchor, and horn of plenty. 
The inscriptions are in Hebrew and Greek let- 
ters, and he first called himself " king " (of the 
Jews) on the coins. 

4ntigonus was king until Herod was placed 

and no Hebrew, and for devices many symbols 
of temple-worship, etc., but no human figure or 

NO. 26.— HEROD THE GREAT (37-4 B. C.). 

(Mite, Diet., p. 67.) 

portrait. We read on No. 26, " Of King Herod." 
The Macedonian helmet and shield on No. 27 


are said to indicate his descent from the Greek 
kings of that country. 

Herod Archelaus, son of Herod, was made 
ethnarch and governor of Judaea, Samaria, and 

NO. 28.— HEROD ARCHELAUS (4 B. C.-6 A. D.). 

Idumaea, but after ten years' misrule Augustus 
banished him to Gaul. (See No. 59.) 

Herod Philip II. was son of Herod and Cle- 
opatra, and was made tetrarch (governor of a 
fourth part) of the Hauran, etc. (Luke iii. 1). 
He married Salome, daughter of Herod Philip 
I. and Herodias. He built Caesarea Philippi 
(Paneas), and named Bethsaida Julias (Luke x. 
10),- where he was buried under a monument 

NO. 29.— PHILIP. 

built by himself. This coin is dated 33 A. d. 
(L A Z, year 37 of his reign). 
Herod Agrippa I. was grandson of Herod I., 


and was educated at Rome with Drusus and 
Claudius, who was afterward emperor. He was 
made king and successor to Philip, and after- 
ward ruler of Judaea and Samaria. In earnest 
a Jew, he lived at Jerusalem, kept the laws, and 
improved the country by building or repairing 
public works and instituting games. 

NO. 31.— HEROD OP CHALCIS (41-48 A. D.). 

NO. 25. — ANTIGONTJS (40-37 B. C.). 

on the throne by the Eomans, and he struck 
some curious coins. 

With Herod the Great the monarchy became 
powerful, although under the Romans. All the 
bronze coins of Herod have Greek inscriptions, appointment of the high priest, the superintend- 

Herod of Chalcis was son of Aristobulus and 
Berenice, and brother of Agrippa. He was made 
king by Claudius (who at the same time gave 
Agrippa II. Judaea and Samaria), and resided at 
Chalcis in Ccele-Syria, and he was also given the 

ence of the temple, and regulation of the sacred 
No. 32 is the only coin bearing a head of 

NO. 32.— HEROD AGRIPPA II. (48-100 A. D.). 

Agrippa II. or of any other of that family, and 
is dated 58 A. d. (See Dictionary, p. 46, foi 
coins of Agrippa, with portrait of Titus.) 


The chalkous is supposed to have been the 
only money that the poor Jews were able to 
bring to the synagogue weekly in the year 73 
A. d., as it is dated when the temple was in 

Coponius was the first procurator of Judaea, 

NO. 34. — COPONIUS (15 A. D.). 

and was assigned to duty after Archelaus was 
banished, 6 A. d. He came with the prefect 
Quirinus (Cyrenius, No. 58). The procurator 
was the governor in Judaea, collector of revenue 
and general regulator of financial affairs, and in 
later times was supreme in both civil and mili- 
tary duties (Matt, xxvii. ; Luke iii. 1 ; Acts xxii. ; 
etc.). The second was Ambivius; the third, 
Marcus Rufus, in whose term the augustus died. 

NO. 35.— VALERIUS GRATUS (16 A. p.). 

Then Tiberius sent Valerius Gratus, who was 
eleven years in office, from 15 to 26 A. d., during 
whose term Joseph, called Caiaphas, was made 
high priest, who was also son-in-law of Annas. 
(John xviii. 13.) 

Pontius Pilate succeeded Gratus, and the cru- 
cifixion of Jesus Christ is dated in the seventh 

NO. 36.— PONTTOS PILATE (29 A. D.). 

year of his term. He suspected a Samaritan 
impostor of plotting treason, and killed many 
people on Mount Gerizim, seized the sacred 
temple-treasure, built an aqueduct with it, and 
dedicated some Roman shields in the temple in 
honor of Tiberius. 

Felix was a slave of Antonia, mother of Clau- 
dius, was advanced in the army and appointed to 
Judffia in 52 A. D. Tacitus says, " He wielded the 
sceptre of a monarch with the soul of a slave." 

NO. 37.— FELIX, UNDER NERO (54-68 A. D.). 

He married Drusilla, sister of Agrippa. His 
first wife was Drusilla, daughter of Juba; his 
third also a princess. 



First Revolt of the Jews. 

The Jews were so oppressed by the Romans 
that they broke out into revolt several times, 
but were put down easily, except when, under 
Gessius Floras, they suffered unbearable tyranny. 

NO. 38. — ELEAZAR (65 A. D.). 

The first revolt began under the emperor Nero, 
A. D. 60, and one of the first war-measures was 
to issue money to pay soldiers and for the use 
of the people, who detested the coins of the Ro- 
mans as blasphemous and badges of servitude. 
The most capable leader was Eleazar, son of the 
high priest Ananias before whom Paul was tried. 
(Acts xxiii. 3.) His coins have the words " Elea- 
zar the high priest " and " First year of the Re- 

(Simon, Diet., p. 6.) 

demption of Israel." The types he used were 
various, being vase, harp, treasury (for sacred 
books), fruit, palm tree, and others. 

The only true shekels were those made by 
Simon the Maccabee (No. 21), all coins after his 
death having some other name, although writers 
usually call any piece of Hebrew money a shekel. 
The sizes of the various pieces were made to con- 
form to those of the Greek and Roman standards. 
The stater (Nos. 9, 135, 140) was equal to sixty 
cents and Simon's shekel (No. 21) ; the double 
stater (Nos. 14, 10, 139, etc.) was equal to two 
shekels; the mite (Nos. 31, 33) of copper was 
about a quarter of a cent. 


Simon, son of Gamaliel, chief of the Sanhe- 
drin, called "Nasi" (prince), struck coins after 
Eleazar's death, and also Ananus, son of Ananus. 
The Sanhedrin authorized bronze coins to be 
issued, with the legend "Year 2" around the 
vase, and " Deliverance of Zion " around the 


On some coins the name Zion stands for Jeru- 
salem. During the siege by Titus Caesar (who 
was afterward the emperor Titus) the Jews used 
Greek or Roman coins to strike their own devices 
on, as appears on many coins of that time, as 
also on those of the second revolt. (Nos. 46, 
47, 48.) 

The Romans did not permit their provinces to 
strike coins of gold or silver ; therefore, the only 
coins of Herod and his successors are in bronze. 
The tribute-money was of necessity a Roman 
coin, bearing the head of " Caesar " or the em- 
peror, and was valued at sixty cents, the sum 
required for two persons. 

Jerusalem Captured. 

The revolt was suppressed, and Jerusalem cap- 
tured by the Romans under Titus, his father, 
Vespasian, being emperor. A great number 
was struck by the Romans to commemorate the 
event — by Vespasian, in gold, silver, and bronze, 
and also by Titus. One of Vespasian is shown 
on page 98 in the Dictionary. This bronze (42) 
coin of Titus is read, " The emperor Titus Caesar 

NO. 42.— VESPASIAN (71 A. D.). 

(See Diet., p. 98.) 

Vespasian, Priest, Tribunal Power, Consul second 
time." On the reverse is a palm bearing dates, 
with a Roman soldier (Titus) armed, and a 
woman for Judsea weeping, seated on arms ; S. C. 
for Decree of the Senate. 

No. 43.— TITUS (73 A. D.). 

No. 43 is described, " Titus standing, his right 
foot on the prow of a vessel, holding a ' Victory ' 
and a spear ; at his feet are two Jews in suppli- 
cation, and near a palm." Dated 73 A. D. No. 
44 is a coin in honor of a naval victory, and is 
supposed to refer to the one described by Jose- 
phus (Wars, iii. 9). 

When the war began ; Nero sent Vespasian 
with the army to Palestine, and he took his son, 
Titus, with him as his lieutenant ; and when Nero 
died, A. D. 68, Vespasian became emperor, return- 
ed to Rome, and left Titus in command at Jeru- 
salem. Vespasian was proclaimed emperor at 
Alexandria, Egypt, July 1, 69, and at Jerusalem, 
in the camp of Titus, July 3. Jerusalem was 
taken September 8, A. d. 70. 

Titus was honored with the title of "emperor" 
(which was equal to commander-in-chief) on the 
fall of Jerusalem. He had served under his 
father in the siege and capture of the cities 
Tarichsea and Gamala, described by Josephus. 
In the triumphal procession of Vespasian at 
Rome, Titus was associated with his father and 
with his brother, Domitian ; he was also nomi- 
nated a ca?sar — that is, an heir to the throne of 
Rome. A triumphal arch, the " Arch of Titus," 


NO. 44.— TITUS. 

was erected at Rome, and is still standing, bear- 
ing sculptures in memory of the trophies and 
victory over the Jews. It is the oldest arch of 
the kind in that city, and one of the most inter- 
esting monuments in the world. Besides the 
coins of Vespasian and Titus, those of Domitian 
bore devices recording the capture of Jerusalem. 
The Romans evidently regarded it as an import- 
ant event, for they stamped it on their coins dur- 
ing twenty-six years. 

The Second Revolt op the Jews. 

From the time of the first Csesar, Julius, the 
Jews, when at peace, had a certain amount of 

NO. 45.— NERVA (115 A, 

liberty and many privileges. Some Jews ha<5 
the Roman franchise at Ephesus and elsewhere, 
and Seneca said of them, "Though conquered, 
they gave laws to their conquerors." After the 
revolt which was put down by Titus, they paid 
tributes fixed by Vespasian, but under Nerva 
these were abolished, and coin No. 45 was struck 
to commemorate the event. But Jewish hatred 


to Rome could not so easily be quieted, and afteT 
a few years a second revolt broke out, in 115 A. D., 
in Cyrene, Egypt, Asia Minor, and Cyprus. In 
117 A. d., Hadrian sent a colony of veteran sol- 
diers to Jerusalem, and the revolt broke out 
there, aided by the cry, "The Messiah has 
come !" referring to the new leader, Simon Bar- 
kokab, called " Son of the Star " (Num. xxiv. 17- 
24), but the war did not begin until 131 A. D. 


It was an ancient custom of the Syrian kings 
and Egyptian Ptolemies to honor a successful 
general or a patriotic king and general of the 
army with the title " savior " — in Greek, soter 
—as seen on coin No. 3 ; the first Ptolemy was a 
Soter, also the first Demetrius. The Romans 
honored their emperor or general with the title 
" Father of the Country " for similar services. 
The Hebrews were very jealous of permitting 
any human image on a coin, and therefore we 
read only the name of the high priest or other 
person in chief authority, and the pious sentence, 
" The Deliverance of Jerusalem," as on No. 47, 
and "The Deliverance of Zion" on others. 
These coins were issued at the mint under the 
authority of the Sanhedrin or senate, with a new 
device on the accession of each high priest, king, 
or ethnarch. The coin No. 48 is probably the 
last coined by the Jews as a people. 

The leader Barkokab struck Hebrew devices 
over silver coins of Titus, as in this case, and 
over those of Trajan (No. 47) and of Domitian, 


and of copper over various types, as in 48, where 
the letters on the margin show that the original 
coin was of Trajan. 

■■.JlW-UU* ■' .J~ 


The imperial coins struck at Jerusalem are 
preserved in great variety, and are of great value 
and interest. Hadrian rebuilt the city of Jeru- 

NO. 49. — HADRIAN. 

salem, and gave it the name of iELiA Capito- 
lina, in honor of Jupiter of the Capitol at 
Rome and of his own family, iElius. This coin 
(49) is read, "Hadrian Augustus, Consul the 
third term, Father of the Country," around Ha- 

No. 50.- 


drian's bust; and on the reverse, "The advent 
of Augustus into Judaea :" a woman, as Judaea, 
standing with two children bearing palms, her- 
self pouring incense on an altar: "By decree 
of the Senate." (See coin of Hadrian in Dic- 
tionary, p. 41.) In No. 50 is shown a temple, 
within which is a statue, probably of Jupiter, 
attended by two other divinities, perhaps Juno 
and Minerva. Coins were also struck by Anto- 
ninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, Aurelius and Lu- 


cius Verus (51), by Julia Domna (which bears 
the title Commodiana, at the request of the em- 

No. 52.— JULIA DOMNA (173-217 A. D.). 

peror Commodus), by Caracalla and Diadume- 
nianus (on which a temple with a statue still ap- 

No. 53. — COIN OP DIADUMENIANUS (217 A. D.). 


pears). The coin of Elagabalus records the 
ancient legend of the she-wolf suckling the 
twin-founders of Rome, Romulus and Remus. 
The series ended with Trajan, iEtruscus, and 
Hostilian. No other Roman coins of a later 
date struck at Jerusalem have been found. The 
next coinage of that city is of the Arabs, who 
made many varieties, No. 57 reading " Moham- 
med is the Apostle of God " in Cufic letters, and 

on the other side Palestine, on each side of the 
letter M, under a crescent. The coins and medals 

NO. 54.— ELAGABALUS (218-222 A. D.). 

on page 54, Dictionary, are of the crusaders 
after 1150 A. D. 

Elagabalus was a Syrian, named Bassianus, 
but known by his title as priest of the sun-deity, 
which was worshiped at Emesa under that name. 
He was an Oriental in habits, tastes, and train- 
ing, and had no sympathy for Roman laws, dis- 
cipline, or its religion. His reign was cut short 
by the mob, his successor being Alexander Sev- 
erus, his cousin. 

No. 55.— TRAJAN (249-251 A. D.). 

Caius Messius Quintus Trajan Decius was 
urged to accept the throne of Rome much 
against his inclination. Under his rule the 
Goths first made their appearance in the empire 
as enemies. Decius entered the field against 
them, leaving Valerian in Rome to rule with 
the title of Censor. He was the first of all the 
Roman emperors to fall in battle with the enemy. 
The coins struck in Jerusalem with his head and 
titles were honorary, as it is not recorded that he 
ever visited the city. His wife, Herennia iEtrus- 
cilla, is honored on the coin with the title Au- 

No. 56.— .ETRUSCUS (249-251 A. D.). 

gusta (the venerable) , and with a fine bust-portrait, 
set in a crescent moon in reference to her purity 
of character. The figure on the other side of 
the coin is of the goddess Modesty, and is also 
in honor of the queen. These religious honors 
were decreed by the Senate, and have been the 
means of perpetuating the memory of the noble 
woman in the absence of other records. 

NO. 57. — ARABIAN. 

The caliph Omar captured Jerusalem 637 A. r>., 
and struck coins in honor of the event, one of a 
long series, during over 400 years, being given 
here. Their inscriptions are always in mono- 
gram, often artistically constructed. The soil in 
and around the Holy City contains many buried 
treasures of coins, vast numbers of which are 
brought to light every year. The people in the 
villages of Palestine, in digging up old founda- 
tions or cellars for new houses, find deposits of 
ancient coins, mostly of bronze, a few silver, and 
only now and then gold. At Sidon three differ- 
ent deposits have been found of gold coins of 

Philip and Alexander the Great — in all over 
20,000 pieces, of from $10 to $50 each in value. 


The coin of Cyrenius (Quirinus) recalls the 
mention of the census made for Caesar Augustus 
in Luke (ii. 2), when "all the world" was taxed, 
about the time of the birth of Jesus. The por- 
trait shows a character in accord with the ac- 
counts given by historians of the cruel and in- 
human exactions of the tax-gatherers of that 
time. He was so detested that the Senate of 
Rome refused him the honors of a public fune- 
ral, although requested by the emperor Tiberius. 

Herod Archelaus (59 and 28) was ruler in Pal- 
estine when, it is supposed, Paul was " at the foot 
of Gamaliel," Antipas governed Galilee and 
Peraea, and Philip (29) Trachonitis, Auranitis. 


and Batanaea. When Archelaus was banished, 
Judaea, etc. became a Roman province; Copo- 
nius was procurator when Cyrenius was prefect ; 
he was succeeded by Ambivius, 10 A. D., and An- 
nius Rufus, 13 A. D. ; then Valerius Gratus, 14, and 
Pontius Pilate, 25 ; Marcellus, 35 ; Marullus, 37 ; 
and in 38 Agrippa I. was made governor of Ju- 
daea until 44 ; then Cuspius Fadus, Tiberius 
Alexander, 47, Felix, 52, and Festus, 60, Annas, 
62, Albinus, 62; and the last one was Gessius 
Florus, in A. d. 65, who was the great cause of 
the first revolt. 

NO. 60. — AMBIVIUS. 

The general policy of Augustus as to the gov- 
ernment of Judaea was, as advised by Maecenas, to 
continue the prefect in office three or five years. 
Augustus died 14 A. d., after a reign of fifty-seven 
years, at the age of seventy-seven, and was suc- 
ceeded by his adopted son, Tiberius, son of his 
wife Livia, who was a less active and more luxu- 
rious ruler, and who adopted a new line of policy, 
which was to change the rulers of provinces as 
seldom as possible, so as to avoid plundering the 
people by new and hungry officials. In a reign 
of twenty-two years he changed the procurator 
of Judaea only once. The first procurator under 
Tiberius was Valerius Gratus, in whose time 
Joseph, also called Caiaphas, was made high 


priest. After ruling eleven years he made way 
for Pontius Pilate, in the seventh year of whose 
rule (33 A. d., April 2d) the Gospel narrative 
makes Jesus of Nazareth appear before him for 
trial before crucifixion. Recent discoveries have 
enabled the student to follow the entire history of 
that age from one ruler to another, with nearly 
every detail supplied from antiquities. 



Paul was a native of Tarsus, which was a 
metropolis, and had a famous idol-shrine (as 
shown here, and more distinctly on No. 13). 
These idol-shrines are scattered throughout Phce- 

NO. 62. — TARSUS. 

nicia, and are now tumbling into ruins. Hera is 
(Standing on a lion, holding emblems in each 
hand, a conical object each side of the lion, and 
an eagle on the apex ; garlands decorate the 
front and sides. The inscription is " (Money) of 
King Antiochus the Benefactor." Some of the 
coins of Tarsus have a figure of a woman as an 
emblem of the city, and of another for the river 
Cydnus, on which the famous Cleopatra made a 
magnificent display in entering the city. (See 
«oin of Tarsus in Dictionary, p. 103.) 


The coin of Antioch has an emblem of the 
river Orontes beneath the feet of a woman per- 
sonifying the city, the inscription reading, " Of 
Antioch the Metropolis." This city was found- 
ed by Seleucus I., 300 b. c. (See Dictionary, 
p. 7.) The coinage includes many of the Greek 
kings and Roman governors of Syria. We have 
coins of the Roman governors — P. Q. Varus, dated 
B. c. 7-6, and Volusius Saturninus, prefect from 
4-5 A. D. ; and he was followed by Quirinus (Cy- 
renius; No. 58). 

The coin of Damascus is supposed to refer to 
the fountains or rivers that water its gardens in 


the Greek word pegai. The device is an emblem 
of the city, a woman holding fruit and a horn of 
plenty, seated in a court surrounded by a market, 
a temple with a statue of a deity above, the sun 
and moon on either side. The head is of Julia 
Aquila Severa, wife of the emperor Elagabalus. 

NO. 65.— AEETAS. 

Avetas was the title of the rulers of the Naba- 
theans of Arabia, who built Petra and many 
other cities little known. There were several 
kings with this title, one of whom is here called 
"Bacchius the Jew," and on the other side of 
the coin is the name of a Roman general, Plautus. 
The head is an emblem of the city of Petra. (See 
No. 143.) 

On coin 66 we read, " Tiberius Claudius Caesar 
Augustus " around a grain-measure ; and on the 
other side, "Elected Consul the second time, 
High Priest, Tribunal Power, Emperor," around 

S. C, for decreed by the Senate (of Rome) ; dated 
41-42 A. d. This was once supposed to have been 


struck to commemorate the great famine in Syria, 
relieved by Claudius. 

Josephus says the great famine occurred under 
the procurators Eadus and Tiberius Alexander, 
44 to 48 A. d. It was the custom of the Jews in 
all countries to send money to Jerusalem to re- 
lieve the distress of their brethren there. The 
custom is in full force now. 

This Nicocles, king of Salamis, Cyprus, also on 
the coin " Of the Paphians," was son of Evagoras 


I., and ruled about 375 B. c. Isocrates, the orator 
of Athens, made a flattering eulogy on his life 
and deeds. The proconsul of Cyprus mention- 
ed in Acts xiii. 7 was succeeded by the one 
named on the coin in the Dictionary, p. 24, 
whose inscription is " (Money) of the Cyprians, 


(Cyprus, Diet., p. 24.) 

under Cominius Proclus, Proconsul." The head 
is of the emperor Claudius. The coin of Paphos 
refers to a temple of Venus, now in ruins. The 
temple-ruins at Paphos have not yet been exam- 
ined ; but another temple to Venus — also called 
Aphrodite and Astarte — was exhumed at Golgos, 
near the centre of the island, when 1000 marble 
statues came to light, some colossal, others life- 
size, and many smaller. These are now in the 
Metropolitan Museum, New York. Pausanias 
says in his ancient history that Agapenor, a gen- 
eral of the Greeks under Agamemnon, return- 
ing after the close of the siege of Troy, was 
wrecked on the coast of Cyprus, landed, and built 
the town of Paphos and its temple to Venus, 
which was much later in time than the one at 
Golgos. The people of the island at that time 
are said to have numbered seven millions. 


Mark, the cousin of Barnabas, Paul's com- 
panion, left them at Perga, whose coin, shown 
here, bears the image of the goddess Diana, a 
stag, and other religious emblems, with the in- 
scription, " Of Diana of Perga." (See Perga in 

the Dictionary.) Diana is named on this coin 

The coin of Iconium, shown here, is inscribed 
" Nero Caesar Augustus " around a head of the 
young Nero ; and on the reverse, " Poppsea Au- 
gusta of the Claud-Iconians," around a seated 
figure of Poppaea, wife of Nero. Iconium was 

NO. 70.— ICONIUM. 

made a Roman colony by Claudius, and named 
Claudia. (See Iconium in the Dictionary.) 
Xenophon says it was a city in Phrygia, as in 
his history of the Expedition of Cyrus he says, 
" he came to Iconium, the last city of Phrygia," 
but Cicero, Strabo, and other ancients say it was 
in Pamphylia. It is a very ancient place, for 
Xenophon wrote about 360 b. c. 

NO. 71. — ATTALIA. 

The coin of Attalia is of the emperor Commo- 
dus (180-192 A. d.), who required his subjects to 
salute him as Hercules the god. The place was 
originally called Corcyrus, and Attalus II. Phil- 
adelphus (see Nos. 127, 128), king of Pergamus, 
added a new town and built a wall around the 
whole, giving it his name. 

The coin of Troas is of Alexander Severus, 
emperor of Rome, 222-235 A. d. The city was 
founded by Antigonus (No. 137), and named by 
him Antigonia, but enlarged by Lysimachus, who 
named it Antigonia Troas. It became a Roman 


colony under Augustus, and had many immunities 
and privileges. The port was artificial, with two 
basins, outer and inner, and it was an important 
commercial centre for many centuries. The an- 
tiquities found by Dr. Schliemann in his search 
for the Troy of Homer indicate great wealth and 
culture among the people in some early age. (See 
coin of Troas in Dictionary, p. 94.) 


The island of Samothrace lies about halfway 
between Troas and Macedonia ; it is eight miles 
long, six wide, and has lofty mountain-ranges, 
the highest being 5250 feet. From the top, or 
even high up on the sides, of the mountains of 
this island one can see the plains of Troy, as is 
said in Homer's Iliad. This is a very interest- 
ing confirmation of the accuracy of Homer as to 
geography and minute observation. 


Macedonia under the Roman rule was divided 
into four districts for safety against a general re- 
bellion, 167 A. d. A coin of the first division is 

(Mac. I., Diet., p. 62.) 

on page 62 in the Dictionary ; one of the sec- 
ond (74) is here ; none is known of the third ; 
but of the fourth there are several, besides this 
one, No. 75, which bears the mark of the em- 
peror's legate (leg). The chief cities were — 


Amphipolis, capital of the 1st district ; Thessa- 
lonica, of the 2d; Pella, of the 3d; and Heraclea, 
of the 4th. The peoples of the several districts 
were kept wholly distinct, not even being allow- 
ed to marry those of another or have any deal- 
ings in houses or lands. The proconsul over the 
whole country resided at Thessalonica ; the Ro- 
man roads were excellent throughout the coun- 
try, uniting the capitals. The chief seaport 
eastward was Neapolis, the coin of which bears 
an archaic head of Diana with a peculiar style 
of hair-dressing, and the letters in Greek neop, 
for Neapolis; on the reverse a head of the fabu- 
lous monster called Gorgon. The road from 
Neapolis to Philippi leads over the river Zy- 
gactes (break-pole), about which the Greeks tell 
this legend : Proserpine was gathering flowers by 
the river, when Pluto fell in love with her and 

No. 76. 

took her into his chariot, the pole of which broke 
as he tried to cross the river. The whole coun- 
try is poetically dotted with similar legends and 

The coin of Philippi shows that it was a Ro- 
man colony, the inscription being, " Tiberius 
Claudius Caesar Augustus, High Priest, Tribunal 

No 77. — PHILIPPI. 

Power, Emperor," around bust, and " Colony of 
Julia Augusta of Philippi" around statues of 
Julius C&ssar and Augustus, standing on a ped- 

estal inscribed " The Deified Augustus." The 
city was first called Crenides, or Fountains, after- 
ward Datum ; but when Philip, father of Alex- 
ander the Great, fortified it, he named it after 
himself. The gold-mines of the vicinity were 
very productive, yielding a million a year. The 
famous battle between Octavius (afterward Au- 
gustus) and Antony (No. 18) on one side, and 
Brutus and Cassius on the other, was fought 
here 36 b. c. The remains of the earthworks 
used on that day can be traced now for long 
distances, and there are remains of a triumphal 
arch near the modern city. (For Thyatira in 
Asia, where Lydia, found by Paul at Philippi, 
resided, see coin No. 123.) 


The coin of Brutus commemorates his victory 
at Philippi, showing trophies. 

The scourging of Paul and Silas at Philippi is 
illustrated by this scene (No. 79) from an ancient 
gem, which leaves no doubt of the Roman man- 


ner. Livy (viii. 32) and Aulus Gellius (x. 3) 
describe the Roman manner of flogging in the 
public square or forum on the naked body. 

Philippi was then the capital of the province, 
instead of Amphipolis (see under 75), and had 
the " Italian right," which included exemption 
from martial law and its hasty punishments, and 
from certain taxes, and also being favored with 
peculiar privileges. The Roman citizen, or any 
other person having the " Italian right," could 
not be condemned and punished without a trial, 
and he also had the right of appeal. The scourg- 
ing was done in the public square of the city, be- 
fore the assembled people. Some were tied to a 
post ; others were stripped and had their hands 
tied behind the back. 


On the coin of Thessalonica, we find " Caius 
(Caligula), son of Augustus," around the por- 
trait of Caius, and " Of the Thessalonians " 
(money) around a head of Augustus. Caius 
was an adopted son. He was one of the as- 
sessors when Archelaus and Herod Antipas and 
Philip were heard before Augustus prior to the 
death of Herod the Great. (Jos. Ant. xvii. 9, 5; 
see Thessalonica in the Dictionary.) 

The poetical allusions of Paul are cited as evi- 
dence of his acquaintance with, and keen relish 
for, their beauties. For instance, in his address 
to the Athenians there is an allusion to the poems 
of the Cilician poet Aratus in this line : 

"For we are also his offspring" (Acts xvii. 28); 

and when he rebukes the Cretans, he quotes from 
their own writer, Epimenides : 

" The Cretans 
Are always liars, evil beasts, slow bellies " (Tit. i. 12) ; 

and for the Corinthians he selects a line from the 
comedy of "Thais," a word of the excellent writer 
Menander : 

" Evil communications corrupt good manners." 

The poet Aratus was a Cilician, born at Soli, 
and a fellow-countryman with Paul. He was at 
the court of Antigonus Gonatas many years, 

NO. 81.— THE POET ARATUS (300-250 B. C). 

where he wrote the astronomical Greek poem, 
called " Phenomena," from which Paul quoted 
in Acts xvii. 28, on which Hipparchus wrote a 
commentary, and of which Cicero made a Latin 
version. Ovid said, " Aratus will always be as- 
sociated with the sun and moon in the minds of 
men, for his excellent qualities." 

No. 82. — MENANDER (b. 341 B. C.). 

Menander, the Greek tragic poet, was the 
originator of the New Comedy, and had the high- 
est reputation, being eulogized by Julius Csesar, 
Plutarch, and other ancients. Paul quoted from 
his comedy of Thais in 1 Cor. xiii. 33. The por- 
traits of Socrates and Plato are from an ancient 
gem now in the possession of Mr. John Taylor 
Johnston of New York City. They are intro- 
duced here because Socrates was accused of vio- 


lating the laws by corrupting youth, and by 
acknowledging strange gods not sanctioned by 
the laws — accusations made against Paul. (On 
the subject of the accusations against Paul see 
Acts xxiii. and xvii. 22..) 

■ ■ ■- - 



The coin of Athens (84) is of the age of Peri- 
cles, 470 B. c. The purity of the silver and gold 
of the coinage of Athens after Solon's reform 

NO. 84. — ATHENS. 

made the type useful as late as the time of Alex- 
ander, who changed the standard in weight, and 
then new and better designs were adopted. The 
head is of Minerva, and the owl was sacred to 
that goddess ; athb for Athens. 

The coin of Cenchrea, the port of Corinth, is 
of the date of 138 A. D. or later, and shows a 
head of the emperor Antoninus Pius, the suc- 
cessor of Hadrian in that year. The reverse 


has a plan of the port, where a circular row of 
warehouses end in an office, or perhaps a temple, 
on either side, and in the centre stands a statue 
of Neptune, while ships in full sail are in the 
harbor, with the initials of " Colonia Laus Julia 
Corinthos." (See in the Dictionary.) 

There are perhaps more coins of different 
types of Ephesus than of any other ancient 
city. The political and religious characteristics 
of the city and of the age are illustrated on 
them, which have many allusions to the Diana- 
worship, and bear the names and official titles 

No. 86. — EPHESUS. 

f>f various public officers referred to in the New 
Testament. The one below (87), with the head 
of Nero, is dated about the time assigned to 
Paul's visit. We learn from the coins that there 
were many temples to Diana and other deities 
(117) — one of Apollo at the head of the port; 
one opposite the great theatre ; another of Diana 
near the theatre. One of the Diana temples has 
four columns; another has columns all around 

No. 87.— EPHESUS. 

it; a third (the great temple), eight columns in 
front (114). The theatre was the largest struc- 
ture ever built by the Greeks, and would hold 
60,000 spectators. In this were displayed the 

fmblic games by the Asiarch — running, wrest- 
ing, feats of strength, boxing, horse-racing, 
gladiatorial contests, and fights with wild beasts 
U Cor. xv. 33) j one of the latter is presented on 

the coin No. 88. (See 1 Cor. ix. 24, 25.) The 
emperor Claudius died during the time Paul 
was at Ephesus, 54 A. d. 

The inscription on coin No. 87 is "Nero Caesar," 
around a portrait of the emperor on one side, 
and on the other, " Of the Ephesians Neocori, 
Aichmocles Aviola, Proconsul," around a temple 
of Diana, on each side of which are eph in 
Greek letters. The neokoros was a conductor 
of the public-worship ; we have no such officer 

NO. 88. — REGULUS. 

now. The city also had the privilege of build- 
ing a temple in honor of the reigning emperor ; 
and on coin No. 117 the four temples suggest 
that one or more may have been of that class. 
The inscriptions on the coins of Colossae show 
that the name of the city was written differently 
in most ancient times. The place is now entirely 
deserted, while Xenophon says (Anab. ii. 2) it 
was a great, populous, and flourishing city ; and 
Pliny says (v. 41) it was one of the most cele- 

NO. 89.— COLOSSI. 

No. 90.— COLOSSI. 

brated towns in Phrygia. Laodicea and Hier- 
apolis were near, and were included in the circuit 
of labors of the apostle and his assistants (Col. 
iv. 13). These three towns were all in the valley 
of the river Mseander, within a circuit of fifteen 
miles. Hierapolis is included among the illus- 
trious cities of Asia by Tacitus. It has been 
shaken by earthquakes in successive ages, but is 
still a fine city, called by the Turks Pambook 
Kalessi. The hot springs near are the resort of 
invalids and curiosity-hunters, who examine the 
deposits of lime from the waters, which have 
formed vast masses in fantastic shapes. Among 
the ruins of the ancient city the theatre and the 
gymnasium are the most noted. The Stoic phil- 
osopher Epictetus was a native of Hierapolis, 
where he was sold in his youth as a slave to a 
freedman of the emperor Nero; which became 
the means of his good fortune, for he was taken 
to Eome, where he found means of gaining an 
education and his freedom. 

No. 91.— NERO. 

On coin No. 91 there is a front of a provision- 
market, called in Latin macellum (mac on 
the coin), which is interesting in connection with 
the text of 1 Cor. x. 25. The legend is, " Nero 
Claudius, Caesar Augustus Germanicus, Tribunal 
Power, Emperor, Father of the Country," around 
a bust-portrait of Nero on one side, and on the 
other, "Provision-Market of Augustus, (struck 
by) Decree of the Senate." 

The emperors supplied the poor people of Eome 
under Augustus, to the number of 200,000, with 
grain for bread. This free gift continued in prac- 
tice until the time of Alexander Severus, 222 A. D., 
when it was abolished. 

The island of Chios is named in Acts (xx. 15) 

as on Paul's route to Judsea, and coins Nos. 92. 
93 are from it. On the larger one we read] 

No. 92.— CHIOS. 

"Under the Archonship of Quintus Valerias 
Primus, of the Chians," around an amphora 
(wine-bottle), and three asses around and below 
a sphinx. Three asses were equal to six cents. 
On the smaller we read, " Chios iEschines," on 

No. 93. — CHIOS. 

either side of a water-bottle. This was the far- 
thing-piece or half a cent; two mites were equal 
to one of these. 

Earthquakes have recently caused a great loss 
of life and a destruction of many houses in the 
cities and villages of Chios (now called Scio). 
The island is 32 miles long by 8 to 18 miles 
wide. Its fertility and the excellent quality of 
its wine, mastic, figs, and other products have 
been the theme of writers in all ages. This was 
one of the seven places that claimed the honor 
of Homer's nativity, the other six being Smyrna, 
Rhodes, Colophon, Salamis, Athens, and Argos. 
They show a sepulchre in Chios which is called 
Homer's, near the ruins of an ancient temple to 

No. 94.— SAMOS. 

Samos was the capital of an island of the same 
name. We read on the coin No. 94, " Hegesianax, 
of the Samians," above a head and shoulders of 
an ox ; the head of a lion is without inscription. 
This is a very ancient place, and mentioned in 
the earliest history. 

NO. 95. — MILETUS. 

The coin of Miletus has a head of Apollo 
bound with a wreath of laurel, and on the re- 
verse a lion looking back at a star, with the 
monogram of Miletus and the name of Theo- 
doras, who was a chief magistrate. (See Dic- 
tionary, pp. 65, 66.) 

No. 96. — COS. 

The island of Cos was called the garden of 
the iEgean Sea. It was mentioned in the book 
of Maccabees (1 Mace. xv. 23) and in Josephus 
(Ant. xiv. 7, 2) in connection with the war with 
Mithridates. Herod the Great conferred many 
favors on the Jews in Cos. 


For coin of Rhodes, see Dictionary. It has 
4 head of Apollo radiated as the sun on one side, 
and " Amynias (a magistrate) of the Rhodians" 
on the other, around an opening rose. 

NO. 97. — PATARA. 
(Rhodes, Diet., p. 85.) 

Patara was the port of Xanthus, the capital of 
Lycia, and stood eight miles east of the Yellow 
(xanthus) River. It is now a ruin, and its port 
is filled up with sand. On the coin a head of 
Apollo in a laurel-wreath is on one side, and a 
head of Diana on the other, with the words " Of 
the Patareans." Ruins of a theatre, baths, and a 
triple arch which was once a city-gate mark the 

Lycia was south of Asia, and had its Lysiarchs 
as Asia had its Asiarchs. It was a part of the 

No. 98.— LYCIA. 

Persian dominions before Alexander (Herodotus 
vii. 91, 92), then under the Greek kings to the 
time the Romans took it from Antiochus. It is 
mentioned in 1 Mace. xv. 23, and was made a 
Roman province under Claudius. On the coin 
is a head of Apollo and a lyre, with "Of the 
Lycians, Year 8." 


Acre was a city of Phoenicia, and was invested 
by the Romans with the privileges of a colony, 
as appears on this coin of Claudius, with the 
legend, "(Claudius) Caesar, High Priest, Consul 
4th time, Emperor 13th year" (47 A. D.), around 
a portrait, and " The Deified Claudius, Ptolemais, 
Claudian Colony, Citizens Saved," around two 
oxen and driver, with four standards of the le- 
gions — 6, 9, 10, 11. 


The coin of Adramyttium reads, " Antinous the 
Bacchus," around portrait of Antinous (who was 
deified in the reign of Hadrian), and " Dedicated 
by Egesias of the Adramyttians," around a fig- 
ure of Ceres. This place was settled in the time 
of Croesus by the Lydians, 590 B. c. 

On the coin of Sidon we find a head of a king 
or emperor without name, and a group of the 

No. 101.— SIDON. 

fabled Europa and the bull, with the words " Of 
the Sidonians." This myth of Europa was re- 
corded on many coins of different nations. (See 
Sidon in the Dictionary.) The name Europe 
means " the west " when applied to the country, 
but it means on this coin a deified daughter of 
Agenor, king of Phoenicia, of whom it is fabled 
that Jupiter was enamored, and she became the 
mother of the heroes Minos, Sarpedon, and Rhad- 
amanthus, and after that married Asterius, the 
king of Crete ; the Cretans deified her and built 
shrines for her worship. 

NO. 102. — CNIDUS. 

Cnidus was known to the Jews in the second 
century B. c. (1 Mace. xv. 23), and was passed by 
Paul (Acts xxvii. 7). It must have been of great 
importance and magnificence. It was formerly 
on an island of the same name, but is now con- 
nected with the mainland by a causeway. The 
coin presents a head of Venus with many orna- 
ments, and a lion's head, with Ethbolo, the name 
of a magistrate. This place has been named 
Triopia, Pegusia, and Stadia, because founded 
by Triopas. The chief deity worshiped there 
was Venus, whose temple was famed for its mar- 
ble statue of that goddess, the work of Praxiteles. 
The mathematician Eudoxus, the philosopher 
Agatharcides, the historian Theopompus, and 
the physician Ctesias were natives of Cnidus. 
It is now a mass of ruins. The historian Theo- 
pompus is quoted by several ancient authors, 
and is favorably compared with Thucydides and 
Herodotus, but was more satirical and illiberal. 
His works are lost, only the passages quoted by 
others being extant. Ctesias wrote a history of 
Persia in twenty-three books. 

No. 103. — CNOSSUS. 

Crete is rich in the early mythology of the 
Greeks ; Cnossus was its chief city, and Gortyna 
second. (See Dictionary.) The famous 
Labyrinth is presented on this coin and on 
No. 142. The head of Diana has an orna- 
mented cap, and she has earrings and neck- 
lace of pearls or hollow gold beads ; the word 
is "Of the Knossians." The Cretans are 
named among those who witnessed the gift 
of tongues (Actsii. 11). The strange fables 
of the Gnostics were received on the island. 
A natural cave is shown to travelers near 
Gortyna as the original Labyrinth; it has 
many rooms and passages, with stalactites, 
and may have suggested the poetic idea 
which the ancient poet crystallized in the 
tale of Theseus and the Minotaur. 

Gaulos is a small island near Malta. The 
coin is Phoenician, and is described: Head of 

the governor of the island, with a caduceus in 
token of his good conduct in office ; on tbe re- 

No. 104. — GAULOS. 

verse a wreath of laurel around a vase, and lie 
letters all, for alal, in Phoenician letters. 

The coin of Malta was struck by the Greeks, 
and presents a head of the Egyptian goddess 
Isis with mystic head-dress and crown, a bead 
of barley, and the words " Of the Maltese ;" on 
the reverse a figure of the god Osiris, winged, 

NO. 105.— MELITA (MALTA). 

crowned with the serpent, and holding the em- 
blems of power in either hand. The knowledge 
and use of the Egyptian gods extended to Rome 
also in later times. 

The coin of Syracuse (No. 106) is of Gelon, 
485-478 b. c, and presents the head of a girl, 
hair waved in front, one lock hanging over the 
ear, the rest braided and folded or gathered in 
a net, bound with a wreath of olive; earring, 

NO. 106. — SYRACUSE. 

with pendants and necklace; four dolphins swim 
around the head in the same direction, differing 
from the one below ; on the other side was the 
chariot and four horses similar to that on the 
next coin. 

Coin No. 107 is of Hiero of Syracuse, 470 B. c, 
and bears a head of the goddess Arethusa, with 
earring, necklace, band, and hair in a net ; four 
dolphins swim around, two meeting before the 
face, indicating, as is supposed, that the island on 
which the fountain of Arethusa is located was 
there united to the mainland by a causeway, 
built after the former coin was struck. The 
chariot and four horses commemorate victories 
won by King Hiero in the Olympic Games, which 
were celebrated by the poet Pindar in his Odes. 
Besides Pindar, his court was frequented by 
iEschylus, Simon ides, and Epicharmus — all well- 

No. 107.— SYRACUSE. 

known authors of Greek literature. Hiero was 
a generous patron of the arts and sciences. 



This- portrait of King Hiero on No. 108 is the 
oldest-known portrait on any coin, and is dated 
48<* J.c. 

NO. 108. — SYRACUSE. 

Nero was made emperor through the manage- 
ment of his mother, Agrippina, wife of Claudius, 
in 54 A. r»., when he was seventeen years old. 
The portrait of the young man appears beard- 
less on many coins (see 70), and his advancing 
years can be traced to the last (in 68 A. d.) on 
various specimens, No. 91 or 111 marking the 
greatest age. He was not old when he died (by 
his own hand), aged thirty-one. It is said his 
chief passion was to sing with a thin, shrill voice 
to the sound of a guitar, although he had talents 
in painting, sculpture, and poetry. It is said that 


he became a monster of crime and cruelty. Sen- 
eca, one of his advisers in state affairs, was the 
most elegant scholar of the age. He instituted 
games, called Juvenilia, in honor of his first 
beard. Coin No. 110 is inscribed, " Nero Clau- 


dius, Caesar Augustus Germanicus," around a 
portrait with a radiated crown ; on the reverse, 
"Freighted with (or by) Augustus," around a 
grain-ship, in reference to the supplies obtained 
from Africa for the people of Rome. 

Coin No. 109 has this legend : " Nero Claudius, 
Caesar Augustus Germanicus, High Priest, Tri- 
bunal Power, Emperor, Father of the Country," 
around a youthful head of the emperor ; and on 
the other side a figure of Nero playing on a lyre 
or cithara. 

NO. 111. — NERO. 

Coin No. Ill is inscribed, "Nero Claudius, 
Caesar Augustus Germanicus, Tribunal Power, 
Father of the Country, Emperor ;" and on the 
reverse, " Peace in the earth and on the sea, the 
temple of Janus closed," around a front of the 
temple of Janus hung with a garland over the 
door, the letters S C on either side for " Decree 
of the Senate." 

The Seven Churches of Asia (Rev. i. 4). 

Of Patmos there are no coins. 
Of the cities of the seven churches in Asia, 
some are a heap of ruins, and others, like 
Ephesus, have been lost, and only recent- 
ly restored by the explorer's shovel. The 
city was originally named Smyrna (Strabo 
xiv. 1,4). The Diana-worship was peculiar- 
ly Oriental, and included magic, charms, 
amulets, soothsaying, and pretended mir- 
acles. The image of Diana in the great 
temple was of immense height, carved in 
ebony, ivory, and gold, and probably form- 
ed like those on the coins. The moon was 
symbolized behind the head and shoulders; 
the signs of the Zodiac were carved on 
the drapery of the breast, and animals or mon- 
strous forms were distributed over the drapery 
of the lower limbs; in each hand was a tri- 

NO. 112. — EPHESUS. 

NO. 113. — EPHESUS. 

dent. It was asserted that the image fell 
from heaven (or Jupiter) complete, as is also 
said of the Kaaba Stone in Mecca. Diana was 
worshiped in three characters — as the moon 
(Luna) in the heavens, Diana on earth, and 
Hecate in Hades. One month was named Arte- 
misia from the annual festival in honor of the 
goddess (called Artemis), the record of which in 
a decree, engraved on a marble slab, was found 
near the temple, corroborating the text of Acts 
xix. 35. During the month of revels various 
scenes were enacted in which the gods were rep- 
resented: a man as Jupiter the May King, who 

NO. 114.— EPHESUS. 

was appointed by the emperor or his legate ; one 
as Apollo, and another as Mercury. The Jupiter 
wore a robe glittering with gold, white as snow, 
and a crown of carbuncles, pearls, and other 
pregious stones (Malala, lib. xii.). Ephesus was 
the great market of the region, buyers and sellers 
flocking there in great numbers ; thus religion, 
business, and pleasure combined to make the fes- 
tival-month a success. It was in that month that 
Paul's visit was timed. The expenses of the 
games were paid, all or a part, by the Asiarch 
(see Asiarch in the Dictionary), who super- 
intended the exhibition. The great image was 
copied in small sizes for use in private families, 
shops, etc., and for travelers. 

NO. 115. — EPHESUS. 

On coin No. 115 are heads of Augustus and 
Livia joined, and on the reverse the legend, 

"Aristion Menophantus, Recorder of the Ephe* 
sians," around a stag, the emblem of Diana of 

NO. 116.— EPHESUS. 

Ephesus. No. 116 presents the image of Diana 
the huntress, with bow, quiver, and a stag, from a 
fine Greek model. No. 117 is a coin bearing the 
fronts of four temples, in one of which stands 

NO. 117.— EPHESUS. 

an image of Diana, the others having effigies o» 
the emperors. The Apollo (118) was the male 
god, the sun, as the Diana was the female, the 

NO. 118.— APOLLO. 

moon, and both are represented with bow and 
arrow. This Apollo is from the original marble 
in the Vatican, Rome ; the Diana below, a chariot 
and two horses driven by the goddess, inside a 

NO. 119. — DIANA. 

circle formed by a serpent with its tail in iti 
mouth, the ancient symbol of eternity. 



Smyrna, the second of the "seven," is men- 
tioned only once in the Scriptures (Rev. ii. 8-11), 

NO. 120.— SMYRNA. 

but honorably, and it enjoyed the proud title, 
"The Ornament of Asia." The most popular 
deity of the ancient city was the god Bacchus ; 
other gods were Apollo, Diana, the Nemesis, the 
father of the gods (Zeus), the mother of the gods 
(Hera), the city of Rome as Roma, and peculiar- 
ly, Dionysus, who was fabled to die by violence 
and be resuscitated every year. It had a large 
public library and a museum, dedicated to Ho- 
mer, who was claimed as a countryman, an 
Odeum, and other public buildings, including 
•a hall of justice, where appeals from other cities 

NO. 121.— SMYRNA. 

were heard under the Roman laws. It is now a 
city filled with ruins built into modern walls, 
which include many fragments of sculptures and 
other works of art. Herodotus described a statue 
which was near the city, cut on the face of a rock, 
seven feet high, Egyptian in style, with this in- 
Bcription across the breast: "I conquered this 
country by the might of my arms." (See Dan. 
xi.) This city was founded by Alexander the 
Great after the battle .of Granicus. 

Pergamus, the third church in the list, was in 
a city which was the capital of a district of the 
same name. The city was founded before the Tro- 
jan war, when Pergamos, son of Pyrrhus, deposed 


King Arius there. Philetairus founded the race 
of Attalian kings of Pergamus, 280 B. c. ; Eu- 
menes, his nephew, succeeded him, 262 B. c. 
Eumenes II. was rewarded for services to the 
Romans by the addition to his kingdom of 
Mysia, Lydia, and Phrygia ; he founded a 
library that became the rival of that at Alex- 
andria. Attalus III. (133 B. c.) gave his king- 
dom to the Roman people and ended the mon- 
archy of Pergamus. 


Thyatira was mentioned fourth in the Apoc- 
alypse. (See in the Dictionary.) The coins 
bear the heads of Apollo (Tyrimnas), Hercules, 
Athene, Roma, Cybele, and the reigning empe- 
rors. The remains of antiquity are numerous, 

but ruinous, such as fragments of sculptures and 
inscribed stones giving an account of the various 
labor-guilds of that age. (Acts xvi. 14.) 

NO. 124. — THYATIRA. 

The city of Thyatira was founded by Seleucus 
I i" 3. 2), as one of the many Macedonian col- 
onieo which were among the results of the par- 
tition of Persia by the successors of Alexander 
the Great. It had been a city from remote times, 
called Pelopia, Semiramis, and Euhippia, after 
various rulers in different ages, and under the 
Persian rule from the time of Cyrus the Great, 
546 B. c. A very curious superstition is said to 
have been introduced there by the Jews in the 
worship of the sibyl Sambatha. (See Rev. ii. 

NO. 125.— SARDIS. 

Sardis was the fifth in the list, and the capital 
of ancient Lydia, which Homer called Mceonia, 
the " Queen of Asia," whose earliest king was 
Candaules, 716 B. c, and the last Croesus, 560- 
546 B. c. The golden sands of the Pactolus fur- 
nished metal (electrum) for the money of that 
age, which assisted in developing the manufac- 
tures and trade of the city. (See in the Diction- 
ary.) Two massive columns (6 feet 6 inches 
thick and 40 feet high) of the once magnificent 
temple of Cybele remain among a heap of ruins. 
It was of the same age as vhe temple of Zeus in 

No. 126.— SARDIS. 

iEgina and of Hera in Samos. An earthquake 
in the time of Tiberius very much damaged the 
city, when its tribute to Rome was remitted for 
five years. Its theatre was nearly 400 feet in 
diameter, and the stadium adjoining it was 1000 
feet long. The ancient name of the city was 
HydS, under the rule of Omphale, a wife of Her- 
cules. The modern name is Sart Kalessi, but the 
place is deserted ; only heaps of ruins remain of 
the once famous city, which was full of temples, 
theatres, factories, and commodious dwellings, all 
of stone. 


Philadelphia was a city on the border of Lydia 
and Phrygia, on the slopes of Mount Tmolus and 
on the banks of the Cogamus River. 

Philadelphia was the sixth in the list of the 
churches in Asia. The city was founded by 

Attalus II., called Philadelphus, 140 b. c, as a 
mart for the famous wine-district celebrated bj 

NO. 128.— ATTALUS II. PHILADELPHUS (159-138 B. C.). 

Virgil ; and the coins of that period have a head 
of Bacchus or the figure of a Bacchante. Xerxes 
passed near the site of the city, and Herodotus 
speaks of the sorghum as in successful cultiva- 
tion then (485-465 b. c). The valley of the Her- 
mus is one of the most extensive and fruitful in 
Asia. The coins of the later rulers are not very 
numerous. Attalus II. «n coin No. 128 is repre 


sented more or less ideally after the likeness of 
the progenitor of the dynasty of Pergamus (No, 
122), whose descendant he was. 

NO. 130. — LAODICEA. 

The ruins of Laodicea are on seven hills, and 
comprise a stadium, three theatres (one 450 feet in 
diameter), a gymnasium, bridges, aqueducts, etc. 
The earliest name was Diospolis (city of Jupiter) ; 
after that, Rhoas, which was then the largest city 
in Phrygia ; and finally Antiochus named it aftei 

NO. 131. — LAODICEA. 

his sister, Laodice. The aqueducts are construct- 
ed with a knowledge of hydraulics equal to ours, 
the theatres have seats numbered and lettered, 
and the place abounds in evidences of a high 
state of civilization. This city under the Roman 
rule was a place of importance for its trade and 
manufactures. In the Christian age it was a 
populous and wealthy city where the great coun- 
cils of the Church met. The ruined site is called 



Places mentioned in the Account of the 
Day of Pentecost, Acts ii. 9-11. 

The Parthian kingdom was founded about 250 
B. c by Arsaces, a Scythian, and it extended over 
a large part of Asia. The Parthians were never 
Wholly subdued by the Romans, their last king, 
Artabanus IV., being killed by the Persians 226 
A. d. The Parthians captured many Roman 

250 b. c. 

Btandards in battle, which were returned after 
a solemn treaty amid great rejoicing in Rome 
Under Augustus, who struck several medals in 
commemoration of the event. The coin No. 132 
is of Arsaces IX., Mithridates II., who was the 
first to make his nation known to the Romans 
under Sulla, 92 B. c 

Mesopotamia appears first in history as a coun- 
try inhabited by many independent tribes, as 
Arabia is now, then as a part of the Assyrian 
empire, and after that divided between the 


(For Judaea, see No. 42.) 

Medes and Babylonians. Cyrus added it to 
Persia, and Alexander made it a satrapy under 
his rule; it fell, after his death, to one of his 
generals, Seleucus I., and to the Parthians, B. c 
160. Trajan made it a Roman province A. d. 115. 
Cappadocia was founded by Pharnaces744B. c. ; 
conquered by Perdiccas of Macedonia 322. The 
Romans first encouraged the formation of cities. 
The king Ariarathes mentioned in 1 Mace. xv. 22 


was the sixth of that name. The last king of 
Cappadocia was Archelaus, who was favored by 
Augustus, but died at Rome A. d. 17, when the 
country was made a Roman province, under Ti- 

Pontus was originally a part of Cappadocia, 
near the Pontus Euxinus, and made an inde- 

gendent nation by Artabazus, under Darius of 
ersia, 487 b. c. Mithridates VI. (No. 10) con- 
Suered Scythia, Bosphorus, Colchis, and .Cappa- 
oeia. The kingdom ended in the death of 
Mithridates, 63 b. c, and it became a Roman 
province under the emperors. P^emo was made 

No. 135.— PONTUS. 

feing of Pontus by Antony, whom he attended in 
his expedition against Parthia. His son, whose 
head appears on this coin, was confirmed on the 
throne by Claudius. 

Asia as a province dates from B. c 138 (see 
Coin No. 121) ; before that it had been from the 
time of Alexander under the 
Seleucid kings, until it be- 
came a Roman province. The 
Greeks and Persians contend- 
ed for centuries for suprem- 
acy in Asia until Alexander's 
time, since when it was under 
the Seleucid kings (except 
Pergamus, which was given 
to the Romans by will 133 
B. a), until it became a Roman province 15 A. D., 
under Tiberius. 

Phrygia was made a part of the kingdom of 
Antigonus Cyclops after the death of Alexan- 
der, 323 b. c. It was made a Roman province 
47 B. c. Phrygia was a vague term, including a 

NO. 136. — SELEUCUS I. 

NO. 137. — ANTIGONUS, PHRYGIA (333-301 B. C). 

large territory, from which portions were added 
to several Roman provinces at different times. 
Iconium and Colosse were in Phrygia. Jose- 
phus says Antiochus the Great (No. 5) first in- 
troduced Jews to Phrygia about 200 B. c. (Ant. 
xii. 3, 4). Acts xiii. 14; xiv. 1, 19. 

Pamphylia is mentioned by Herodotus (vii. 
91, 92) as one of the lesser states. In Paul's 
time it was a Roman province, enlarged under 


Claudius by Lycia and a part of Pisidia. Myra 
was the port where Paul changed ships on the 
way to Rome. It contains many relics of dif- 
ferent ages : tombs with Lycian inscriptions, a 
theatre of the Greek age, a Byzantine church, 
and later remains. The Orthodox Greeks have a 
legend that St. Nicolas was born at Patara, buried 
at Myra, and his bones now rest, having been 
moved to St. Petersburg recently. (See No. 69.) 
The Egypt of the Bible, so far as the coins 
present it, dates from Alexander the Great, 332 
B. c. (No. 1). The Ptolemies continued from 
323 (see Dictionary) to Cleopatra, 30 b. c, 
when it became a Roman province. Hadrian 

NO. 139.— HADRIAN IN EGYPT (117-188 A. D.). 

spent the greater part of his reign in journeys 
throughout the provinces of his empire, display- 
ing liberality, political wisdom, and love of the 
fine arts. On this coin appears the inscription, 
"Hadrian Augustus, Consul 3d time, Father 
of the Country," around head of the emperor ; 
and an emblem of the Nile — a strong man sur- 
rounded by boys, representing the districts of 

Egypt, Sphinx and Crocodile, with S C for De- 
cree of the Senate. 

Cyrenaica comprised five cities and theii 
outlying districts (see Dictionary), was col- 
onized by the Greeks as early as 600 B. c, and 
was named by Aristaeus after his mother. After 
Alexander, it became a dependency of Egypt. 


The coin presents a head of Jupiter Ammon on 
one side, and on the other the sacred silphion 
plant, now extinct. The Romans received it as 
a legacy from Apion, son of Ptolemy Physcon, 
97 B. c. It is now a desert. 

This coin (141) is of the Roman people, and 
represents a young man with a staff and a horn 

NO. 141w— ROME. 

of plenty. The people owned large districts 1* 
the provinces in the time of the emperors, and 
the taxes were derived for ages entirely from the 
countries subject to Rome outside of Italy. At 
one time, as Pliny says, six Roman proprietors 
owned half the land in Africa outside of Egypt, 
and Augustus owned all Egypt. 

The Minotaur was fabled to have been shut in 
the Cretan labyrinth and fed on young men and 


maids, supplied by Athens yearly, until Theseus 
(a king of Athens) killed the monster by the 
help of Ariadne, daughter of Minos, king of 
Crete. Theseus was next to Hercules in suc- 
cess, killing the Minotaur, vanquishing the 
Centaurs, but was finally chained to a huge 
rock in Hades by Pluto for attempting the 
rescue of Proserpine. (See No. 103.) 

The Aretas of Petra, king of the Naba- 
theans, was in alliance with the Greek kings 
of Syria, and inscribed his friendship on his 


coins, as on this : " Aretas, lover of the Greeks." 
He must have employed Greek architects in Pe- 
tra, for the remains of the city, cut in the solid 
rock, are of their style. (See No. 65, and Dic- 
tionary, p. 78.1 

Coins, Money and Weights of the Bible. 

By F. W. Madden, M.B.A.S. 

General Remarks. — Ancient money was of 
two kinds, uncoined and coined. By uncoined may 
be understood pieces not issued under an authority, 
'hough they may have borne some stamp or impress 
of their value. By coined may be understood ingots, 
»f which the weight and fineness are certified by the 
integrity of designs impressed upon the surfaces of 
the metal (Prof. Jevons, Money, p. 57). 

The first mention in the Bible, after the Flood, of 
uncoined money is when Abraham came up out of 
Egypt "very rich in cattle, in silver, and in gold" 
(Gen. xiii. 2; comp. Gen. xxiv. 35). Though this 

fiassage does not imply anything more than "bul- 
ion," yet we soon find a notice of the use of money 
|Heb. silver) as the price paid for a slave (Gen. xvii. 
13). The first actual transaction of commerce is the 
purchase by Abraham of the cave of Machpelah for 
400 shekels of silver, current [money] with the mer- 
ihant (Gen. xxiii. 16) ; and silver as a medium of 
commerce appears to have been in general use among 
the nations of the Philistines (Gen. xx. 16 ; Judg. 
xvi. 5, 18 ; xvii. 2, seq.), the Midianites (Gen. xxxvii. 
i&), and the Syrians (2 Kings v. 5, 23). By the laws 
»f Moses, men and cattle (Lev. xxvii. 3, seq. ; Num. 
iii. 45, seq.), the possessing houses and fields (Lev. 
xxvii. 14, seq.), provisions (Deut. ii. 6, 28 ; xiv. 26), 
all fines for offences (Exod. xxi., xxii.), the contribu- 
tions to the Temple (Exod. xxx. 13; xxxviii. 26), 
the sacrifice of animals (Lev. v. 15), the redemption 
of the first-born (Num. iii. 47-50; xviii. 15), were 
estimated and regulated by money value. It is prob- 
able that a fixed weight was assigned to single pieces, 
so as to make them suitable for the various articles 
presented in trade. The system of weighing (though 
frequent mention is made of the balance and the 
weighing of money, Exod. xxii. 17 ; Lev. xix. 36 ; 
Deut. xxv. 13, 15 ; 2 Sam. xviii. 12 ; 1 Kings xx. 39 ; 
Jer. xxxii. 9, 10; Prov. xi. 1, etc.) is not likely to 
have been applied to every individual piece. In the 
large total of 603,550 half-shekels accumulated by the 
contributions of each Israelite (Exod. xxxviii. 26), 
each individual half-shekel could hardly have been 
weighed. Money was sometimes put into a chest, 
which when full was emptied by the high priest, and 
the money was bound up in bags, and then told, per- 
haps being weighed in the bags (2 Kings xii. 9, 10; 
comp. 2 Chron. xxiv. 8-11). That there were pieces 
of different denominations is evident from the pas- 
sage in Exod. xxx. 13, where the half-shekel is to be 
paid as the atonement-money, and " the rich shall not 
give more, and the poor shall not give less" (Exod. 
xxx. 15). The third, part of the shekel is mentioned 
in Persian times (Neh. x. 32), and the fourth part 
must have been an actual piece, for it was all the sil- 
ver that the servant of Saul had to pay the seer (1 
Sam. ix. 8, 9). Iron and lead bars of constant form 
and weight circulated in Egypt ; in Greece, bars of 
iron ; in Italy, bars of copper ; in Britain, in the time 
of Julius Caesar, bars of copper and iron ; and from 
the earliest times gold and silver in the same shape 
were employed in general traffic in the East. This 
explains the mention of a wedge (Heb. tongue) of 
gold found by Achan at Jericho (Josh. vii. 21) [see 
Talent under Weights], as well as the different pay- 
ments which are mentioned in the O. T., and which 
presuppose with certainty the currency of single 
pieces of metal according to weight. 

It is also probable that a system of "jewel cur- 
rency " or '' ring-money " was in vogue. The case of 
Rebekah, to whom the servant of Abraham gave " a 
golden ear-ring of half a shekel weight, and two 
bracelets for her hands of ten shekels weight" (Gen. 
xxiv. 22), proves that the ancient Hebrews made 
heir jewels of a specific weight, so as to know the 
value of these ornaments in employing them for 
money. That the Egyptians kept their bullion in 
jewels is evident from their monuments, where they 
are represented weighing rings of gold and silver, 
and is further illustrated by the fact of the Israelites 
having at their exodus from Egypt borrowed ''jewels 
[vessels] of silver and jewels [vessels] of gold" 
(Keli keseph, Keli zahab), and "spoiled the Egyp- 
tians" (Exod. xii. 35, 36; comp. Exod. iii. 22; xi. 
i). So too it would appear that the money used by 
the children of Jacob, when they went to purchase 

corn in Egypt, was an annular currency (Gen. xlii. 
35). Their money is described as "bundles of 
money," and when returned to them was found to be 
"of [full] weight" (Gen. xliii. 21). It was there- 
fore of a form capable of being tied up, which 
receives corroboration from the passage in Deute- 
ronomy (xiv. 24-26), where directions are given as 
to the payment of the tithes to the sanctuary : " Then 
shalt thou turn it into money, and bind up the money 
in thy hand, and shalt go unto the place which the 
Lord thy God shall choose." The account of the 
sale of Joseph to the Midianites affords another 
instance of the employment of jewel ornaments as 
a medium of exchange (Gen. xxxvii. 28), as we 
gather from the account in Numbers (xxxi. 50, 51) 
of the spoiling of the Midianites, that they carried 
their whole wealth in the forms of chains, bracelets, 
ear-rings, and tablets. The friends of Job gave him, 
in addition to "a piece of money" [Kesitah], "an 
ear-ring of gold" (nezem zahab, LXX. tetradrachmon 
chrusou kai asemou — tetradrachm of uncoined gold, 
Job xlii. 11). Now had these ear-rings of gold not 
been intended as representing money, all the friends 
of the patriarch would not have given him the 
same article, and that in conjunction with a piece of 

From these statements, it is evident, firstly, that if 
the Hebrews became learned in " all the wisdom of 
the Egyptians" (Acts vii. 22; comp. 1 Kings iv. 30), 
they did not learn from them the use of money ; and 
secondly, that nowhere in the Pentateuch is there any 
mention of money that was coined. Nor do the pas- 
sages in Joshua, Judges, and Job imply an actual 
coinage, any more than the "piece of silver" [Ago- 
eah] mentioned at the time of Samuel (1 Sam. ii. 
36). The reigns of David and Solomon were an era 
of prosperity for Judaea — "Silver was in Jerusalem 
as stones ; it was nothing accounted of in the days of 
Solomon" (1 Kings x. 21, 27 ; 2 Chron. ix. 20, 27) ; 
still, it is certain that there were no real coins — namely, 
pieces struck under an authority — before the Exile. 
On the other hand, the Hebrews, as I have shown, 
must have employed pieces of a definite weight ; but 
the excavations in Palestine have never brought to 
light an example, any more than the excavations in 
Egypt, Assyria and Babylonia. It may, however, 
be observed that when the pieces of silver were col- 
lected for the treasury they were melted down before 
reissue. It is recorded (2 Kings xxii. 9; comp. 2 
Chron. xxxiv. 17) that Shaphan the scribe came to 
King Josiah, and said, " Thy servants have gathered 
together (Heb. melted) the money that was found in 
the house ;" and the same plan was also followed by 
the Persian king Darius (b. c. 521-485), who melted 
the gold and silver into earthen vessels, which when 
full were broken off, leaving the metal in a mass, 
from which pieces were broken off" as necessity 

The oldest coins extant are certain electrum staters 
of Lydia, probably about b. c. 720, which, issued on 
different standards, continued in circulation till the 
time of Croesus, who, on his accession in B. c. 568, 
reorganized the Lydian coinage, abolished electrum, 
and issued instead pieces of gold and silver. Before 
the introduction of coined money into Greece, there 
was a currency of obeliskoi, " spits " or " skewers," 
probably of iron or copper, six of which made a 
handful (drachme), and which were of a considerable 
size. The first Greek silver coins were struck at 
jEgina in B. c. 670-660. 

The earliest coins mentioned in the Bible are the 
coins called drams, b. c. 538 [Dram]. It is sup- 
posed by some that the Jewish silver shekels and 
half-shekels were introduced under Ezra, about B. c. 
458 [Shekel] ; but it is more probable that they 
were issued under Simon Maccabaeus, b. o. 139 (1 
Mace. xv. 6), and copper coins were struck by the 
Asmonaean and Herodian family. 

The N. T. history falls within the reigns of Augus- 
tus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero, but only 
Augustus (Luke ii. 1), Tiberius (Luke iii. 1), and 
Claudius (Acts xi. 28; xviii. 2), are mentioned; but 
Nero is alluded to in the Acts from chapter xxv. to 
the end, and in Phil. iv. 22. Coins of all these 
emperors would therefore be in circulation. 

The following list embraces all the denominations 
of money mentioned in the Old and New Testa* 

Agorah. See Piece of Silver. 

Bekah (Exod. xxxviii. 26). Literally "a half," 
"half a shekel," about Is. 4d. Extant half-shekels 
weigh about 110 grains. [Half a Shekel and 

Brass [Money]. (1) In the O. T. a passage in 
Ezekiel (xvi. 36, Heb. nechosheth, LXX. Chalkos, 
Vulgate ozs, A. V. filthiness) has been supposed to 
refer to brass money, but with no probability, as this 
was the latest metal introduced into Greece for 
money. The Hebrew word probably means some- 
thing worthless, like " base metal " (comp. Jer. vi. 
28; Ezek. xxii. 18). (2) Chalkos, pecunia (Matt. x. 
9). The brass coins current in Palestine in the N. T. 
period consisted of Roman copper and Greek impe- 
rial coins, of the coins of Alexander Jannaeus, of the 
Herodian family, and of the procurators of Judaea 
See Farthing and Mite. 

Daric. See Dram. 

Denarius. See Penny. 

Didrachm. See Shekel and Tribute-money. 

Drachm, Drachme, drachma (2 Mace. iv. 19; 
x. 20; xii. 43; Tobit v. 14). It is of various weights, 
according to the use of the different talents. The 
drachms here mentioned are of the Attic talent, which 
became almost universal on Alexander's succession 
(b. c. 338), and weighed about 67.2 grains. In later 
times (about B. c. 27), the drachm weighed only 61.3 
grains, and thus became very nearly equal to the 
Roman denarius [Penny], the average weight of 
which was 60 grains. The earliest Attic drachm 
contained about fa of the weight of alloy, and 
there remain 66.1 grains of silver to be valued. Our 
shillings weigh 87.2 grains, and contain 80.7 grains 
of pure silver. The earliest Attic drachm is there- 
fore worth ^ of a shilling, or 9.82 pence, which is 
9fd.+ T 2 o of a farthing. The later Attic drachm, 
deducting also fa of the weight of alloy, is worth ^ 
of a shilling, or 8.93 pence, which is 8fd.-f fa of a 
farthing ; and hence the value of the latest drachm 
or denarius may be taken at about 8d. [Piece of 
Silver and Penny.] 

Dram. The translation in the A. V. of the He- 
brew words Adarkon and Darkemon (Ezra ii. 69 ; viii. 
27; Neh. vii. 70-72; 1 Chron. xxix. 7). Though 
there are several opinions concerning the origin of 
these words, it is agreed that by them a gold coin or 
stater — the Persian daric — is intended. The origin 
of the term has been sought in the name of Darius 
the Mede, but on no sure grounds, or of that of 
Darius, son of Hystaspes. In consequence of the 
type of the coins being "an archer" (by which name 
— toxotai — they were sometimes called), some have 
thought that the Hebrew words were derived from 
darak, "to bend the bow;" whilst others suggest a 
connection with the Persian words dashtan, " to have, 
to hold, to possess," or dara, "a king," which lattei 
would be a likely derivation, as the figure represented 
is not any particular king, but the king of Persia in 
a general sense. Though the passages in Ezra nnd 
Nehemiah would seem to show that coins of simi'at 
name were current during the reigns of Cyrus, Cam' 
byses, and Darius Hystaspes, it is a question if th« 
coin called " daric " is intended by those mentioned 
during the reign of Cyrus, b. c. 530 (Ezra ii. 69). 
The daric proper was not in circulation till the reign 
of Darius, son of Hystaspes (b. c. 521-485), who 
issued a new coinage of pure gold, though the actual 
name of daric stater was not in vogue till the time of 
his successor, Xerxes (b. c. 485-465) ; and the drams 
mentioned under the reign of his son, Artaxerxes 
Longimanus (Ezra viii. 27 ; Neh. vii. 72), are cer- 
tainly the coins called dories, which at this period 
extensively circulated in Persia. It is probable that 
the staters of Croesus, king of Lydia, continued in 
circulation from after the capture of Sardis in B. c. 
554 to the time when Darius reformed the coinage ; 
and if so, the Lydian staters would be those alluded 
to during the reign of Cyrus. The ordinary Persian 
daric is a thick gold piece, bearing the figure of a 
king kneeling, holding in left hand ft bow and ifl 




right a spear or a dagger (comp. Ezek. xxxix. 3 ; Isa. 
lxvi. 19), and has an average weight of 130 grains. 
The English sovereign weighs 123.4 grains, which, 
after deducting fe, leaves 113.12 grains of fine 
gold ; but the daric is aV fi ner than our gold, and 
reckoning it at 130 grains in weight, contains 124.6 
grains of pure gold ; therefore in value it equals ^j 2 
of a sovereign, or about £1 2s. Double darics, weigh- 
ing about 260 grains — but rare — and perhaps half- 
darics, weighing 60 grains, are also in existence. 
With reference to the mention of drams at the time 
of David (1 Chron. xxix. 7), it must be remembered 
that the writer, who in all probability was Ezra, 
wished to express in language intelligible to his 
readers the value of the gold subscribed, and there- 
fore translated the terms employed in his documents, 
whatever they were, into terms that were in use in 
his own day (Speaker's Cum., vol. iii., p. 271). 

Farthing. This word occurs four times in the 
A. V. of the N. T. Two names of coins are rendered 
by it. (1) Assarion (Matt. x. 29; Luke xii. 6), the 
ftreek name of the Roman as or assarius. From the 
/act that the Vulgate substitutes the word dipondius 
(= two asses) for the two assaria of the Greek text, it 
is more than probable that a single coin is intended 
by this latter expression — an idea fully borne out by 
the copper coins of Chios, on which are inscribed the 
words assarion, assaria duo or duo, and assaria tria. 
The assarion of the N. T. must be sought for among 
the Greek imperial coins, and the second brass coins 
of Antioch in Syria seem to furnish us with probable 
specimens. One of these coins, witli the counter- 
mark GAD (in Greek letters), proves that it was 
lawfully current in Gadara of Decapolis. These 
coins, from the time of Augustus, consist of two 
series — (a) with Greek legends, and having the name 
of the town and the date of the era of Antioch ; and 
(b) with the name of the emperor in Latin, and on the 
reverse the letters S. C. (Senatus consulto). After the 
reign of Vespasian (a. d. 79) the two sets become 
amalgamated, and form one series. The second brass 
coins of these series average in weight 143 grains, 
and are specimens of the as, which, at 10 to the 
denarius [Penny], would be equivalent to %d. of our 
money. (2) Kodrantes (Matt. v. 26; Mark xii. 42), 
or quadrans, the fourth part of the Roman as, orig- 
inally equal to the chalkous, weighing 67.2 grains. 
The copper currency of Palestine in the time of 
Augustus and Tiberius consisted partly of Roman 
and Jewish coins and partly of Graeco-Roman or 
Greek imperial. In consequence of the reduction 
of the weight of the as, the quadrans became reduced 
to just half the weight, or 33.6 grains, and the Ro- 
man coins and small copper coins of the Herodian 
family of this weight represent the farthing of the 
N. T. The as being equivalent, as we have shown 
above, to fa 1 ., the quadrans would be equal to about 
■fed. or f of an English farthing. According to St. 
Mark, " two mites make a farthing ;" but on this 
question see Mite. 

Fourth Part of a Shekel. Rebah (1 Sam. 
ix. 8), about 8a". [Shekel.] 

Gerah (Exod. xxx. 13; Lev. xxvii. 25; Num. 
iii. 47; xviii. 16; Ezek. xl v. 12). The twentieth part 
of a shekel, about l%d. [Shekel.] 

Gold [Money]. (1) There is no positive mention 
of the use of gold money among the Hebrews (see Isa. 
xlvi. 6 ; Job xxviii. 15) [Piece of Gold; Shekel], 
though gold constituted part of the wealth of Abra- 
ham (Gen. xiii. 2), if we exclude the "600 shekels 
of gold " paid by David for the threshing-floor and 
oxen (1 Chron. xxi. 25; comp. 2 Sam. xxiv. 24, 
"shekels of silver"), and it was generally employed 
for personal ornaments and for objects in connection 
with the Temple (2 Chron. iii. 9, etc.). (2) Chrusos, 
aurum (Matt. x. 9 ; James v. 3) ; Chrusion, aurum 
(Acts iii. 6; xx. 33; 1 Pet. i. 18). The gold coinage 
current in Palestine in the N. T. period was the Ro- 
man imperial aureus, which passed for 25 denarii, 
and was worth about £1 Is. 

Half a Shekel (Exod. xxx. 13, 15), about Is. 
id. [Bekah; Shekel.] 

Keseph. See Money, Silver, and Silverling. 

Kesitah. See Piece of Money and Piece of 

Mite (Mark xii. 42 ; Luke xii. 59 ; xxi. 2). The 
rendering of the Greek word lepton, which was a 
small Greek copper coin fe of the obol, weighing 
33.6 grains, and hence half of the original chalkous 
or quadrans. St. Mark states "two mites, which is 
it farthing;" but he probably meant "two small 

pieces of money," the smallest pieces then extant, 
and the words " which is a quadrans " have been 
added to show that the quadrans, weighing about 33.6 
grains, was then the smallest piece struck. The mite 
alluded to was a Jewish coin, for the Jews were not 
permitted to bring any but Jewish moneyinto the 
Holy Place, and for this cause money - changers 
[Money-Changers] stood at the entrance to the 
Temple in order to give Jewish money in exchange 
for foreign ; and it is probable that the small coins 
of Alexander Jannaeus, ranging in weight from 30 
grains to 15 grains, are the pieces in question. Their 
value would be about fed., or f of an English farth- 
ing. If, however, the pieces of 15 grains are the 
half of those of 30, and not examples of the same 
coin of light weight, then two would equal a quadrans, 
and their value would be f of an English farthing. 
But this conjecture is by no means sure. 

Motley. (1) In the O. T. the general expression 
is Keseph. (2) In the N. T. money is rendered as fol- 
lows : — (a) Argurion, pecunia, "silver" (Matt. xxv. 
18, 27; xxviii. 12, 15; Mark xiv. 11 ; Luke ix. 3; 
xix. 15, 23 ; xxii. 5 ; Acts vii. 16 [argentum] ■ viii. 
20 [pecunia]. In Matt. xxvi. 9, the phrase is "much 
[money]"), (b) Chalkos, ess," brass" (Mark vi. 8; 
xii. 41). (c) Chrema, " a thing that one uses or needs," 
pretium (Acts iv. 37 ; pecunia, viii. 18, 20; xxiv. 26). 
(d) Kerma, " anything cut small," «es (John ii. 15). 
[Silver and Money-Changers.] 

Penny. Denarion, denarius (Matt, xviii. 28 ; xx. 
2, 9, 10, 13; xxii. 19; Mark vi. 37 ; xii. 15; xiv. 5; 
Luke vii. 41 ; x. 35 ; xx. 24 ; John vi. 7 ; xii. 5 ; 
Rev. vi. 6). Its standard weight in the reign of 
Augustus, and to the time of Nero, was 60 grains. 
Deducting ^ of the weight for alloy, there remain 
58 grs. of pure silver, and the shilling containing 
80.7 grs. of pure silver, we have g^ of a shilling, or 
8.6245 pence = about 8£d. In the time of Nero the 
weight was reduced to 52.5 ; and applying to this the 
same method of reckoning, the penny of Nero's time 
would equal about 7%d. There is no doubt that most 
of the silver currency in Palestine during the N. T. 
period consisted of denarii, and " a penny " was the 
tribute-money payable by the Jews to the Roman 
emperor [Tribute (money), 2]. "A penny" was 
the day's pay for a laborer in Palestine at the time 
of our Lord (Matt. xx. 2, 9, 10, 13; comp. Tobit v. 
13), as it was the pay of a field-laborer in the Middle 
Ages ; and the term denarius is still preserved in our 
£ s. d. [Drachm and Piece of Silver, 2.] 

Piece of Gold. This phrase occurs only once 
in the O. T., in the passage respecting Naaman the 
Syrian (2 Kings v. 5). In several other passages of 
a similar kind in connection with gold, the A. V. 
supplies the word "shekels" [Shekel]; and as a 
similar expression is found in connection with silver, 
and as there is not much doubt that a weight is in- 
tended, the word understood in this passage would 
also probably be "shekels." 

Piece of Money. (1) Kesitah (Gen. xxxiii. 
19 ; " piece of silver," Josh. xxiv. 32 ; Job xlii. 11). 
From the translation by the LXX. of " lambs," it has 
been assumed that the kesitah was a coin bearing the 
impression of a lamb or a sheep, but the coins so 
frequently quoted as examples belong probably to 
Cyprus, and were not struck till after B. c. 450. The 
real meaning of kesitah is " a portion," and it was in 
all probability a piece of rough silver of fixed weight. 
(2) State)- (Matt. xvii. 27). The word stater means a coin 
of a certain weight, and hence a standard (comp. 
shekel and pondo), and was a term applied by the 
Greeks to coins of gold, of electrum, and of silver. 
The name was applied first to the didrachm (two 
drachms), and then to the tetradrachm (four drachms). 
During the first and second centuries, the silver cur- 
rency of Palestine consisted of tetradrachms of An- 
tioch on Orontes, of Tyre, etc., and of Roman denarii 
of a quarter their weight. The Attic tetradrachm 
was called stater, as the standard coin of the system, 
and no other stater was current in Palestine at this 
time. The great cities of Syria and Phoenicia either 
ceased to strike tetradrachms, or debased their coin- 
age before the close of the first century A. D. Antioch 
continued to strike tetradrachms to the third century, 
but gradually depreciated them, the commencement 
of which cannot be determined. It was carried so 
far as to destroy the correspondence of the stater to 
four denarii by the time of Hadrian (a. d. 117). 
Other cities, if they issued staters towards the close 
of the first century, struck them of such base metal 
as to render their separation from copper money im- 

possible. On this evidence, the Gospel is of the first 
century. The tetradrachm of Antioch (stater) is a 
specimen of the " piece of money " that was found by 
St. Peter in the fish's mouth (Matt. xvii. 27). ft 
represents the tax for two persons — for our Lord and 
for St. Peter [Tribute (Money), 1]. It is equivalent 
in weight to the shekel, averaging 220 grains, and 
to about 2s. 8d. of our money. [Piece of Silver, 

Piece of Silver. This phrase occurs in the A 
V. of both the O. T. and N. T. ( 1 ) The word " pieces '. 
has been supplied in the A. V. for a word understood) 
in the Hebrew. The rendering is always "a thou- 
sand," or the like "of silver" (Gen. xx. 16 ; xxxvii. 
28; xiv. 22; Judg. ix. 4; xvi. 5; 2 Kings vi. 25; 
Song of Solomon viii. 11 ; Hosea iii. 2; Zech. xi. 12, 
13). In similar passages, the word "shekels" occurs 
in the Hebrew [Shekel], and there is no doubt that 
this is the word understood in all these cases. There 
are, however, some exceptional passages where a 
word equivalent to " piece " or " pieces " is found in 
the Hebrew. The first occurs in 1 Sam. ii. 36, Agorah 
keseph, "piece of silver," and the agorah may be the 
same as the gerah (q. v.). Both are translated in the 
LXX. by obolos. The second is in Ps. lxviii. 30 (Heb. 
32), Ratsee keseph, "pieces of silver" (LXX. [Ixvii. 
30] argurion), and the word ratz from ratsats, "to 
break in pieces," must mean a fragment or piece 
broken off. The third, the kesitah, to which I have 
already alluded [Piece of Money, 1]. (2) Two 
words are rendered in the N.T. by " piece of silver." 
(a) Drachme, drachma (Luke xv. 8), and here correct- 
ly rendered, as the Attic drachm was at the time of 
St. Luke equivalent to the Roman denarius [Drachm; 
Penny]. This accounts for the remark of Josephus 

(Antiq. iii. 8, 2), who says that " the shekel 

equalled four Attic drachms," for in his time the 
drachm and 'denarius were almost equal to the quarter 
of a shekel [Shekel]. Value about 8d. or 7Jd. (b) 
Argurion, argenteus, denarius. This word occurs in 
two passages — (A) the account of the betrayal of our 
Lord for "thirty pieces of silver" (Matt. xxvi. 15; 
xxvii. 3, 5, 6, 9). These have usually been consid- 
ered to be denarii, but on no sufficient ground. Tha' 
parallel passage in Zechariah (xi. 12, 13) is trans, 
lated " thirty [pieces] of silver ;" but which should 
doubtless be read, "thirty shekels of silver," whilst it 
is observable that "thirty shekels of silver" was the 
price of blood to be paid in the case of a servant ac- 
cidentally killed (Exod. xxi. 32). The passage may 
therefore be explained as "thirty shekels of silver" — ■ 
not current shekels, but tetradrachms of the Attic 
standard of the Greek cities of Syria and Phoenicia. 
These tetradrachms were common at the time of our 
Lord, and of them the stater was a specimen [Piece 
of Money, 2]. In the A. V. of St. Matthew the 
prophecy is ascribed to Jeremiah instead of to Zech- 
ariah. Many suggestions have been made on this 
question, but it may be observed that the Syriac ver- 
sion omits the proper name, and merely says " the 
prophet;" hence a copyist might have inserted tha 
wrong name. (B) The price of the conjuring books 
that were burnt (Acts xix. 19). The Vulgate has 
accurately rendered the phrase denarii, as there is no 
doubt that these coins are intended. [Money and 

Pound. Mnd (Luke xix. 13-25) — money of ac- 
count. At this time the Attic talent obtained in Pal- 
estine. Sixty mince went to the talent (q. v.). The 
"pound" contained 100 drachms. The drachm of 
the Gospel period being equivalent to about 8d., the 
value of the pound would be £3 6s. 8d. The Greek 
name mnd was probably derived from the Hebrew 
maneh (q. v. under Weights). 

Ratz. See Piece of Silver. 

Rebah. See Fourth Part of a Shekel. 

Shekel. A word signifying " weight," and also, 
the name of a coin, either silver or copper. It only 
occurs in the O. T., where it signifies the weight of 
certain objects, or where it is employed for a piece 
of silver of fixed value. The word " shekel " occurs 
in the Hebrew and the A. V. in the following pas- 
sages: Gen. xxiii. 15, 16; Exod. xxi. 22; xxx. 13; 
15; xxxviii. 24-26 ; Lev. v. 15; xxvii. 3-7; Num. 
iii. 47, 50; vii. 13, 19, 25, 31, 37, 43, 49, 55, 61, 67, 
73, 79, 85, 86 ; xviii. 16 ; Josh. vii. 21 ; 1 Sam. ix. 
8 ; xvii. 5, 7 ; 2 Sam. xiv. 26 ; xxi. 16 ; xxiv. 24 ; 3 
Kings vii. 1 ; xv. 20 ; 1 Chron. xxi. 25 (gold shek- 
els) ; 2 Chron. iii. 9 (gold shekels) ; Neh. v. 15; x. 
32 ; Jer. xxxii. 9 ; Ezek. iv. 10 ; xiv. 12 ; Amos viii. 
5. It is supplied in the A. V. in connection with 
"silver" in Deut xxii. 19, 29; Judg. xvii 2-4, 10 j 



2 Sam. xviii. 11, 12 ; 1 Kings x. 29 ; 2 Chron. i. 17 ; 
and in connection with "gold" in Gen. xxiv. 22; 

Num. vii. 14, 20, 26, 32, 38, 44, 50, 56, 62, 68, 74, 80, 
86; Judg. viii. 26; 1 Kings x. 16; 2 Chron. ix. 15, 
16 [see Maneh under Weights]. Three kinds of 
shekels appear to be mentioned — (1) the shekel, (2) 
the shekel of the sanctuary, and (3) the shekel of the 
king's weight. The "shekel of the sanctuary" or 
" holy shekel." a term generally applied to the silver 
shekel, but once to the gold (Exod. xxxviii. 24), was 
probably the normal weight, and was kept by the 
priests. The "shekel of the king" was connected 
with the Assyrio-Babylonian maneh of the king, as 
marked on the monuments from Nineveh [Talent un- 
der Weights]. The LXX. translate the denomina- 
tions in silver by didrachmon and siklos. The shekel 
as extant corresponds in weight to the tetradrachm 
or didrachm of the early Phoenician talent in use in 
the cities of Phoenicia under Persian rule. It is 
probable that the Alexandrian Jews adopted the term 
" didrachm " as the common name of the coin which 
was equal in weight to the shekel. The value of tbe 
silver shekel is about 2s. 8d. The gold shekel, as de- 
rived from a passage in Josephus, must have weighed 
about 253 grains [see Pound under Weights], a very 
little lower than the 60th of the Assyrian mina in 
gold, which weighed 260 grains; and when he says 
in another passage (Antiq. iii. 8. 10; comp. Num. 
vii. 14) that ten gold shekels equalled ten darics, he 
must mean the double darics, weighing about 260 
grains. The gold shekel was worth about £2. None 
have ever been discovered. (See General Remarks.) 
Fifteen shekels of silver, each weighing about 224 
grains, were equal in value to one shekel of gold 
[Talent under Weights]. The divisions of the 
shekel mentioned in the O. T. are the half (bekah), 
the third part, the fourth part (rebah) and the 
twentieth part (gerah), q. v. In the reign of Ar- 
taxerxes Longimanus (b. c. 458) a special commis- 
sion was granted to Ezra "to do what seems good 
with the rest of the silver and the gold" (Ezra vii. 
18) ; and it has been suggested that this was virtually 
permission to the Jews to coin money ; and the silver 
shekels extant, dated of the years 1 to 5, and the half- 

bekels of the years 1 to 4, weighing about 220 and 

10 grains respectively, are considered to be of this 
period. As regards the "shekels of silver" mention- 
ed in Nehemiah (v. 15 ; comp. x. 32), these may per- 
haps refer to the silver coin circulating in the Per- 
sian kingdom called sighs, of which 20 went to one 
gold daric, and weighing 84 grains, but having no 
connection with the siklos (weighing about 220 grains), 
excepting in name. These coins are, like the darics, 
impressed with the figure of an archer [Dram]. In 
the year b. C. 139, Antiochus VII. (Sidetes) granted 
special permission to Simon Maccabeeus to coin money 
with his own stamp (1 Mace. xv. 6), and the silver 
shekels and half-shekels most probably belong to 
Simon, and perhaps the copper pieces (J shekel, £ 
shekel, and £ of shekel), dated in the fourth year; but 
there is great uncertainty as to the latter. 

The Asmonaean dynasty continued to issue a copper 
coinage, gradually showing .Greek tendencies, to the 
time of Antigonus, the last prince of the Asmonaean 
dynasty, (b. c. 40-37), and the numerous coinage 
of Alexander Jannaeus (b. C. 105-78) doubtless cir- 
culated even to N. T. times [Mite]. The Idumaean 
princes, commencing with Herod I. (surnamed the 
Great), continued a copper coinage with only Greek 
legends, which circulated in Judaea (as well as a pro- 
curatorial coinage, A. d. 6-59) till the death of Agrip- 
pa II. (Acts xxv. 13; xxvi. 2, seq.) in a. d. 100. 
The national coinage, consisting of silver shekels and 
£ shekels, as well as of copper, with old Hebrew in- 
jcriptions, was revived during the first revolt (May, 
A. d. 66-September, A. d. 70), and during the sec- 
ond under Bar-cochab (a. d. 132-a. d. 135), at 
which time many of the Jewish \ shekels were struck 
over Roman denarii. 

Silver [Money]. (1) Keseph in O. T. (q. v.) ; (2) 
in N. T. arguros, argentum (Matt. x. 9; James v. 3), 
or argurion, argentum (Acts iii. 6 ; xx. 33 ; 1 Pet. i. 
18). The silver coins current in Palestine in N. T. 
period consisted of the tetradrachms and drachms of 
the Attic standard, and of the Eoman denarius. 
[Money, 1 and 2, and Piece or Silver, 2.] 

_ Silverling. Keseph (Isa. vii. 23). The word 
mlverling occurs in Tyndale's version of Acts xix. 19, 
and in Goverdale's of Judg. ix. 4 ; xvi. 5. The Ger- 
man silberling is found in Luther's version (Bible 

Word- Book). The same word is also used in Cran- 
mer and Tyndale for the money stolen by Micah 

( Judg. xvii. 2, 3) — " the leuen hundredth tylucrlyngs" 
(Bible Educator, vol. iv., p. 210). 

Stater, See Piece of Money, 2, and Tribute-money, 1. 

Sum [of Money]. (1) Kephalaion (Acts xxii. 28), 
i. e. in classical authors capital as opposed to interest 
or income (cp. "principal," Lev. vi. 5; Num. v. 7). 
In Mk. xii. 15 epikephalaion, "poll-tax," is used in 
the place of the ordinary word kensos. [Tribute 
(Money), 2.] Sum of Money. (2) Time arguriou, 
pretium argenti (Acts vii. 16), i. e. price in silver. 

Talent. Talanton, lalentum, a sum, not a coin. 
(1) In O. T. the rendering of the Hebrew kiccar [see 
Talent under Weights] ; (2) in N. T. this word 
occurs — (a) in the parable of the unmerciful servant 
(Matt, xviii. 23-25) ; and (%) in the parable of the 
talents (Matt. xxv. 14-30). At this time the Attic 
talent obtained in Palestine; 60 mince and 6000 
drachmae went to the talent. It was consequently 
worth about £200. [Pound.] 

Third Tart of the Shekel (Neh. x. 32), 
about \Q\d. See Sliekel and Tribute [Money], 

Tribute [Money]. (1) The sacred tribute, di- 
drachma (Matt. xvii. 24). The sacred tribute or pay- 
ment of the " atonement- money " was half a shekel 
(Exod. xxx. 13, 16), and was originally levied on 
every male of twenty years old and above when the 
Israelites were first numbered. In the reign of Jo- 
ash the same sum was demanded for the repair of 
the Temple (2 Chron. xxiv. 4-14). After the return 
from the Captivity, the' annual payment "for the 
service of the house of God " was one-third of the 
shekel (q. v.), and was voluntarily contributed (Neh. 
x. 32). The amount of tribute was again restored to 
the half-shekel (q. v.), which the Jews when dis- 
persed throughout the world continued to pay to- 
ward the Temple. It is to this tribute that St. 
Matthew refers, and the stater found in the fish's 
mouth was an Attic tetradrachm, and at this time 
equal to a shekel [Piece of Money; Shekel]. 
Many commentators, both ancient and modern, have 
entirely missed the meaning of this miracle by in- 
terpreting the payment as a civil one. That it was 
the sacred tribute is plain from our Lord's reason for 
exemption : " Of whom do the kings of the earth 
take custom or tribute ? of their own children or of 
strangers?" (Matt. xvii. 25, 26), and further, from 
His reason for payment, "lest we should offend 
them," which shows that the Jews willingly paid the 
tribute ; indeed, it was not enforced by law even in 
the earliest times, being in this respect unlike the civil 
tribute. (2) The civil tribute, nomisma tou kensou, 
kensos, phoros (Matt. xxii. 17, 19; Mark xii. 14; 
Luke xx. 22; xxiii. 2). This was a tax paid to the 
Eoman emperor, and was doubtless established when 
Judaea became a Roman province. The sum paid 
annually is not known ; but after the capture of 
Jerusalem and destruction of the Temple, Vespasian 
ordered the Jews, in whatever country they might 
be, to pay the sum of two drachmce to the temple of 
Jupiter Capitolinus, as they had previously paid to 
the Temple at Jerusalem. Under Domitian the tax 
was enforced with great severity, but upon the ac- 
cession of Nerva it was abolished. Numismatic 
records establish this fact ; coins are extant with the 
legend, Fisci Judaici calumnia sublata (comp. syco- 
phantia — false accusation — Luke xix. 8). After the 
revolt of Bar-cochab, Hadrian renewed the tax, and 
in the reign of Alexander Severus (a. d. 226) the 
Jews continued to pay the didrachm. This civil 
tribute was paid in denarii, " Show me the tribute- 
money ; and they brought unto Him a penny " (Matt. 
xxii. 19 ; comp. Mark xii. 15 ; Luke xx. 24). "And 
He saith unto them, Whose is this image and super- 
scription ? They say unto Him, Caesar's." The title 
of Caesar is common to all the Roman emperors, and 
the name of Tiberius, who was the Caesar alluded to, 
is abbreviated on the coins, TL, while the title CAE- 
SAR is at length. The answer may further be illus- 
trated by the small brass coins issued under the pro- 
curators Coponius, Ambivius, and Rufus, circulating 
in Judaea at this time, on which is simply the legend 
Kaisaros — of Caesar. [Penny.] 

Twentieth Part of the Shekel; about l|d 
See Gerah and Shekel. 

The two following terms bear direct relation to 
money, and are worthy of illustration : 

Money-Changers. Three distinct terms are 
employed in the N. T. to express this class — (1) Tra- 
pezltes, numularius, A. V. " exchanger " (Matt. xxv. 
27), from trapeza, "a table," a word employed for the 

"tables" (menwc) of the money-changers in Matt, 
xxi. 12; Mark xi. 15; John ii. 15, and for the 

"bank" (mensa) in Luke xix. 23. Trapezites was 
the ordinary name for the banker at Athens. His 
principal occupation was that of changing money at 
an agio. He was a private banker, like the argentarii 
at Rome, who must be distinguished from the men- 
sarii or mensularii and the numularii, who were pub- 
lic bankers appointed by the state on various emer- 
gencies, the latter of whom seem to have been perma- 
nently employed. Hence the Vulgate has rendered 
their name in all cases correctly. As the Greek word 
trapezites is from trapeza, "a table," so our English 
word "banker" (French, banquier) is derived from 
the French banc, " a bench," on which the person sat 
to do his business. (2) Kollubisles, numularius, A. V. 
"money-changer" (Matt. xxi. 12; Mark xi. 15); 
A. V. "changer" (John ii. 15), from kollubos or koU 
lubon, sometimes designated as " the changing of 
money," or "rate of exchange," sometimes as "a 
small coin " or " a kind of money." A passage in 
Theophrastus shows us that the kollubos must have 
been a silver piece ranging between the lepton [Mite] 
and the \ obol, and therefore \ of an obol, weighing 
about 1.4 grains. It would thus be the silver equiva- 
lent of the chalkous, which was the copper J of an 
obol. (3) Kermatistes, numularius; A. V." changer 
of money " (John ii. 14), from a Greek word signify- 
ing " to cut small," which is from kerma, " money," 
John ii. 15 [Money]. Money-changing was called 
kermatismos. No coin was called by this name. The 
money-changers, of which perhaps the "goldsmiths" 
who repaired the vessels of the Temple (Neh. iii. 8) 
are prototypes, sat in the courts of the Temple on the 
25th of Nizan for the purpose of exchanging foreign 
money for Jewish, as the Temple tax could only be 
paid in this latter coin. They also seem to have 
acted as bankers, money being placed in their hands 
for the purpose of increasing it, and on which in- 
terest was paid (Matt. xxv. 27 ; Luke xix. 23). 
Though the system of "lending" was not altogether 
objected to in the O. T. (Exod. xxii. 25; Lev. xxv. 
36, 37; Deut. xxiii. 19, 20; Proy. vi. 1 ; Ps. xv. 5; 
Jer. xv. 10; Ezek. xxii. 12; xviii. 13, etc.), yet after, 
the Captivity the Jews were compelled to leave off 
usury (Neh. v. 11, 12), whilst in the N. T. period it 
was sanctioned, provided it was done "hoping for 
nothing again" (Luke vi. 35; comp. Matt. v. 42). 
The system, however, pursued by the money-changers 
in the Temple must have been a vicious one, as is 
apparent from our Lord's denunciation of their do- 
ings (Matt. xxi. 13 ; Mark xi. 17 ; Luke xix. 46 ; 
comp. Isa. lvi. 7 ; Jer. vii. 11). 

Treasury or Treasure. This term is used in 
the A. V. of the N. T. as the translation of three 
different words — (1) Gazophulakion (Mark xii. 4', 
43 ; Luke xxi. 1 ; John viii. 20), from gaza, "a treas- 
ure," and phulasso, " to keep." The word gaza (Hefc. 
ganza), which occurs in this sense in Acts viii. 27, is 
employed frequently in the O. T. for "treasures" or 
"treasure-house" (Ezra v. 17; vi. 1; vii. 20; Esth. 
iii. 9; iv. 7; Ezek. xxvii. 24 ; 1 Chron. xxviii. 11). 
It is not a Hebrew word, but probably a Persian. 
The term gazophulakion or gazophylacium occurs in 
various passages of the Maccabees, and the Vulgate 
uses it as the term for the "chest" (Heb. arun, LXX. 
kibotos) in which Jehoiada collected the money for 
the repairs of the Temple [see General Remarks]. 
The treasury-chamber appears to have been a place 
where people came to offer their charity-money for 
the repairs and other uses of the Temple, and con- 
sisted of 13 brazen chests (Heb. trumpets, because 
the mouths were wide at the top and narrow below), 
which stood in the outer court of the women. (2) 
Korbanas, corbona (Matt, xxvii. 6), the sacred treas- 
ure of the Jews, and explained in Mark vii. 11 as a 
gift (doron), and by Josephus as "a gift to God." 
Korban in the O. T. is principally employed for un- 
bloody sacrifices" (comp. Lev. ii. 1, 4, 5, 6). Doron 
in the N. T. principally means "gifts in general" 
(Matt. ii. 11), "sacrificial gifts " (Matt. v. 23, 24 ; Heb. 
v. 1; xi. 4), "gifts of God to man" (Ephes. ii. 8), 
"of man to man" (Rev. xi. 10) ; but it is also used 
of gifts to the "treasury" (Luke xxi. 1), and in on« 
case appears to mean the " treasury itself" (Luke 
xxi. 4). (3) Thesauros, thesaurus, (a) As the "treas. 
ure-house" (Matt. ii. 11 ; xiii. 52) ; (b) as the "treas 
ure" (Matt. vi. 19, 20; xii. 35; xiii. 44; xix. 21. 
Mark x. 21 ; Luke vi. 45; xii. 33: xviii. 22; 2 Cor 
iv. 7 ; Col. ii. 3; Heb. xi. 26). The word is used in 
the LXX. as the translation of the Hebrew oisar, 
meaning either " treasures of God," " store-house fol 



corn," " treasury for gold and silver," etc. (Deut. 
xxviii. 12 ; xxxii. 34 ; 1 Chron. xxvii. 27 ; Josh. vi. 
19 ; 1 Kings vii. 51, etc.). 


The following weights are mentioned in the Bible : 

Bekah (Gen. xxiv. 22), " half," " half a shekel." 
This word occurs only in the Pentateuch. See Bekah 
under Money. 

Gerah. Properly a "grain" or "bean," the 
smallest silver weight, ^th part of the shekel. See 
Gerah under Money and Shekel. 

Litra. See Pound. 

Maneh (LXX. mna; Vulgate, mina). "A por- 
tion or part ;" A. V. " pound," sometimes called sta- 
ter — standard ; a word owing its origin to Babylon, 
and which, as the weight was employed by the Egyp- 
tians, Phoenicians, Hebrews, and Greeks, has the 
same meaning in the language of all these nations. 
The weight of the golden targets made by Solomon 
for the Temple is stated to have been 300 [shekels] 
of gold each (2 Chron. ix. 16), whilst in the parallel 
passage the amount of gold employed for each shield 
is given as three pounds (manelis, 1 Kings x. 17). It 
would thus appear that the maneh of tfold was equal 
to 100 shekels, but it must be observed that in the 
Chronicles the Hebrew is " 300 of gold," the word 
shekels being supplied in the A. V. ; and it has con- 
sequently been suggested by some that the Chronicles 
was written in the Macedonian period, and that con- 
sequently one should reckon what is here meant as 
"100 drachms to the maneh," as in use among the 
Greeks. The passage, however, is obscure, and in 
any case the calculation of 100 shekels to the maneh 
is not likely. That in Ezekiel (xlv. 12) relative to 
the maneh is also difficult ©f explanation [Shekel ; 
Talent]. The word maneh further occurs in Ezra 
ii. 69; Neh. vii. 71, 72; comp. 1 Esdras v. 45. 

Pound. (1) Mna, mina (1 Mace. xiv. 24; xv. 
'8). Here large sums are weighed by this standard, 
and it refers to the Attic talent. (2) Litra, a word 
used by the Greeks of Sicily in their system of weights 
and money, sometimes called slater — standard — and 
equivalent to the Latin word libra or as, the unit of 
weight among the Bomans. Josephus says that the 
Hebrew maneh of gold equalled 2J litroz. The libra 
or Boman pound = 5059 grains, consequently %\ 
Boman pounds = 12,647 grains; and as the Hebrew 
gold shekel was the fiftieth part of the maneh, it 
must have weighed about 253 grains [Shekel under 
Money]. The word litra occurs in the N. T. in 
John xii. 3 and xix. 39. 

Shekel. A word signifying " weight," according 
to which numerous objects were weighed, especially 
the metals. The passage in Ezek. xlv. 12 is confus- 
ing, and cannot be satisfactorily explained, but it 
must be remembered that it is prophetical. 50 or 60 
shekels equalled a maneh [Maneh; Pound]. 3600 
or 3000 shekels equalled a talent [Talent]. See 
Shekel under Money. 

Talent. Kikkar, properly " a circle " or " globe ;" 
hence kuklos, circus. The largest Hebrew weight for 
metals. First occurs in Exod. xxv. 39, "a talent of 
pure gold." It is also specially spoken of as " talent 
of silver" (2 Kings v. 22), "talent of lead" (Zech. 
v. 7), "talent of brass" (Exod. xxxviii. 29), and 
"talent of iron" (1 Chron. xxix. 7). A talent of 
silver bound up in a bag, and one change of garment, 
were about as much as one man could carry (2 Kings 
v. 23), and weighing was probably avoided by thesealed 
bags containing a certain weight of silver. The He- 
brew talent was derived from Assyria and Babylonia. 
Of the talents current in these countries, the heavy 
or Assyrian talent passed through Mesopotamia and 
Syria to the Phoenician coast-towns, and to Palestine, 
where we find it in use among the Israelites. In 
Nineveh, as well as in Palestine, besides the weights 
talent of the king of 3600 sixtieths of the maneh for 
valuing precious metals, a special reckoning was made 
by talents of 3000 gold and silver units ; but when it 
was found convenient to reckon 3000 shekels instead 
of 3600 to the talent is not known, nor when a devia- 
tion was made from the sexagesimal division of the 
maneh, and it was limited to 50 instead of to 60 units. 
The sum-total of the taxes to the sanctuary paid by 
the people is stated to be (Exod. xxxviii. 25) 100 
talents, 1775 shekels, to which 603,550 men each con- 
tributed a half shekel, so that, according to this, 3000 
shekels are reckoned to the talent ; and as the talent is 

always divided into 60 manehs, 20 shekels went to the 
maneh ; which is corroborated from the fact that the 
taxes for persons of various age and sex commence 
at a maximum point of 50 shekels (Lev. xxvii. 3, 
16), and that Achan found a wedge of gold of just 50 
shekels' weight, and not 60 (Josh. vii. 21). [See 
General Remarks.] 

The shekels of the weight talent " of the king " and 
the gold talent are identical, the latter talent having 
been formed from the former, which appears to have 
been used for weighing other materials than the met- 
als ("king's weight," 2 Sam. xiv. 26). [Shekel.] 
The weight of 9 "holy" silver shekels (224.7975X9) 
thus equals 8 sixteenths of the "weight" maneh 
(252.9165X8), and the value of 15 "holy" silver 
shekels equals that of 1 gold shekel — i. e. £2. Some, 
however, have taken the silver talent as weighing 
660,000 grains [114^ lbs. troy], and, on the basis 
of the shekel being equivalent to 3s., equalling £450, 
and the gold talent (with a shekel of about 132 
grains) as weighing double the silver, 1,320,000 
grains [229£ lbs. troy], and equalling, at £4 per oz. 
troy, £11,000 (Smith, Students O. T. Hist.). As to 
the copper talent, which is supposed by some to have 
had a shekel of four times the weight of the gold 
shekel, though only 1500 to the talent, and therefore 
equalling 792,000 grains, it is impossible to speak 
with certainty ; but in all probability the copper 
talent did not contain a fewer number of shekels 
than that of the silver. 

The amounts of talents mentioned in the Bible 
during the reigns of David and Solomon are almost 
incredible (1 Chron. xxii. 14; xxix. 4, 7). The 
annual income of Solomon is said to have been 666 
talents of gold (1 Kings x. 14; 2 Chron. ix. 13), 
which, taking the estimate of some that the gold 
talent was double the silver, would be equivalent to 
£7,780,000, a sum more than the revenues of the 
whole Persian empire under Darius, which has been 
calculated at about three millions and a half. But if 
we take 15 shekels of silver as equalling one shekel 
of gold, and 15 talents of silver as equalling one 
talent of gold, then 666g talents of gold were exactly 
10,000 talents of silver, or £4,000,000. It is, how- 
ever, difficult to hazard any safe conjecture, and most 
likely the figures in all these passages have been 

Boman Money, mentioned in the Nero Testament, reduced to the 
English and American Standard. 

£ *. d. cts. cts. 

A penny, or denarius .0 8— 8J^— 14.67—15.59 

A pound, or mina (Gk. mna)Z 6 8 $16 12 


The graphic account in Job xxviii. is a striking 
description of mining operations in olden times: 
" Surely there is a source for the silver, and a place 
for the gold which they fine. Iron is taken out of 
the earth, and he [i. e. the miner or workman] pour- 
eth forth stone as copper. He hath made an end of 
darkness, and he searcheth to every extremity [i. e. 
to great depths and with diligent care] for the stone 
of darkness and of the shadow of death. He break- 
eth through a shaft away from those who tarry 
above ; there, forgotten of every foot, they hang and 
swing far from men. The earth, from it cometh forth 
bread, and beneath it is upturned like fire: its stones 
are the place of the sapphire, which also hath dust 
of gold. A way that no bird of prey knoweth, and 
the eye of the hawk hath not seen it; which the 
proud beasts of prey have not trodden, nor the lion 
passed along. He layeth his hand upon the stone, 
he turneth up mountains from the root. He cutteth 
channels in the rocks, and his eye seeth all rare 
things. He bindeth fast the rivers that they leak 
not, and that which is hidden he bringeth to light " 
(Job xxviii. 1-11). 

There are, as we have already seen, traces of 
ancient mining in Egypt, in the desert of Sinai, in 
Palestine, and in the adjoining lands, and this poetic 
description must be held as applying to some of these 
operations. The writer sketches the vast labor and 
dangerous enterprises which men will undertake in 
order to win from the earth its treasures, and then 
passes on to the question : " Where shall wisdom be 
found, and where is the place of understanding?" 
These shall baffle the skill of the miner, and are 

more difficult of attainment than the precious treas- 
ures of the earth. For " the fear of the Lord, that is 
wisdom ; and to depart from evil is understanding " 
(vs. 12, 28). 

It may be well here briefly to summarize what is 
known concerning the mines of biblical antiquity. 
Clearly, gold, silver, and tin were brought to the 
lands of the Bible mainly by commerce, though 
there are traces qr records of gold-working in 
Egypt, and of both gold and silver in Arabia and 
Edom. Copper and iron were both native product 
of Palestine, and were worked also in the island of 
Meroe, at the mouth of the Nile and in the peninsula 
of Sinai. The island of Cyprus is also mentioned as 
a source of copper, and there is every probability 
that both iron and copper were worked in other dis- 
tricts likewise, though there is no distinct and ex- 
plicit proof. There were lead-mines in Egypt, near 
the coast of the Bed Sea, and also near Sinai, and it 
is not improbable that these lead-mines may have 
yielded small quantities of silver also. 

Diodorus Siculus gives a minute description of the 
method of mining and refining gold. Shafts were 
sunk into what Diodorus calls veins of marble of 
excessive whiteness (evidently quartz-rock), from 
which day-and-night relays of convicts extracted the 
auriferous quartz. This was then broken up with 
picks and chisels, and further reduced by iron pestles 
in stone mortars to small fragments. Then it was 
ground to powder, spread upon a broad inclined 
table, and washed with water and fine sponges until 
the gold became pure from earthy matter. Finally, 
it was put, with a little lead, tin, salt and bran, into 
earthen crucibles closed with clay, and subjected for 
five days and nights to the fire of a furnace. From 
this description it may be seen that gold-mining in 
these ancient times did not radically differ from that 
of one hundred years ago. 

Concerning the arts of metallurgy in ancient times 
we are left in much ignorance. These arts must have 
existed in considerable excellence amongst the Egyp- 
tians and Assyrians ; and the accounts given in the 
Bible of the buildings of David and Solomon show, 
that the Israelites, and especially the Phoenicians, 
were accomplished metal-workers. Situated between 
the great ancient empires of the East and West, 
Palestine was alternately the prey of each, and the 
carrying away of metal-workers into captivity shows 
the esteem in which they were then held. See 1 Sam. 
xiii. 19 ; 2 Kings xxiv. 14, 15 ; Jer. xxiv. 1 ; xxix. 2. 
The book of Ecclesiasticus (chap, xxxviii. 27, 28), in 
the Apocrypha, gives an account of a smith's work- 
shop which those who are used to factories and foun- 
dries will fully appreciate: "So every carpenter and 
workmaster, that laboreth night and day ; and they 
that cut and grave seals, and are diligent to make 
great variety, and give themselves to counterfeit 
imagery, and watch to finish a work : the smith also 
sitting by the anvil, and considering the iron-work, 
the vapor of the fire wasteth his flesh, and he fighteth 
with the heat of the furnace ; the noise of the ham- 
mer and the anvil is ever in his ears, and his eyes 
look still upon the pattern of the thing that he mak- 
eth ; he setteth his mind to finish his work, and 
watcheth to polish it perfectly." 

In the Bible are references to casting (Ex. xxv. 12; 
xxvi. 37 ; 2 Chron. iv. 17 ; Isa. xl. 19); soldering and 
welding (Isa. xli. 7) ; hammering into sheets (Num. 
xvi. 38; Isa. xli v. 12; Jer. x. 4, 9); gilding and 
overlaying with metal (Ex. xxv. 11-24 ; xxvi. 37 ; 
1 Kings vi. 20; 2 Chron. iii. 5; Isa. xl. 19; Zech. 
xiii. 9). But perhaps the most interesting of all such 
allusions are those to the melting and separation and 
refining of metals (Ps. xii. 6 ; Pro v. xvii. 3, etc. ; Isa. 
i. 25; Jer. vi. 29; Ezek. xxii. 18-20). Malachi (iii. 2, 
3) makes use of a striking metaphor derived from 
the metallurgy of silver. Before the discovery of 
quicksilver, lead was used for the purification of the 
precious metals. How far the ancients were acquaint- 
ed with what is now known as " Pattison's method " 
of obtaining silver from argentiferous lead-ore is un- 
certain, but Pliny apparently hints at something of 
the kind in these words : " When submitted to the 
action of fire, part of the ore precipitates itself in the 
form of lead, while the silver is left floating on the 

Clearly, however, the passage from Malachi above 
named refers to the process of " cupellation :" " He 
[the Messiah] shall sit as a refiner and purifier of 
silver; and he shall purify the sons of Levi, and 
purge them as gold and silver, that they may offer 
unto the Lord an offering in righteousness." 



Scripture Proper Names 






[NOTE.— The accent (') shows where the stress of the voice should fall ; (?) denotes meanings which are conjectural ; 
5, brother ; c, city ; d, daughter ; /, father, fountain ; h, house ; in, meadow, multitude ; p, people ; 8, servant, son ; w, well ; etc. etc.] 

Copyright, 1891, by A. J. Holman & Co. 

A ARON, ar'on, light. Ex. 4. 14. 
Aaronites, ar'on-ites, descendants of 

Aaron. I Cor. 12. 27. 
Abaddon, a-bad'don, destruction. 

Rev. 9. 11. 
Abagtlia , a-bag'tha, given by fortune. 

Esther I. 10. 
Abana, ab'a-na, stony. 2 Kin. 5. 12. 
Abarim, ab'a-rim, regions beyond. 

Num. 27. 12. 
Abba, ab'ba, father. Mark 14. 36. 
Abda. ab'da, servant. I Kin. 4. 6. 
Abdeel, ab'de-el, same as Abdiel. 

Jer. 36. 26. 
Abdi, ab'dl, servant of Jehovah. 1 

Chr. 6. 44. 
Abdiel, ab'dl-el, j-.of God. I Chr. 5. 15. 
Abdon, ab'don, servile. Judg. 12. 13. 
Abed-negO, a-bed'ne-gQ, servant or 

worshipper of Nebo. Dan. 1. 7. 
Abel, a'bel, (1) vanity. Gen. 4. 2. 

(2) A meadow. 2 Sam. 20. 14. 
Abel-beth-maachah, a'bel-b&h- 

ma'a-kah, meadow of the house Maa- 

chah. I Kin. 15. 20. 
Abel-maim, a'bel-ma'im, m. of the 

waters. 2 Chr. 16. 4. 
Abel-mebolah, a'bel-me-hOlah, in. 

of dancing. Judg. 7. 22. 
Abel-mizraim, a'bel-mlz'ra-im, m. 

of Egypt. Gen. 50. II. 
Abez, a/bez, whiteness. Josh. 19. 20. 
Abi, a/bl, shortened form of Abiah. 

2 Kin. 18. 2. 
Abia, a-bl'a, Greek form' of following. 

Mat. I. 7. 
Abiah, a-bi'ah, same as Abijah. 2 

Kin. 18. 2. 
Abi-albon, a'bi-al'bon, father of 

strength. 2 Sam. 23. 31. 
Abiasapb, a-bl'a-saf,/. of gathering. 

Ex. 6. 24. 
Abiathar, a-bi'a-thar, / of plenty. 

1 Sam. 22. 20. 
Abib, a'bib, an ear of corn, or green 

ear. Ex. 13. 4. 
Abidah, a-bi'dah, father of know- 
ledge. Gen. 25. 4. 
Abidan, ab'i-dan,y;of a judge. Num. 

1. 11. 
Abiel, a-bl'el,/ of strength. 1 Sam. 

9. I. 
Abiezer, a-bl-e'zer,/ of help. Josh. 

17. 2. 

Abiezrite, a-bi-ez'nte, a descendant 

of Abiezer. Judg. 6. 11. 
Abigail, ab'I-ga-il, / of exultation. 

I Sam. 25. 14. 
Abihail, ab-i-ha'il, /. of strength. 

Num. 3. 35. 
Abihu, a-blliu, He (i. e. God) is my 

f. Ex. 6. 23. 
Abihud, i-blliud, / of Judah. I 

Chr. 8. 3. 

Abijah, a-bl'jah,/ of Jehovah. I Kin. 

14- I. 
Abijam, a-bl'jam, another mode of 

spelling Abijah. i Kin. 14. 31. 
Abilene, ab-i-le'ne, a grassy place (?). 

Luke 3. I. 
Abimael, a-blm'a-el, father of Mael. 

Gen. 10. 28. 
Abimelech, a-bim'e-lek, / of the 

king. Gen. 20. 2. 
Abiliadab, a-bln'a-dab./of nobility. 

I Sam. 7. 1. 
Abiner, ab'I-ner, same as Abner. 

I Sam. 14. 50. 
Abinoaill, a-bin'6-am,^ of pleasant- 
ness. Judg. 4. 6. 
Abiram, a-bi'ram, f. of loftiness. 

Num. 16. I. 
Abi Shag, ab'i-shag, f. of error (?). 

I Kin. 1.3. 
Abishai, a-blsh-'a-I, / of a gift. 1 

Sam. 26. 6. 
Abishalom, a-bish'a-lom,/ of peace. 

I Kin. 15. 2. 
Abishua, a-bish'u-a, / of welfare. 

1 Chr. 6. 4. 
Abishur, ab'i-shur, / of the wall. 

1 Chr. 2. 28. 
Abital, ab'i-tal,/". of dew. 2 Sam. 3. 4. 
Abitub, ab'I-tub, f. of goodness. I 

Chr.. 8. 11. 
Abiud, a-bi'ud, Greek form of Abi- 

hud. Mat. I. 13. 
Abner, ab'ner, / of light. I Sam. 

14. 50. 
Abram, a'bram, a highyC Gen. 1 1. 26. 
Abraham, a'bra-ham, f. of a great 

multitude. Gen. 17. 5. 
Absalom, ab'sa-lom, f. of peace. 2 

Sam. 3. 3. 
Accad, ak'kad, fortress (?). Gen. 10.10. 
Accho, ak'ko, sand-heated. Judg. I. 

Aceldama, a-cel'da-ma, field of 

blood. Acts 1. 19. 
Achaia, a-ka'ja, Greece. Acts 18. 12. 
AchaiCUS, a-ka'i-kus, belonging to 

Achaia. I Cor. 16. 17. 
Acban, a'kan, or Achar, a'kar, 

troubler. Josh. 7. 18. 
Achaz, a'kaz, Greek form of Ahaz. 

Mat. i. 9. 
Achbor, ak'bor, a mouse. Gen. 36. 38. 
Acllim, a'kim, short form of Ja- 

chin (?). Mat. I. 14. 
Acbisll, a'kish, angry (?). I Sam. 21. 

Achmetha, ak'me-tha, fortress (?). 

Ezra 6. 2. 
Achor, a'kor, trouble. Josh. 7. 24. 
Achsall, ak'sah, anklet. Josh. 15. 16. 
Achshapll, ak'shaf, enchantment. 

Josh. 11. I. 
Achzib, ak'zlb, deceit. Josh. 15. 44. 

Adadah, ad'a-dah, festival (?). Josh. 

IS- 22 - 

Adah, a'dah, ornament. Gen. 4. 19. 
Adaiall, ad-a-fah, whom Jehovah 

adorns. 2 Kin. 22. I. 
Adalia, ad-a-li'a, upright (?). Est. 

Adam, ad'am, red. Gen. 2. 19. 
Adamah, ad'a-mah, red earth. Josh. 

19. 36. 
Adami, ad'a-ml, human. Josh. 19. 33. 
Adar, a'dar, fire (?). Est. 3. 7. 
Adbeel, ad'be-el, miracle of God (?). 

Gen. 25. 13. 
Addan, ad'dan, humble. Ezra 2. 59. 
Addar, ad'dar, greatness (?). 1 Chr. 

Addi, ad'dl, ornament (?). Luke 3. 28. 
Addon, ad'dcn, same as Addan. Neh. 

7. 61. 
Ader, a'der, flock. I Chr. 8. 15. 
Adiel, a-dl'el, ornament of God. I 

Chr. 4. 36. 
Adin, a'dln, slender. Ezra 2. 15. 
Adina, ad'I-na, same as preceding. 

1 Chr. II. 42. 

Adino, ad'i-nO. 2 Sam. 23. 8. 

Adithaim, ad-i-tha'im, twofold orna- 
ment. Josh. 15. 36. 

Adlai, ad'la-I, just (?). I Chr. 27. 29. 

Admah, ad'mah, same as Adamah. 
Gen. 10. 19. 

Admatha, ad'ma-tha. Est. I. 14. 

Adna, ad'na, pleasure. Ezra 10. 30. 

Adnall, ad'nah, same as preceding. 

2 Chr. 17. 14. 

Adoni-Bezek, a-don'i-be'zek, lord 

of Bezek. Judg. I. 5. 
Adonijall, ad-6-ni'jah, Jehovah is my 

Lord. 2 Sam. 3. 4. 
Adonikam, a-dSn'i-kam, lord of 

enemies. Ezra 2. 13. 
Adoniram, ad-6-ni'ram, lord of 

height. I Kin. 4. 6. 
Adoni-zedec, a-don'i-ze'dek, lord 

of justice. Josh. 10. I. 
Adorailll, ad-6-ra'im, two chiefs (?). 

2 Chr. 11. 9. 
Adoram, a-do'ram, contracted from 

Adokiram. 2 Sam. 20. 24. 
Adrammelecli, a-dram'me-Iek, 

magnifioence of the king (?), king of 

fire (?). 2 Kin. 17. 31. 
Adramyttium, ad-ra-myt'ti-um. 

Acts 27. 2. 
Adria, a'drl-a. Acts 27. 27. 
Adriel, a'dri-el, flock of God. I Sam. 

18. 19. 
Adullam, a-dul'lam, justice of the 

people. Josh. 12. 15. 
Adnmmim, a-dum/mlm, the red 

(men?). Josh. 15. 7. 
.iElieas, e'ne-as, praiseworthy (?). Acts 

9- 33- 

.ZEnon, e'n6n, springs. John 3. 23. 

Agabus, ag'a-bus, probably Greek 
form of Hagab. Acts 11. 28. 

Agag, a'gag, flaming (?). Num. 24. 7. 

Agagite, a'gag-ite. Est. 3. 1. 

Agar, a'gar, same as Hagar. Gai. 4. 

Agee, ag'e-e, fugitive (?). 2 Sam. 23. 

Agrippa, a-grip'pa. Acts 25. 13. 

Agur, a'gur, an assembler. I'rov. 
30. 1. 

Ahab, a'hab, uncle. I Kin. 16. 29. 

Alia rah, a-har'ah, after the brother. 
I Chr. 8. 1. 

Aharhel, a-har'heJ, behind the breast- 
work. 1 Chr. 4. 8. 

Ahasai, a-has'a-I, probably a corrup- 
tion of Jahzarah. Neh. 11. 13. 

Ahasbai, a-has'ba-I. 2 Sam. 23. 34. 

Ahasuerus, a-hai'u-e'i-us, king (?). 
Est. 1. 1. 

Aliava, i-ha'vah. Ezra 8. 15. 

Ahaz, a'haz, possessor. 2 Kin. 15. 
38. m 

Ahaziah, a-ha-zl / ah, whom Jehovah 
upholds. 1 Kin. 22. 40. 

Allban, ah/ban, brotherly. 1 Chr. 2. 

Aher, a'her, following. I Chr. 7. 12. 

Alii, a'hl, brother. I Chr. 5. 15. 

Alliah, a-hl'ah, brother of Jehovah. 

1 Sam. 14. 3. 

Ahiam, a-hfam, b. of the father (?). 

2 Sam. 23. 33. 

Allian, a-nl'an, brotherly. I Chr. 7. 

Ahiezer, a-hi-e / zer, brother of help. 

Num. I. 12. 
All ill ud, i-hl'hud, b. of(?). Num. 

34- 27. 
Ahijah, a-hl'jah, same as Ahiah. f 

Kin. 11. 29. 
Ahikam, a-hl'kam, brother of the 

enemy. 2 Kin. 22. 12. 
Ahiltld, a-hl'lud, b. of one born. 2 

Sam. 8. 16. 
Allimaaz, a-hlm'a-az, b. of anger. 

2 Sam. 15. 27. 
Alliman, a-hl'man, b. of a gift. Num. 

13. 22. 
Abimelech, a-him'e-lek, b. of the 

king. I iiani. 21. I. 
Allimotll, a-hl'moth, b. of death. I 

Chr. 6. 25. 
Abiliadab, a-hin'a-dab,^. of a noble- 
man. I Kin. 4. 14. 
Abinoaill, a-hin'o-am, b. of grace. 

1 Sam. 14. 50. 
Abio, a-hl'6, brotherly. 2 Sam. 6. 3. 
Ahira, a-hl'ra, brother of a wicked 

man. Num. I. 15. 
Abiram, a-hi'ram, b. of a tall man, 

Num. 26. 38. 

ft, e, I, 5, O, y, long; a, e, I, i>, u, y, short ; a, e, i, 6, intermediate; a, e, i, o, obscure ; care, far, last, %11, tSrm, firm, famiijsi 6 

fdr, furl, rydc, pash, c as s, g as i, g as in get, s, as z, J as gs. 


Ahisamach, a-hls'a-mak, brother of 

aid. Ex. 31. 6. 
Ailisliahar, a-hlsVa-har, b. of the 

dawn. 1 Chr. 7. 10. 
Aliisliar, a-hi'shar, 6. of the singer. 

I Kin. 4. 6. 
Ahithophel, a-hith'o-fel, b. of im- 
piety. 2 Sam. 15. 12. 
Ahitufo, a-hl'tub, b. of goodness. I 

Sam. 14. 3. 
Alllafo, ah'lab, fertility. Judg. I. 31. 
Ahlai, ah'lai, sweet (?). 1 Chr. 2. 31. 
Ahoah, a-ho'ah, same as Ahijah (?). 

I Chr. 8. 4. 
Ahohite, a-ho'hlte, a descendant of 

Ahoah. 2. Sam. 23. 9. 
Aholah, a-ho'lah, (she has) her own 

tent. Ezek. 23. 4. 
Alioliab, a-ho'll-ab, father's tent. Ex. 

31. 6. 
Aholibah, a-hel'I-bah, my tent is in 

her. Ezek. 23. 4. 
Abolibamah, a-ho-lib'a-mah, tent 

of the high place. Gen. 36. 2. 
Ahumai, a-hu'ma-I, brother of (i. e. 

dwelling near) water. 1 Chr. 4. 2. 
Ahuzam, a-hu'zam, their possession. 

I Chr. 4. 6. 
Ahuzzath, ahuz / zafh, possession. 

Gen. 26. 26. 
Ai, a/1, a heap of ruins. Josh. 7. 2. 
Aiah, a-I'ah, hawk. 2 Sam. 3. 7. 
Aija, a-l'jah, same as Ai. Neh. 11. 

Aiath, a-I'afh, ruins. Is. 10. 28. 
Aijalon. aj'a-lon, place of gazelles. 

Josh. 21. 24. 

Aijeleth Shahar, aj'e-leth sha'har, 

morning hind. Ps. 22, title. 
Ain, a'in, an eye, or fountain. Num. 

24. II. 
Ajah, a'jah, same is Aiah. Gen. 36. 

Ajalon, aj'a-l&n, same as AlJALON. 

Josh. 19. 42. 
Akan, a'kan. Gen. 36. 27. 
Akkub, ak'kub, insidious. 1 Chr. 3. 

Akrabbim, a.-krab / bim, scorpions. 

Num. 34. 4. 
Alametll, al'a-meth, covering. I Chr. 

Alammelech, a-lam'me-lek, king's 

oak. Josh. 19. 26. 
Alamoth, al'a-moth, virgins (?). Ps. 

46, title. 
Alexander, al-ej-an'der, defending 

men. Mark 15. 21. 
Alexandria, al-ej-an'drl-a, the city 

named after Alexander. Acts 18. 24. 
Aliah, a-li'ah, same as Alvah. I Chr. 

I. 51. 
Allan, a-ll'an, same as Alvan. I Chr. 

I. 40. 
Allon, al'ldn, an oak. I Chr. 4. 37. 
Allon-bachuth, al'lon-bak'uth, oak 

of weeping. Gen. 35. 8. 
Almodad, al-mo'dad, extension (?). 

Gen. 10. 26. 
Almon, al / m6n, hidden. Josh. 21. 

Almon-diblathaim, al'mSn-dib- 

la-tha'im, hiding of the two cakes (?). 

Num. ^. 46. 
Aloth, a'loth, yielding milk (?). I 

Kin. 4. 16. 
Alpha, al'fa, the first letter of the Greek 

alphabet. Rev. I. 8. 
Alphseus, al-fe'us, exchange, prob- 
ably Greek form of Cleophas. Mat. 

10. 3. 
Al-tascllitll, al-tas'kith, " do not de- 
stroy." Ps. 57, title. 
Alush, a'lush. Num. 33. 13. 
Alvah, al'vak. Gen. 36. 40. 
Alvan, al'van, tall. Gen. 36. 23. 
Amad, a'mad, eternal people (?). 

Josh. 19. 26. 
Amal, a'mal, labor, sorrow. 1 Chr. 7. 

Amalek, am'a-lek. Gen. 36. 12. 

Amalekites, am'a-lek-Ites, descend- 
ants of Amalek. Gen. 14. 7. 
Amain, a'mam, metropolis (?). Josh. 

15. 26. 

Ainana, am'a-na, fixed (?). Cant. 
4. 8. _ 

Amariah, am-a-rl / ah, Jehovah has 
said. I Chr. 6. 7. 

Amasa, am'a-sa, burden. 2 Sam. 17. 

Amasai, a-mas / a-I, burdensome. I 
Chr. 6. 25. 

Amashai, a-mash'a-I. Neh. II. 13. 

Amasiah, am-a-si'ah, burden of Je- 
hovah. 2 Chr. 17. 16. 

Amaziah, am-a-zl'ah, Jehovah 
strengthens. 2 Kin. 14. I. 

Ami, a'ml, probably same as Amon. 
Ezra 2. 57. 

Aminadab, a-min'a-dab, same as 
• Amminadab. Mat. 1. 4. 

Amittai, a-mit'ta-I. 2 Kin. 14. 25. 

Ammah, am'mah. 2 Sam. 2. 24. 

Ammi, am'ml, my people. Hos. 2. I. 

Ammiel, am'mi-el, people of God. 
Num. 13. 12. 

Ammihudjam-ml'hud,/. of praise (?). 
Num. 1. 10. 

Amminadab, am-mln'a-dab, /. of 
the prince. Ex. 6. 23. 

Ammishaddai, am-mi-shad'da-I, 
people of the Almighty. Num. I. 12. 

Ammizabad, am-miz'a-bad,/. of the 
giver (z. e. Jehovah). 1 Chr. 27. 6. 

Amnion, am'm6n, son of my/. (?). 
Gen. 19. 38. 

Ammonites, am'mdn-Ites, a tribe de- 
scended from Ammon. Deut. 2. 20. 

Ammonitess, am'mon-lt-ess, femi- 
nine of preceding. I Chr. 12. 13. 

Amnon, am'non, faithful. 2 Sam. 3. 2. 

Amok, a'mok, deep. Neh. 12. 7. 

Anion, a'mon. 2 Kin. 21. 18. 

Amorite, am'dr-Ite, mountaineer. 
Gen. 10. 16. 

Amos, a'mos, burden. Amos I.I. 

Amoz, a'moz, strong. Is. I. I. 

/Vmpliipolis, am-flp'o-l's. named 
from the river Strymon flowing rozmd 
the city. Acts 17. I. 

Amplias, am'pli-as, short form of 
Ampliatus, enlarged. Rom. 16. 8. 

Amram, am'ram, people of the High- 
est (z. e. God). Ex. 6. iS. 

AmramiteS, am'ram-ltes, the de- 
scendants of Amram. Num. 3. 27. 

Amraphel, am'ra-fel. Gen. 14. I. 

Amzi, am'zl, strong. I Chr. 6. 46. 

Anab, a'nab, place fertile in grapes. 
Josh. II. 21. 

Anah, a'nah. Gen. 36. 2. 

Anaharath, an-a-ha'rath. Josh. 19. 

19- . 
Anaiah, an-S-I'ah, Jehovah has an- 
swered. Neh. 8. 4. 
Anak, a'nak, long-necked (?). Num. 

13. 22. 
Anakim, an'a-kim, a tribe called 

after Anak. Deut. I. 28. 
Anamim, an'a-mim. Gen. 10. 13. 
Aliammelech, a-nam'me-lek, idol 

of the king (?), or shepherd and 

flock (?). 2 Kin. 17. 31. 
Allan, a'nan, a cloud. Neh. 10. 26. 
Anani, an-a'nl, shortened ' form of 

Ananiah. I Chr. 3. 24. 
Ananiah, an-a-nl'ah, whom Jehovah 

covers. Neh. 3. 23. 
Ananias, an-a-nl'as, Greek form of 

Hananiah. Acts 5. 1. 
Anath, a'nath, an answer to prayer. 

Judg. 3. 31. 
Anathema, an-ath'e-ma, something 

accursed. 1 Cor. 16. 22. 
Anathoth, an'a-thoth, answers to 

prayer. Josh. 21. 18. 
Andrew, an'dru, Mark I. 29. 
AndronicUS, an-dro-nl'kus. Rom. 

16. 7. 

Anem, a'nem, same as En-GANNIM (?). 
I Chr. 6. 73. 

Aner, a'ner, a young man (?). Gen. 

14. 13. 
Anethothite, an-e-thoth'Ite, or 

Anetothite, an-e-toth'lte, a man 

of Anathoth. 2 Sam. 23. 27. 
Aniam, a'ni-am. I Chr. 7. 19. 
Anim, a'nim, fountains. Josh. 15. 50. 
Anna, an'na, grace. Luke 2. 36. 
Annas, an'nas, Greek form of IlAN- 

aniah. Luke 3. 2. 
Antioch, an'ti-ak, named in honor 

of Antiochus. Acts 6. 5. 
Antipas, an'tl-pas, contraction of An- 

tipater. Rev. 2. 13. 
Antipatris, an-tlp'a-trls, from the 

foregoing. Acts 23. 31. 
AntOthijah, an-to-thl'jah, prayers an- 
swered by Jehovah (?). I Chr. 8. 24. 
Antothite, an'toth-Ite, a man of 

Anathoth. 1 Chr. 11. 28. 
Anub, a'nub, bound together (?). 1 

Chr. 4. 8. ' 
Apelles, a-pel'les. Rom. 16. 10. 
Apkarsachices, a-'ai-'sak-ites. Ezra 


Aphek, a'fek, strength. Josh. 12. 18. 
Aphekah, a-fe'kah, same as preced- 
ing. Josh. 15. 53. 
Aphiah, a ft'ah. 1 Sam. 9. 1. 
Aphik, a'ftk, same as Aphek. Judg. 

1. 31. 

Aphrah, aPrah, dust. Mic. I. 10. 

Aphses, af'sej, dispersion. I Chr. 
24. 15. 

Apollonia, ap-61-lO'ni-a. Acts 17. I. 

Apollos, a-pCl'lOs, another form of Ap- 
ollonius or Apollodorus. Acts 18. 24. 

Apollyon, a-pOl'yon, one that exter- 
minates. Rev. 9. II. 

Appaim, ap'pa-im, the nostrils. I 
Chr. 2. 30. 

Appllla, af'fl-a, the Greek form of 
Appia. Pbilem. 2. 

Appii Forum, ap'pl-l fO / rum, forum 
or market-place of Appius. Acts 28. 15. 

Aqudla, a^wi-la, an eagle. Acts 18. 2. 

Ar, ar, city. Num. 21. 15. 

Ara, a^a, lion (?). 1 Chr. 7. 38. 

Arab, a'rab, ambush. Josh. 15. 52. 

Arabah, ar'a-bah.aplain. Josh. 18. 18. 

Arabia, a-ra'bi-a. Gal. 1. 17. 

Arabian, a-ra'bi-an, a person from 
Arabia. Neh. 2. 19. 

Arad, a'rad, wild ass. I Chr. 8. 15. 

Arab, a'rah, wandering. I Chr. 7. 39. 

Aram, a'ram, height. Gen. 10. 22. 

Aramitess, a'ram-It-ess, a female in- 
habitant of Aram. I Chr. 7. 14. 

Aran, a'ran, wild goat. Gen. 36. 28. 

Ararat, ar'a-rat. Gen. 8. 4. 

Araunall, a rau'nah, calf (?). 2 Sam. 
24. 18. 

Arba, or Arbah , ar'bah. Gen. 35. 27. 

Arbathite, ar'bath-Ite. 1 Chr. il. 32. 

Arbite, ar'blte, an inhabitant of Arab. 
2 Sam. 23. 25. 

ArchelauS, ar-ke-la / us, prince. Mat. 

2. 22. 

Archevites, ar'ke-vltes, the men of 

Erech (?), q. v. Ezra 4. 9. 
Archi, Ju/kl, an inhabitant of Erech. 

Josh. 16. 2. 
Archippus, ar-kip / pus, master of the 

horse. Col. 4. 17. 
Archite, ar'kite, a native of Erech. 

2 Sam. 15. 32. 
ArctUTUS, ark-tu'rus, probably the 

constellations known as the Great and 

Little Bear. Job 9. 9. 
Ard, ard, fugitive (?). Gen. 46. 21. 
Ardites, ard'ttes, descendants of Ard. 

Num. 26. 40. 
Ardon, ar / d6n, fugitive. I Chr. 2. 18. 
Areli, a-re'll, heroic. Gen. 46. 16. 
Areopagite, ar-e-6p / a-gite, belong- 
ing to the council held on Areopagus. 

Acts 17 34. 
Areopagus, ar-e-6p / a-gus, hill of 

Mars. Acts 17. 19. 
AretaS, aT'e-tas, a husbandman (?). 

2 Cor. II. 32. 

Argob, ar'gob, a rocky district. Deut, 

Aridai, a-rld'a-l. Est. 9. 9. 
Aridatha, a-rld'a-tha. Est. 9. 8. 
Arieh, a-rl'eh, lion. 2 Kin. 15. 25. 
Ariel, a'ri-el, lion of God. Ezra 8. 16. 
Arimathsea, ar-I-ma-the'a,the same 

as Ramah. Mat. 27. 57. 
Arioch, a'rl-ok. Gen. 14. 1. 
Arisai, a-rls'a-i. Est. 9. 9. 
Aristarchus, ar-Is-tar'kus, best rul- 
ing. Acts 19. 29. 
Aristobulus, ar-Is-ta-bu'lus, best 

counsellor. Rom. 16. 10. 
Arkite, ark'Ite, fugitive (?). Gen. 10. 

Armageddon, 5r-ma-ged / 'don, 

height of Megiddo. Rev. 15. 16. 
Armenia, ar-me / nl-a, land of Aram. 

2 Kin. 19. 37. 
Armoni, ar-m0 / nl, belonging to a 

palace. 2 Sam. 21. 8. 
Arnan, ar'nan, active. 1 Chr. 3. 21. 
Arnon, ar'ndn, swift. Num. 21. 13. 
Arod, a'rod, wild ass. Num. 26. 17. 
Arodi, ar'G-dl, same as preceding. 

Gen. 46. 16. 
Arodites, a'rSd-ltes, descendants of 

Arod. Num. 26. 17. 
Aroer, ar'o-er, ruins (?). Deu. 2. 36. 
Aroerite, ar'S-er-Ite, a man of Aroer. 

1 Chr. 11. 44. 

Arpad, ar / pad, or Arphad, ar'fad, 

support. 2 Kin. 18. 34. 
Arphaxad, ar-fax'ad. Gen. 10. 22. 
ArtaxerxeS, ar-taj-erx'eg, honored 

king (?). Ezra 4. 8. 
Artemas, ar'te-mas, shortened form 

of Artemidorus (?). Tit. 3. 12. 
Aruboth, ar'u-bdth, windows. I Kin. 

4. 10. 
Arumah, a ru'mah, elevated. Judg. 

9. 41. 
Arvad, ar'vad, wandering. Ezek. 

27. 8. , 

Arvadites, ar'vad-Ites, inhabitants of 

Arvad. Gen. 10. 18. 
Arza, ar'za, earth. I Kin. 16. 9. 
Asa, a^a, physician. I Kin. 15. 8. 
Asahel, a'sa-hel, whom God made. 

2 Sam. 2. 18. 

Asahiah, a-sa-hl'ah. 2 Kin. 22. 12. 

Asaiah, a-sa-^ah. I Chr. 4. 36. 

Asaph, a'saf, collector. 2 Kin. 18. 
18; I Chr. 6. 39. 

Asareel, a-sar'e-el, whom God has 
bound. 1 Chr. 4. 16. 

Asarelah, as-a-re'lah, same as Jesh- 
ARELAH. 1 Chr. 25. 2. 

Asenath, as'e-nath, she who is of 
Neith (z. e. a goddess of the Egyp- 
tians) (?). ' Gen. 41. 45. 

Aser, a'ser, same as Asher. Luke 2. 

Aslian, a'shan, smoke. Josh. 15. 42. 
Ashbea, ash-be'a, I conjure. I Chr. 

4. 21. 
Ashbel, ash/bel, blame (?). Gen. 46. 

Asehenaz, asVke-naz, same as Ash- 

KENAZ. 1 Chr. 1. 6. 
Ashdod, ash'd&d, a strong place. Josh- 

IS- 46. 

Ashdodites, ash'dad-Ites, the in- 
habitants of Ashdod. Neh. 4. 7. 

Ashdoth-pisgah, ash'doth-pis/gah, 
springs of Pisgah. Josh. 12. 3. 

AshdothiteS, ash'ddth-Ites, same as 
Ashdodites. Josh. 13. 3. 

Asher, ash'er, fortunate, happy. Gen. 

3°- 13- 
Asherah, ash-e'rah, the goddess Ash- 

toreth. 2 Kin. 17. IO. 
AsheriteS, ash'er-Ites, descendants 

of Asher. Judg. I. 32. 
Asllima, asl/I-ma. 2 Kin. 17. 30. 
Ashkelon, ash / ke-lon, migration. 

Judg. 14. 19. 
Ashkenaz, ash'ke-naz. Gen. 10. 3. 
Ashnah, ash / nah, strong. Josh. 15. 33. 
Ashpenaz, ash / pe-naz. Dan. I. 3. 

a. e, I, 0, a, y, long ; a, 6, I, 6, u, y, short ; a, e, t, 6, intermediate ; a, e, i, o, obscure ; care, far, last, fall, term, firm, familjar, 

ffir, ffixL rude, push, c as- s, g as j, g as in get, § as z, j a« gx. 


Ashriel, ash'rl-el, same as Asriel. 
I Chr. 7. 14. 

Ashtaroth, ash'ta-rtfh, statues of 
Ashtoreth. Josh. 9. 10. 

Ashterathite, ash'te-rath-Ite, a na- 
tive of Ashteroth. 1 Chr. 11. 44. 

Ashteroth Karnaim, ash'te-rcth 
kar-na'im, Ashteroth of the two horns. 
Gen. 14. 5. 

Ashtoreth, ash'td-reth, she who en- 
riches. I Kin. 11. 5. 

Ashur, ash'ur. I Chr. 2. 24. 

Ashurites, ash'ur-Ites. 2 Sam. 2. 9. 

Ashvath, ash'vath. I Chr. 7. 33. 

Asia, a'sja. Acts. 2. 9. 

Asiel, a'sl-el, created by God. I Chr. 

4- 35- 

/Ysnah, as'nah, bramble. Ezra 2. 50. 

Asnapper, as-nap'per, Assur has 
formed a son. Ezra 4. 10. 

Aspatha, as'pa-tha. Est. 9. 7. 

Asriel, as'rl-el, the prohibition of God. 
Num. 26. 31. 

Asrielites, as'ri-el-ltes, the family of 
Asriel. Num. 26. 31. 

Asshur, ash'ur, the gracious One (?). 
Gen. 10. 22. 

Asshurim, as-shu'rim. Gen. 25. 3. 

Assir, as'slr, captive. Ex. 6. 24. 

ASSOS, as'sos. Acts 20. 13. 

Assyria, as-syr'I-a, the land so named 
from Asshur. Gen. 2. 14. 

Assyrians, as-syr'I-ang, inhabitants of 
Assyria. Is. 10. 5. 

Astaroth, as'ta-roth, same as Ashto- 
reth. Deut. 1. 4. 

Asiippim, a-sup'pim. I Chr. 26. 15. 

Asyncritus, a-syn'krl-tus, incompar- 
able. Rom. 16. 14. 

Atad, a/tad, buckthorn. Gen. 50. 10. 

Atarah, at'a-rah, a crown. 1 Chr. 2. 

Ataroth, at'a-rtth, crowns. Num. 

3 2 - 3- 
Ater, a'ter, bound, shut up. Ezra 2. 16. 
Athach, a'thak, lodging-place. I Sam. 

3°- 3°- 
Athaiah, ath-a-I'ah, whom Jehovah 

made (?). Neb. 11. 4. 
Athaliah, ath-a-ll'ah, whom Jehovah 

has afflicted. 2 Kin. 8. 26. 
Athlai, ath'lai, shortened form of 

Athaliah. Ezra 10. 2S. 
Athenians, ath-e'ni-ang, natives of 

Athens. Acts 17. 21. 
Athens, ath'enj. Acts. 17. 15. 
Atroth, at'rdth, same as Ataroth. 

Num. 32. 35. 
Attai, at'tai, opportune. I Chr. 2. 35. 
Attalia, at-ta'll-a, so called from At- 

talus, the royal founder of the city. 

Acts 14. 25. 
Augustus, au-gfis'tus, venerable. 

Luke 2. 1. 
Ava, a'va. 2 Kin. 17. 24. 
Aven,a r ven, nothingness. Ezek. 30. 17. 
A vim, a'ylm, ruins. Josh. 18. 23. 
Avith, a'vith. Gen. 36. 35. 
Azal, a'zal, root of a mountain. Zech. 

14. f 

Azaliah, az-a-ll'ah, whom Jehovah 

has reserved. 2 Kin. 22. 3. 
Azaniah, az-a-nl'ah, whom Jehovah 

hears. Neh. 10. 9. 
Azarael, a-zar'a-el, whom God helps. 

Neh. 12. 36. 
Azareel, a-zar'e-el, same as preceding. 

I Chr. 12. 6. 
Azariah, az-a-rl'ah, whom Jehovah 

aids. 2 Chr. 22. 6. 
Azaz, a'zaz, strong. 1 Chr. 5. 8. 
Azaziah, az-a-zl'ah, whom Jehovah 

strengthened. I Chr. 15. 21. 
Azbuk, az'buk. Neh. 3. 16. 
Azekall, a-ze'kah, dug over. Josh. 

10. IO. 
Azel, a'zel, noble. I Chr. 8. 37. 
Azeill, a'zem, strength, bone. Josh. 

15. 29. 

Azgad, az'gad, strong in fortune. Ezra 

2. 12. 

Aziel, a / zl-el, whom God strengthens. 

1 Chr. 15. 20. 

Aziza, a-zl'za, strong. Ezra 10. 27. 
Azmaveth, az'ma-veth, strength (?). 

2 Sam. 23. 31. 

Azmon, az'mon, robust. Num. 34. 4. 
Aziioth-tabor, az'noth-ta'bor, ears 

(i. e. summits) of Tabor. Josh. 19. 34. 
Azor, a'zor, helper. Mat. I. 13. 
Azotus, a-zO'tus, the Greek form of 

Ashdod. Acts 8. 40. 
Azriel, az'rl-el, help of God. 1 Chr. 

5. 24. 

Azrikani, az'rl-kam, help against an 

enemy. I Chr. 3. 23. 
Azubah, a-zu'bah, forsaken. 1 Kin. 

22. 42. 
Azur, a'zur, same as Azor. Jer. 28. I. 
Azah, a'zah, strong, fortified. Deut. 

2. 23. 
Azzan, az'zan, strong. Num. 34. 26. 
Azzur, az'zur, same as Azor. Neh. 

10. 17. 

JDAALi, ba'al, lord, master, possessor, 
owner. Num. 22. 41. 

Baalah, ba'al-ah, mistress. Josh. 15. 

Baalath, ba'al-ath, same as preced- 
ing. Josh. 19. 44. 

Baalath-beer, ba'al-ath-le'er, hav- 
ing a well. Josh. 19. 8. 

Baal-berith, ba'al-be'rith, lord of 
covenant. Judg. 8. 33. 

Baale, ba'a-le, plural of Baal. 2 Sam. 

6. 2. 

Baal-gad, ba'al-gad, lord of fortune. 

Josh. 11. 17. 
Baal-hamon, ba'al-ha'mon, place 

of a multitude. Cant. 8. 11. 
Baal-hanan, ba'al-ha'nan, lord of 

benignity. Gen. 36. 38. 
Baal-hazor, ba'al-ha'zor, having a 

village. 2 Sam. 13. 23. 
Baal-hermon, ba'al-her'mon, place 

of Hermon. Judg. 3. 3. 
Baali, ba'al-I, my lord. Hos. 2. 16. 
Baal-meon, ba'al-me'on, place of 

habitation. Num. 32. 38. 
Baal-peor, ba'al-pe'or, lord of the 
opening. Num. 25. 3. 

Baal-perazim, ba'al-per'a-zim, 

place of breaches. 2 Sam. 5. 20. 
Baal-shal i sha, ba'al-shal'I-sha, lord 

(or place) of Shalisha. 2 Kin. 4. 42. 
Baal-tamar, ba'al-ta'mar, place of 

palm trees. Judg. 20. 33. 
Baal-zebub, ba'al-ze'bub, lord of 

flies. 2 Kin. I, 2. 
Baal-zephon, ba'al-ze'fon, place of 

Zephon, or sacred to Zephon. Ex. 14. 2. 

Baana, ba'a-na. I Kin. 4. 12. 

Baanah, ba'a-nah. 2 Sam. 4. 2. 

Baara, ba'a-ra, foolish. I Chr. 8. 8. 

Baaseiah, ba-a-se'jah, work of Je- 
hovah. I Chr. 6. 40. 

Baasha, ba'a-sha. wicked (?). 1 Kin. 
IS- 16. 

Babel, ba'bel, confusion. Gen. II. 9. 

Babylon, bab'y-lon, Greek form of 
Babel. 2 Kin. 20. 12. 

Babylonish, bab'y-lo-nish, of, or be- 
longing to, Babylon. Josh. 7. 21. 

Baca, ba'ka, weeping. Ps. 84. 6. 

BachriteS, bak'rltes, the family of 
Becher. Num. 26. 35. 

Baharuihite, ba-ha'rum-Ite, an in- 
habitant of Bahurim. 1 Chr. 11. 33. 

Bahurim, ba-hu'rim (town of), young 
men. 2 Sam. 16. 5. 

Bajith, ba'jith (same as Beth), house. 
Is. 15. 2. 

Bakbakkar, bak-bak'kar. I Chr. 

9- 15- 

Bakbuk, bak'bak, a bottle. Ezra 

Bakbukiah, bak-buk-I'ah, empty- 
ing (i. e. wasting) of Jehovah. Neh. 

11. 17. 

Balaam, ba'lam, destruction (?). Num. 
22. 5. 

Balac, ba'lak, same as Balak. Rev. 

2. 14. 

Baladan, bal'a-dan, He has given a 

son. 2 Kin. 20. 12. 
Balah, ba'lah. Josh. 19. 3. 
Balak, ba'lak, to make empty. Num. 

22. 2. 
Bamah, ba'mah, high place. Ezek. 

20. 29. 

Bamoth, ba'mSth, high places. Num. 

21. 19. 

Bamoth-baal, ba'mdth-ba'al, high 
places of Baal. Josh. 13. 17. 

Bani, ba'nl, built. 2 Sam. 23. 36. 

Barabbas, ba-rab'bas, son of Abba 
or father. Mark 15. 17. 

Barachel, bar'a-kel, whom God 
blessed. Job 32. 6. 

BarachiaS, bar-a-kl'as, whom Je- 
hovah blesses. Mat. 23. 35. 

Barak, ba'rak, thunderbolt, lightning. 
Judg. 4. 6. 

Barhumite, bar-hu'mlte, same as 
Baharumite. 2 Sam. 23. 31. 

Bariah, ba-rl'ah, a fugitive. 1 Chr. 

3. 22. 

Bar-jeSUS, bar-je'sus, son of Jesus. 

Acts 13. 6. 
Bar-jona, bar jo'na, s. of Jona. Mat. 

16. 17. 

Barkos, bar'kos, painter (?). Ezra 


Barnabas, bar'na-bas, son of exhor- 
tation. Acts 4. 36. 

Barsabas, bar'sa-bas, j. of Seba. 
Acts 4. 23. 

Bartholomew, bar-tli6l'd-mew, s. 
of Talmai. Mat. 10. 46. 

Bartimseus, Lar-ti-me'i.'s, s. of Timai. 
Mark 10. 46. 

Baruch, ba'rak, blesseL Jer. 32. 12. 

Barzillai, bar-zil'la-I, of iron. 2 Sam. 

17. 27. 

Bashan, ba'shan, soft rich soil. Num. 

2I - 33- 
Bashan-havoth-jair, ba'shan- 

ha'voth-ja'ir, Bashan of the villages of 
Jair. Deut. 3. id.. 

Bashemath, Lash'e-math, sweet- 
smelling. Gen. 26. 34. 

Basmath, bas'math, same as Bashe- 
math. 1 Kin. 4. 15. 

Bath-sheba, bath/she-ba, d. of the 
oath. 2 Sam. II. 3. 

Bath-shua, bath'shu-a. I Chr. 3. 5. 

Bavai, bav'a-I. Neh. 3. 18. 

Bazlith, baz'lithja making naked (?). 
Neh. 7. 54. 

Bazluth, baz'luth, same as Bazlith. 
Ezra 2. 52. 

Bealiah, be-a-ll / ah, whom Jehovah 
rules. I Chr. 12. 5. 

Bealoth, be^-ldth, citizens (?), plural 
of Baalah. Josh. 15. 24. 

Bebai, beb'a-I. Ezra 8. II. 

Becher, be'ker, a young camel. Gen. 
46. 21. 

BecllOrath, be-ko'rath, offspring of 
the first birth. I Sam. 9. 1. 

Bedad, be'dad, separation, part. Gen. 

36. 35- 
Bedan, be'dan, son of Dan (?). I Sam. 
12. II. 

Bedeiah, be-de'jah. Ezra 10. 35. 
Beeliada, be-el-I'a-da, whom Baal 

has known. I Chr. 14. 7. 
Beelzebub, be-eKze-buh, same as 

Baalzebub. Mat. 10. 25. 
Beer, be'er, a well. Num. 21. 16. 
Beera, be-e'ra, same as Beer, i Chr. 

7- 37- 
Beerah, be-e'rah, same as Beer, i 

"Chr. 5. 6. 
Beer-elim, be'er-e'lim, well of 

heroes. Is. 15. 8. 
Beeri, be-e^i, man of the w. Gen. 

26. 34. 
Beer-lahai-roi, be / er-la-hai / roi, w. 

of vision (of God) to the living. Gen. 

16. 14. 
Beeroth, be-e / rdth, wells. Josh. 9. 17. 

Beerothite, bS-e'roth-ite, a native 

of Beeroth. 2 Sam. 23. 37. 
Beer-sheba, be'er-she'ba, well of 

the oath. Gen. 21. 31. 
Beesh-terall, be-esh'te-rah, house 

or temple of Astarte (?). Josh. 21.27. 
Behemoth, be / he-m6th, the water- 
ox. Job 40. 15. 
Bekah, be'kah, part, half. Ex. 38. 26. 
Bel, bgl, another form of Baal. Is. 

46. 1. 
Bela, be'la, destruction. Gen. 14. 2. 
Belah, be'lah, same as Bela. Gen. 

46. 21. 
Belaites, be'la-Ites, descendants of 

Bela. Num. 26. 38. 
Belial, be'li-al, worthless. Deu. 13. 13. 
Belshazzar, bel-shaz / zar, Bel pro 

tects. Dan. 5. I. 
Belteshazzar, bel-te-shaz'zar, pre. 

serve his life. Dan. I. 7. 
Ben, ben, son. I Chr. 15. 18. 
Benaiah, be-na'i'ah, whom Jehovah 

has built. 2 Sam. 8. 18. 
Ben-ammi, ben-arn'ml, son of my 

own kindred. Gen. 19. 38. 

Bene-berak, ben-e-be^ak, sons of 

Barak, or of lightning. Josh. 19. 45. 
Bene-jaakan, ben-e-jVa-kan, j. of 
Jaakan. Num. 33. 31. 

Ben-hadad, ben-ha^ad, son of Ha- 

dad. I Kin. 15. 18. 
Ben -hail, ben-ha'il, s. of the host. 

2 Chr. 17. 7. 
Ben-hanan, ben-ha / nan, s. of one 

who is gracious. I Chr. 4. 20. 
Beninu, ben'l-nu, our s. Neh. 10. 

Benjamin, beVja-min, s. of the right 

hand, i. e. fortunate. Gen. 35. 18. 
Benjamite, ben'ja-mlte, a man of 

the inbe of Benjamin. Judg. 20. 35. 
Beno, be'nO, his son. I Chr. 24. 26. 
Ben-oni, bSn-o / nI, s. of my sorrow. 

Gen. 35. 18. 
Ben-zohetll, ben-zO'heth, s. of Zo' 

heth. 1 Chr. 4. 20. 
Bcon, be'on, contracted from Baal- 

MEON. Num. 32. 3. 
Beor, be^r. Gen. 36. 32. 
Bera, be-'ra. Gen. 14. 2. 
Berachah, ber'a-kah, blessing. I 

Chr. 12. 3. 
Berachiah, ber-a.-kl / ah, whom Jeho- 
vah hath blessed. 1 Chr. 6. 39. 
Beraiall, ber-a-I r ah, whom Jehovah 

created. I Chr. 8. 21. 
Berea, bg-re'a. Acts 17. 10. 
Bered, be'red, hail. Gen. 16. 14. 
Beri, be'rl, man of the well. I Chr. 

7- 36- 
Beriah, be-rP'ah, in evil (?). Gen. 

46. 17. 

Beriites, be-rl'ltes, descendants o' 

Beriah. Num. 26. 44. 
Berites, be^ites. 2 Sam. 20. 14. 
Be:"ith, be / rith, a covenant. Judg. 9, 

Bernice, ber-nl'ce, Victoria. Acts 

25. 13. 
Berodach-baladan, be-ro'dak- 

baKa-dan, Berodach (spme as Mero- 

DACH) has given a son. 2 Kin. 20. 12. 

Berothah, be-rC/thah, wells. Ezek. 

47. 16. 

Berothai, ber'o-thai, my wells. 2 

Sam. 8. 8. 
Berothite, be r r6th-ite, same as Be- 
erothite. 1 Chr. 11. 39. 
Besai, be'sai, sword (?), or victory (?). 

Ezra 2. 49. 
Besodeiah, bes-6-de'jah, in the secret 

of Jehovah. Neh. 3. 6. 
BeSOr, be / s6r, cool. I Sam. 30. 9. 
Betall, be'tah, confidence. 2 Sam, 

8. 8. 
Beten, be'ten. Josh. 19. 25. 
Bethabara, b6th-ab / a-ra, house of 

passage. John 1. 28. 
Beth-anath, beth-a / nath, echo. Josk 

19. 38. 

a, e, I, O, a, y, long; a, e, I, 6, u, y, short; a, e, f, 6, intermediate ; a, e, j, o, obscure ; care, far, las*-. falL term. firm. iamil jasi 

tor, furl, rude, push, cass, gasj, gasin get, 5 as z, 5 as gx 


Beth-anoth, bah-a'noth. John 15. 

Bethany, bah'a-ny, house of dates. 

Mat. 21. 17. 
Beth-arabah, bah-ar'a-bah, h. of 

the desert, josh. 15. 6. 
Beth-aram, bah-a'ram, h. of the 

height. Josh. 13. 27. 
Betll-arbel, bah-ar'bel, h. of the 

ambush of God. Hos. 10. 14. 
Beth-aven, bah-a'ven, h. of vanity 

(1. e. of idols). Josh. 7. 2. 
Beth-azmavetll, bah-az'ma-vah, 

h. of strength. Neh. 7. 28. 
Beth-baal-meon, bah-ba'al-me'- 

on, h. of Baal-meon. Josh. 13. 17. 
Beth-barall, bah-ba'rah, same as 

Bethabara. Judg. 7. 24. 
Beth-birei, bah-blr'e-I, h. of my 

creation. I Chr. 4. 31. 
Beth-car, bah'kar, h. of pasture. 

I Sam. 7. 11. 

Beth-dagon, bah-da'gon, h. of 

Dagon. Josh. 15. 41. 

Beth-diblathaim, bah-dib-la- 

tha'im, h. of the two cakes. Jer. 48. 

Bethel, bah/el,/?, of God. Gen. 12. 8. 
Bethelite, bah'el-Ite, a native of 

Bethel. I Kin. 16. 34. 
Beth-emek, bah-e'mek, h. of the 

valley. Josh. 19. 27. 
Bether, be'ther, separation. Cant. 

2. 17. 
Bethesda, be-thes/da, h. of mercy. 

John 5. 2. 
Beth-ezel, bah-e'zel, h. cf firm- 
ness (?). Mic. I. II. 
Beth-gader, bah-ga'der, h. of the 

wall. 1 Chr. 2. 51. 
Beth-gamul, bah-ga'mul, h. of the 

weaned. Jer. 48. 23. 
Beth-haccerem, bah-hak'ce-ren>, 

h. of the vineyard. Neh. 3. 14. 
Bcth-harau, bah-ha'ran. Num. 

32. 36. 
Beth-hoglah, bah-h&g'tah, //. of 

the partridge. Josh. 15. 6. 
Betll-horon, bah-ho'r6n , h. of the 

hollow. Josh. 10. 10. 
Beth-jeshimoth , bah-j{ : ih'I-mSth, 

h. of the deserts. Num. 3^. 49. 
Beth-lebaoth, bah-laVa 6th, h. of 

lionesses. Josh. 19. 6. 
Beth-lehem, bah'le-h&n, h. of 

bread. Gen. 35. 19. 
Peth-leliem Ephratah, beth'le- 

hem ef'ra-tah, B. the fruitful (?). Mic. 


Peth-lehem-judah, bah'te-hSm- 

ja'dah, B. of Judah. Judg. 17. 7. 

Bcth-maacliah, bah-ma / a- Ual '>> k. 
of Maachah. 2 Sam. 20. 14. 

Beth-marcaboth, bah-«nar'ka- 
b6th, h. of chariots. Josh. 19. 5. 

Beth-meon, bah-me'on, h. of habi- 
tation. Jer. 48. 23. 

Beth-nimrah, bah-nlm'rah, h. of 
sweet water. Num. 32- 36. 

Beth-palet, bah-pa^et, h. of escape, 
or of Pelet. Josh. 15. 27. 

Beth-pazzez, bah-paz'zez, h. of dis- 
persion. Josh. 19, 21. 

Beth-peor, betb-pe'6r, temple of 
Peor. Deut. 3- 59. 

Bethphage, bah'fa-ge, house of un- 
ripe figs. Mat. 21. 1. 

Beth-phelet. bah-fe'let, same as 
Bethphalet. Neh. 11. 26. 

Betk-rapba, bah-ra'fa, house of 
Rapha. I Chr. 4. 12. 

Beth-rehob, bah-re'h6b, h. of 
Rehob. Judg. 18. 28. 

Bethsaida, bah-sa'i-da, k. of fish- 
ing. Mat. II. 21. 

Beth-Shan, bah'shan, h. of rest. 
I Sam. 31. 10. 

Beth-shean, bah-she'an, same as 

Bethshan. Josh. 17. 11. 
Beth-shemesh, bah-she'mesh, h. 

of the sun. Josh. 15. 10. 

Bethshemite, bah-she'mlte, a na- 
tive of Bethshemesh. 1 Sam. 6. 14. 

Beth-shittah, bah-shit'tah, h. of 

acacias. Judg. 7. 22. 

Beth-tappuah, bah-tap'pu-ah, h. 

of apples. Josh. 15. 53. 
Betbuel, bah-u'el, h. of God. Gen. 

22. 22. 
Betbul, be'thuljSame as Bethel (?). 

Josh. 19. 4. 
Betb-zur, bah'zfir, h. of the rock. 

Josh. 15. 58. 
Betonim, ba'6-nim, pistachio nuts. 

Josh. 13. 26. 
Beulall, bea'lah, married. Is. 62. 4. 
Bezai, be'zai. Ezra 2. 17. 
Bezaleel, be-zal'e-el, in the shadow 

of God (?). Ex. 31. 2. 
Bezek, be'zek, lightning (?). Judg. 

Bezer, be'zer, ore of precious metal. 

Deut. 4. 43. 
Bichri, bik'rl, young. 2 Sam. 20. 1. 
Bidkar, bld'kar, cleaver (?). 2 Kin. 

9. 25. 

Bigtha, big'tha. Est. 1. 10. 
Bigthail. big'than, given by God. 

Est. 2. 21. 
Bigthana, blg'tha-na, same as Big- 

than. Est. 6. 2. 
Bigvai, big'va-I. Ezra 2. 2. 
Bildad, bll'aau, son of contention (?). 

Job 2. 11. 
Bileam, bll'e-am, same as Balaam (?). 

or Ibleam (?). 1 Chr. 6. 70. 
Bilgah, bll'gah, cheerfulness. I Chr. 

24. 14. 
Bilgai, bll'ga-I, same as Bilgah. Neh. 

10. 8. 

Bilhah, bil'hah, modesty. Gen. 29. 29. 
Bilbail, bll'han, modest. Gen. 36. 27. 
Bilshan, bil'shan, seeker (?). Ezra 
2. 2. 

Bhnhal, bim'hal. 1 Chr. 7. 33. 
Binea, buPe-a. 1 Chr. 8. 37. 
Binnui, bln'nu-I, a building. Ezra 

Birsha, bir'sha. Gen. 14. 2. 
Birzavith, blr'za-vlth, wounds (?). 

1 Chr. 7. 31. 

Bislllam, bish'Iam. Ezra 4. 7. 
Bithiab, blth'I-ah, daughter (*. e. wor- 
shipper) of Jehovah. I Chr. 4. 18. 
Bitliron, bith/ron, a broken place. 

2 Sam. 2. 29. 

Bithynia, ti-thyn'I-a. Acts 16. 7. 
Bizjotbjah, blz-j6th/ja, contempt of 

Jehovah. Josh. 15. 28. 
Biztha, blz'tha. Est. 1. 10. 
BlastUS, blas'tus, a shoot. Acts 12. 20. 
Boanerges, bo-a.n-er / ge§, sons of 

thunder. Mark 3. 17. 
Boaz, bs'az, fleetness. Ruth 2. I. 
Bocheru, bSl</e-ru, firstborn (?). 1 

Chr. 8. 38. 
Bochim, bo'kim, weepers. Judg. 2. I. 
Bohan, bo'han, thumb (?). Josh. 15.6. 
Booz, bo'oz, same as Boaz. Mat. 1. 5. 
Boscatb, bos'kath, stony, elevated 

ground. 2 Kin. 22. I. 
Bosor, bo'sor, Greek and Aramaic 

form of Beor. 2 Pet. 2. 15. 
Bozez, bo'zez, shining. I Sam. 14. 4. 
Bozkatll, boz'kath, same as Bos- 

CATH. Josh. 15. 39. 
Bozrah, boz-'rah, sheepfold. Gen. 

36- 33- 
Bllkki, bflk / kl, wasting. Num. 34. 22. 
Bukkiall, buk-kl'ah, wasting from 

Jehovah. 1 Chr. 25. 4. 
Bill, bul, rain. 1 Kin. 6. 38. 
Blinah, ba'nah, prudence. I Chr. 2. 25. 
Bunni, bun'nl, built. Neh. 9. 4. 
Buz, buz, contempt. Gen. 22. 21. 
Buzi, bu'zl, descended from Buz. 

Ezek I. 3. 

CaBBON", kab'bon, cake. Josh. 

15. 40. 
Cabul, ka^ul, displeasing (?). Josh. 

19. 2-}, 

Caesar, ce'sar. Mat. 22. 17. 
Caesarea, ces-a-re'a, named after Au- 
gustus Cassar. Acts 8. 40. 

Caesarea Philippi, ces-a-re'a fi- 

lip'pl, named after Philip the tetrarch. 

Mat. 16. 13. 
Caiaphas, ka'ja fas, depression (?). 

Mat. 26. 3. 
Cain, kain, possession. Gen. 4. 1 ; 

Josh. 15. 57. 
Cainail, ka-l'nan, possessor. Gen. 5. 9. 
Calah, ka'lah. Gen. 10. II. 
Calcol, kal'kol. I Chr. 2. 6. 
Caleb, ka'leb, a dog. Num. 26. 65. 
Caleb-ephratah, ka'leb-efra-tah. 

C. the fruitful. 1 Chr. 2. 24. 
Calneh, kaKneh. Gen. 10. 10. 
Calno, kal'nO, same as Calneh. Is. 

10. 9. 
Calvary, kal'va-ry, skull. Luke 23. 33. 
Camon, ka'mon, abounding in stalks. 

Judg. 10. 5. 
Cana, ka'na. John 2. I. . 
Canaan, ka'nan, low region. Gen. 

9. 18. 

Canaanite (or Cananite), ka / - 

nan-lie, a zealot. Mark 3. 18. 
Canaanites, ka'nan-Ites, inhabitants 

of Canaan. Judg. I. I. 
CanaaniteSS, ka-navi-It / ess, feminine 

of preceding. 1 Chr. 2. 3. 
Candace, kan'da-ce. Acts 8. 27. 
Caniieh, kan / neh, probably same as 

Calneh. Ezek. 27. 23. 
Capernaum, ka-per'na-um, city of 

consolation (?). Mat. 4. 13. 
Caphthorim, kaPtho-rim, same as 

Caphtorim. 1 Chr. 1. 12. 
Caphtor, kaftor. Deut. 2. 23. 
Caphtorim, kaPt6-rim, inhabitants 

of Caphtor. Gen. 10. 14. 
Cappadocia, kap-pa-do^hl-a. Acts 

CarcaS, kar'kas. Est. I. 10. 
Carchemish, kar'kamish, fortress 

of Chemosh. Jer. 46. 2. 
Careah,ka-re / ah,bald. 2 Kin. 25. 23. 
Carmel, kar'mel, park. Josh. 12. 22. 
Carmelite, kar'mel-Ite, a native of 

Carmel. I Sam. 30. 5. 
Carmi, kar / ml, a vine-dresser. Gen. 

Carmites, kar / mltes, descendants of 

Carmi. Num. 26. 6. 
Carpus, kar-'pus, fruit (?). 2 Tim. 

4- 13- 
Carshena, kar-she'na. Est. I. 14. 
Casiphia, ka-slFi-a, silver (?). Ezra 

8. 17. 
Caslllllim, kas'hi-hlm. Cen. 10. 14. 
Castor, kas'tor. Acts 28. II. 
Cedron, se'drGn, same as Kidron. 

John 18. I. 
Cenchrea, cen / kre-a, millet, small 

pulse. Acts 18. 18. 
Cephas, se'fas, stone. John 1. 42. 
Chalcol, kal'k&l, same as Calcol. 

1 Kin. 4. 31. 
Chaldea, kal-de'a. Jer. 50. 10. 
Chaldeans, kal-de'an§, inhabitants 

of Chaldea. Job I. 17. 
Chaldees, kaPdeej, same as preced- 
ing. Gen. 11. 28. 
Chanaan, ka'nan, another form of 

Canaan. Acts 7. 11. 
Charashim, kar'a-shlm, craftsmen. 

I Chr. 4. 14. 
Charchemish, kar'ke-mish, same as 

Carchemish. 2 Chr. 35. 20. 
Charran, kar'ran, same as Haran. 

Acts 7. 2. 
Chebar, ke'bar, great (?). Ezek. I. I. 
Chedorlaomer, kedor-la'o-mer, 

glory of — (?). Gen. 14. I. 
Chelal, ke'lal, completion. Ezra 10. 

Chelluh, kel'luh. Ezra 10. 35. 
Chelub, ke 7 ^!), bird-trap. 1 Chr. 

4. 11. 
Chelubai, ke-la / bai, same as Caleb. 

I Chr. 2. 9. 

Chemarim, — ken^a-rim, persons 

dressed in black attire. Zeph. I. 4. 
Chemosh, ke'mosh, subduer. Num. 

21. 29. 

Chenaanah, ke-na'a-nah, probably 
fem. of Canaan. I Kin. 22. II. 

Chenani, k6n / a-nl, probably same as 
Chenaniah. Neh. 9. 4. 

Chenaniah, ken-a-nPah, whom Je- 
hovah supports. 1 Chr. 15. 22. 

Chephar-haammonai, kefar- 

ha-arn'o-nai, village of the Ammonites. 
Josh. 18. 24. 

Ciiephirah, ke-fl'rah, same at 
Caphar. Josh. 9. 17. 

Cheran, ke'ran. Gen. 36. 26. 

Cherethim, ker'ah-Im, Cre- 

tans (?). Ezek. 25. 16. 

Cherethites, ka-'eth-Ites, probably 
same as preceding. 2 Sam. 8. 18. 

Cherith, ke^Ith, gorge (?). 1 Kin. 

17- 3- 
Cherub, cher'ub, blessing (?), 

strong (?). Ezra 2. 59. 
Cherubim, cher'u-bim, plural of 

Cherub. Gen. 3. 24. 
Chesalon, kes'a-lon, hope. Josh. 15. 

Chesed, ke'sed, conqueror (?). Gen. 

22. 22. 

Chesil, ke'sll, a fool. Josh. 15. 30. 
Chesulloth, kS-suPleth, confidences, 

Josh. 19. 18. 
Chezib, ke'zlb, false. Gen. 38. 5. 
Chidon, kl'don, javelin. I Chr. 13. 9. 
Chileab, klPe-ab, probably anothei 

form of Caleb. 2 Sam. 3. 3. 
Chilion, kil'I-on, wasting away. Ruth 

I. 2. 
Chilmad, kll'mad. Ezek. 27. 23. 
Chimham, klm'ham, longing. 2 

Sam. 19. 37. 
Chinnereth, kln / ne-rah, a lyre. 

Josh. i 9 . 35. 
Chinnerotll, kin / ne-r6th, plural of 

Chinnereth. Josh. 11. 2. 
Chios, ki'os. Acts 20. 15. 
Chisleu, kis'leu. Neh. I. 1. 
Chislon, kls'lon, confidence, hope. 

Num. 34. 21. 
Chisloth-tabor, kis'lsth-ta'bdr, 

flanks (?) of Tabor. Josh. 19. 12. 
Chittim, klt'tim, probably Cyprus. 

Num. 24. 24. 
Chiun, kl'un, image. Amos 5. 26. 
Chloe, klo'e. 1 Cor. 1. 1 1. 
Chorashan, ko-ra'shan, smoking fur- 
nace. 1 Sam. 30. 30. 
Chorazin, ko-ra'zin. Mat. 11. 21. 
Chozeba, ko'ze-bah, deceiver. I Chr. 

4. 22. 
Christ, Christ, the anointed, Greek 

for Messiah. Mat. 1. 1. 
Chub, chub. Ezek. 30. 5. 
Chun, chun, establishment. 1 Chr. 

Chushan-rishathaim, ka'shan- 

rlsh-a-tha / im. Judg. 3. 8. 
Chuza, ka'za. Luke 8. 3. 
Cilicia, ci-lish / ja. Acts 15. 23. 
Cinneroth, kln'ne-roth, same as 

Chinneroth. 1 Kin. 15. 20. 
CiS, cis. Acts 13. 21. Same aj KiSH 
Clauda, klau'da. Acts 27. 16. 
Claudia, klau'di-a. 2 Tim. 4. 21. 
Claudius, klau'dl-us. Acts 11. 28. 

Clement, klem'ait. Phil. 4. 3. 

Cleopas, kle'o-pas, short form of 
Cleopatros. Luke 24. 18. 

Cleophas, kle'o-fas, exchange, prob- 
ably same as Alphaeus. John 19. 25. 

Cnidus, nl'dus, nettle (?). Acts. 27. 7. 

Col-hozeh, kol-hO'zeh, every one that 
seeth. Neh. 3. 15. 

Colosse, ke-los'sg. Col. 1. 2. 
Colossians, ko-los'si-anj, people of 

Coniah, ko-nl'ah, contracted from 

Jeconiah. Jer. 22. 24. 
Cononiah, kon-6-ni / ah, whom Jeho> 

vah has set up. 2 Chr. 31. 12. 

a, e, I, 0, U, y, long ; a, e, i, 6, u, y, short ; a, e, i, 6, intermediate ; a, e, j, o, obscure ; care, far, last, fall, term, firm, familjar, 

£5r, furl, rude, push r c as s, g as j, g as in get, § as z, $ as gz. 


COOS, k0'6s. Acts 21. I. 

Core, ko're, Greek form of Korah. 
Jude ii. 

Corinth, kfir'inth. Acts 18. i. 

Corinthians, ko-rlnth'i-anj, inhabit- 
ants of Corinth. Acts iS. 8. 

Cornelius, kor-ne'ljus. Acts 10. i. 

Cosam, ko'sam. Luke 3. 28. 

Coz, k6s, thorn. I Chr. 4. 8. 

Cozhi, k6z / bl, deceitful. Num. 25. 15. 

Crescens, kres'cens.. 2 Tim. 4. 10. 

Crete, krete. Acts 27. 7. 

CreteS or CretiailS, kre'shl-an§, in- 
habitants of Crete. Acts 2. 1 1 ; Tit. 
1. 12. 

Crispus, kris'pus, curled. Acts 18. 8. 

Cunii, ku'rnl, arise. Mark 5. 41. 

Cash, kush, black. Gen. 10. 6. 

Cushan, ki/shan, same meaning as 
Cush. Hab. 3. 7. 

Cushi, ku'shl, same meaning as Cush. 
2 Sam. 18. 2i. 

Cuth, kttth. 2 Kin. 17. 30. 

Cuthah, ka'thah, same as Cuth. 2 
Kin. 17. 24. 

Cyprus, cy'prus. Acts 4. 36. 

Cyrene, cy-re'nS. Mat. 27. 32. 

Cyrenian, cy-re'nl-an, a native of 
Cyrene. Acts 6. 9. 

Cyrenius, cy-re'nl-us, Greek form of 
the Roman name Quirinus. Luke 2. 2. 

Cyrus, cy'rus, the sun. 2 Chr. 36. 22. 

DaBABEH, dab'a-reh, pasture. 

Josh. 21. 28. 
Dab bash Cth, dab'ba-sheth, hump of 

a camel. Josh. 19. II. 
Dagon, da'gon, fish. Judg. 16. 23. 
Dalaiah, dal-a.-1'ah, whom Jehovah 

hath delivered. I Chr. 3. 24. 
Dalmanutha, dal-ma-nu'tha. Mark 

8. 10. 
Dalinatia, dal-ma'shl-a. 2 Tim. 4. 

Dalphon, dal'fon, proud (?). Est. 

/Damaris, dam'a-rls, calf (?). Acts 

»7- 34- 
Damascenes, dam'as-ceneg, people 

of Damascus. 2 Cor. II. 32. 
Damascus, da-mas'kus, activity (?). 

Gen. 14. 15. 
Dan, dan, judge. Gen. 30. 6. 
Dan-jaan, dan-ja'an, woodland (?) 

Dan. 2 Sam. 24. 6. 
Daniel, dan'jel, God's judge. Dan. 

1. 6. 

Danites, dan'ltes, descendants of 

Dan. Judg. 13. 2. 
Dannah, dan'nah. Josh. 15. 49. 
Dara, da'ra, probably contracted from 

the next word. I Chr. 2. 6. 
Darda, dar'da, pearl of wisdom (?). 

I Kin. 4. 31. 
Darius, da-rl'us, governor (?). Ezra 

4. 5- 
Darkon, dar'kon, scatterer (?). Ezra 

2. 56. 

Dathan, da'than. Num. 16. 1. 
David, da'vid, beloved. I Sam. 16. 

I9 ". 
Debir, de'bir, a recess. Josh. 10. 3. 

Deborah, deb'o-rah, bee. Judg. 4. 4. 

Decapolis, de-kap'6-lis, ten cities. 

Mat. 4. 25- 
Dedan, de'dan. Gen. 10. 7. 
Dedanim, ded'a-nlm, inhabitants of 

Dedan. Is. 21. 13. 
Dehavites, de-ha'vltes. Ezra 4. 9. 
Dekar, de'kar, piercing. I Kin. 4. 9. 
Delaiah, del-a-I'ah, whom Jehovah 

has freed. I Chr. 24. 18. 
Delilah, de-ll'lah, delicate. Judg. 

16. 4. 
Demas, de'mas, probably same as fol- 
lowing. Col. 4. 14. 
Demetrius, de-me'trl-us, belonging 

to Demeter. Acts 19. 24. 
Derbe, der'bg, juniper (?). Acts 14. 6. 
Deuel, deu'el, the same as Reuel (?). 

Num. 1. 14. 

Deuteronomy, dea-ter-on'o-my, a 

recapitulation of the law. 
Diana, di-an'a. Acts 19. 24. 
Diblaim, dib'la-im, two cakes. Hos. 

Diblathaim, dlb-la-tha'im, same as 

Diblaim. Num. 33. 46. 
Diblath, dlb'lath, supposed to be the 

same as Riblah. Ezek. 6. 14. 
Dibon, dl'bon, wasting. Num. 21. 30. 
Dibon-g'ad, dl'bon-gad, wasting of 

Gad. Num. 33. 45. 
Dibri, dib'rl, eloquent. Lev. 24. II. 
Didymus, did'y-mus, twin. John 

II. 16. 
Diklah, dlk'lah, a palm tree. Gen. 

10. 27. 
Dilean, dil'6-an, cucumber field (?). 

Josh. 15. 38. 
Dimnah, dlm'nah, dunghill. Josh. 

21. 35- 

Dimon, dl'mon, same as DlBON. Is. 

Dimonall, di-mO'nah, probably same 

as preceding. Josh. 15. 22. 
Dinah, dl'nah, vindicated. Gen. 30. 


Dinaites, dl'na-Ites. Ezra 4. 9. 

Dinliabah, din'ha-bah. Gen. 36. 32. 

DionysillS, di-o-nlsh/jus, belonging 
to Dionysus. Acts 17. 34. 

Diotrephes, di-of're-fes., nourished 
by Zeus. 3 John 9. 

Dishan, dl'shan, antelope (?). Gen. 
36. 28. 

Dishon, dl'shon, same as preceding. 
Gen. 36. 21. 

Dizahab, dlz'a-hab, a place abound- 
ing in gold (?). Deut. I. I. 

Dodai, dod'a-I, loving. I Chr. 27. 4. 

Dodanim, dod'a-nim. Gen. 10. 4. 

Dodavah, dCd'a-vah, love of Jeho- 
vah. 2 Chr. 20. 37. 

Dodo, do'do, same as Dodai. 2 Sam. 


Does', do'eg, anxious. I Sam, 21.7. 

Dophkah, dof'kah. Num. 32. 12. 

Dor, dor, dwelling. Josh. II. 2. 

Dorcas, dor'kas, gazelle. Acts 9. 36. 

Dothan, do'than, two wells or cis- 
terns. Gen. 37. 17. 

Drusilla, dru-sll'la. Acts 24. 24. 

Dumah, du'mah, silence. Gen. 25. 

Dura, du'rah, town. Dan. 3. I. 

Jc/B ALi, e'bal, stony (?). Gen. 36. 23. 

Ebed, e'bed, servant. Judg. 9. 36. 

Ebed-melecll, e'bed-me'lek, serv- 
ant of the king. Jer. 38. 7. 

Eben-ezer, eb'en-e'zer, stone of 
help. 1 Sam. 4. I. 

Eber, e'ber, the region beyond. Gen. 
10. 21. 

Ebiasaph, £-bi / a-saf, same as Abia- 
saph. 1 Chr. 6. 23. 

Ebronah, e-bro'nah, passage (?). 
Num. 33. 34. 

Ecclesiastes, ek-kle-ji-as'tei, 

Ed, ed, witness. Josh. 22. 34. 
Edar, e'dar, flock. Gen. 35. 21. 
Eden, e'den, pleasantness. Gen. 2. 8. 
Eder, e'der, flock, same as Edar. 

1 Chr. 23. 23. 
Edom, e'dom, red. Gen. 25. 30. 
Edomites, e'dom-Ites, inhabitants of 

Edom. Gen. 36. 9. 
Edrei, ed're-I, strong. Num. 21. 33. 
Eglah, eg'lah, heifer. 2 Sam. 3. 5. 
Eglaim, eg'la-Im, two pools. Is. 15.8. 
Eglon, eg'lon. Judg. 3. 12. 
Egypt, e'gypt, black. Gen. 12. 10. 
Egyptian, e-gyp'tjan, a native of 

Egypt. I Sam. 30. 11. 
Ehi, e'hl, shortened from Ahiram. 

Gen. 46. 21. 
Ehud, e'hud, joined together (?). 

Judg. 3. 15. 
Eker, e'ker, same as Achar. i Chr. 

2. 27, 

Ekron, fek'ron, eradication. Josh. 

13- 3- 
Eladall, eKa-dah, whom God clothes. 

1 Chr. 7. 20. 
Elah, e'lah, terebinth. Gen. 36. 41. 
Elam, e'lam. Gen. 10. 22. 
Elamites, e'lam-Ites, inhabitants of 

Elam. Ezra 4. 9. 
Elasah, el'a-sah, whom God made. 

Ezra 10. 22. 
Elath, e'lath, a grove. Deut. 2. 8. 
El-beth-el, el-b&h'el, the house of 

God. Gen. 35. 7. 
Eldaah, el'da-ah, whom God called. 

Gen. 25. 4. 
Eldad, el'dad, whom God loves. 

Num. 11. 26. 
Elead, e'le-ad, whom God praises. 

I Chr. 7. 21. 
Elealeh, e-Ie-a'leh, whither God as- 
cends. Num. 32. 3. 
Eleasah, e-le'a-sah, same as Elasah. 

1 Chr. 2. 39. 

Eleazar, e-le-a'zar, whom God aids. 

Ex. 6. 23. 
El-elohe-Israel, el-e-lo'he-Is/ra-el, 

God, the God of Israel. Gen. 33. 

Eleph, e'lef, ox. Josh. 18. 28. 
Elba n an, el-ha'narijwhom God gave. 

2 Sam. 21. 19. 

Eli, e'll, my God. Mat. 27. 46. 
Eli, e'll, height. I Sam. I. 3. 
Eliab, e-ll'ab, whose father is God. 

Num. 1. 9. 
Eliada, Eliadah, e-li'a da, whom 

God cares for. 2 Sam. 5. 16. 
Eliah, e-ll'ah, same name as Elijah. 

1 Chr. 8. 27, 

Eliahba, e-lVah-ba, whom God hides. 

2 Sam. 23. 32. 

Eliakim, e-ll'a-klm, whom God es- 
tablishes. 2 Kin. 18. 18. 

Eliam, e-ll'am, same as Ammiel. 2 
Sam. 11. 3. 

Elias, e-ll'as, same as Elijah. John 
1. 21. 

Eliasaph, e-ll'a-saf, whom God add- 
ed. Num. 1. 14. 

Eiiashib, e-ll'a-shib, whom God re- 
stores. I Chr. 24. 12. 

Eliathall, e-li'a-thah, to whom God 
comes. 1 Chr. 25. 4. 

Elidad, e-ll'dad, whom God loves. 
Num. 34. 2r. 

Eliel, e-ll'el, to whom God is strength. 
1 Chr. 5. 24. 

Elienai, e-li-e'na-I, unto Jehovah my 
eyes are raised (?). I Chr. 8. 20. 

Eliezer, e-li-e'zer, my God is help. 
Gen. 15. 2. 

Elihoenai, ei-i-ho-e'na-t, same as 
Elioenai. Ezra 8. 4. 

Elihoreph, el-f-ho'ref, to whom God 
is the reward. I Kin. 4. 3. 

Elihu, e-ll'ha, whose God is He. 
I Sam. I. I. 

Elijah, e-ll'jah, my God is Jehovah. 

1 Kin. 17. 1. 

Elika, el'i-ka, whom God purifies (?). 

2 Sam. 23. 25. 

Elim, e'lim, oaks. Ex. 15. 27. 
Elimelech, e-liir/e-lek, to whom God 

. is king. Ruth 1. 2. 
Elioenai, el-i-O-e'na-I, nnto Jehovah 

my eyes are turned. I Chr. 3. 23. 
Eliphal, Sl'I-fal, whom God judges. 

1 Chr. 11. 35. 
Eliphalet, e-Uf'a-lSt, to whom God is 

salvation. 2 Sam. 5. 16. 
Eliphaz, el'I-faz, to whom God is 

strength. Gen. 36. 4. 
Eliplieleh, e-llf'e-leh, whom God 

distinguishes. I Chr. 15. 18. 
Elisabeth, evUs/a-keth.) same as Eli- 

sheba. Luke 1. 5. 
Eliseus,* 61-i-se'us, Greek form of 

Elisha. Luke 4. 27. 
Elisha, e-ll'sha, to whom God is sal- 
vation. 1 Kin. 19. 16. 
Elishah, e-lfshah. Gen. 10. 4, 

JMlSJian, e-u'snah. oen. io. 4. josn. i;,. 7. 

a, e, I, 0, U, y, long; a, 6, I, 0, u, y, short ; a, e, t, 6, intermediate; a, e, i, o, obscure ; care, far, last, fall, term, firm, familjar, 

for, furl, rude, push, 9 as s, g as j. g as in get, 5 as z, j as gz. 

Elishama, e-llsh'a-ma, whom God 

hears. Num. I. 10. 
Elishaphat, e-llsh'a-fat, whom God 

judges. 2 Chr. 23. I. 
Elisheba, e-lish'e-ba, to whom God 

is the oath. Ex. 6. 23. 
Elishua, el-I-shu'a, same as Elisha. 

2 Sam. 5. 15. 
Eliud, e-ll'ud, God of Judah. Mat. 

I. 14. 
Elizaphan, e-liz / a-fan, whom God 

protects. Num. 3. 30. 
Elizur, e-ll'zur, God is a Rock. Num. 


Elkanah, el'ka-nah, whom God pos. 

sessed. Ex. 6. 24. 
Elkoshite, el'kosh-Ite, inhabitant of 

Elkosh. Nah. I. I. 
Ellasar, eKla-sar. Gen. 14. 1. 
Elmodam, el-mo'dam, same as Al. 

modad. Luke 3. 28. 
Elnaam, el'na-am, whose pleasure 

God is. 1 Chr. 11. 46. 
Elnathan, el'na-than, whom God 

gave. 2 Kin. 24. 8. 
Eloi, e-lO'I, my God. Mark 15. 34. 
Elon, e'lon, oak. Gen. 26. 34. 
Elon-beth-hanan, e'lon-beth-ha'- 

nan, oak of the house of grace. I 

Kin. 4. 9. 
Elonites, e'lon-Ites, descendants of 

Elon. Num. 26. 26. 
Eloth, e'lath, same as Elath. i Kin. 

9. 26. 
Elpaal, fcl'pa-al, to whom God is the 

reward. 1 Chr. 8. II. 
Elpalet, Sl'pa-let, same as Elipha- 

let. 1 Chr. 14. 5. 
El-paran, el-pa'ran, oak of Paran. 

Gen. 14. 6. 
Eltekeh, el'te-keh, whose fear is 

God. Josh. 19. 44. 
Eltekon, el'te-kon, whose foundation 

is God. Josh. 15. 59. 
Eltolad, el'to-lad, whose posterity is 

from God. Josh. 15. 30. 
Elul, e'lul. Neh. 6. 15. 
Eluzai, S-lu'za-I, God is my praises. 

I Chr. 12. 5. 
Elymas, el'y-mas, a whe man. Acts 

13- 8. 
Elzabad, el'za-bad, whom God gave. 

I Chr. 12. 12. 
Elzaphan, el'za-fan, whom God pro- 
tects. Ex. 6. 22. 
Emim, e'mlm, terrible men. Gen. 

Emmanuel, em-man'a-el, same as 

Immanuel. Mat. I. 23. 
Emmaus, ern'ma-us, hot springs (?). 

Luke 24. 13. 
Emmor, em / mor, same as Hamor. 

Acts 7. 16. 
Enam, e'nam, two fountains. Josh. 

15- 34- 

Elian, e'nan, having eyes. Num. I. 15. 

En-dor, en'dor, fountain of Dor. 
Josh. 17. II. 

En-eglaim, en-eg^a-Im, f. of two 
calves. Ezek. 47. 10. 

Ell-g-annim, en-gan'nlm, / of gar- 
dens. Josh. 15. 34. 

En-gedi, en-ge / di, f. of the kid. 
Josh. 15. 62. 

En-haddah, en-had'dah,/ of sharp- 
ness, i. e. swift f. Josh. 19. 21. 

En-hakkore, en-hak'ke-re, / of 
him that calleth. Judg. 15. 19. 

En-hazor, en-ha'zSr, /. of the vil- 
lage. Josh. 19. 37. 

En-mishpat, en-mish'pat,/ of judg- 
ment. Gen. 14. 17. 

Enoch, e'nok, experienced (?). Gen. 

4. 17. 
EllOS, e'nos, man. Gen. 4. 26. 
EllOSh, e'nosh, same as Enos. I Chr. 

I. I. 
Ell-rimmon, en-rlm^on, fountain 

of the pomegranate. Neh. II. 29. 
En-rogel, en-ro'gel, /. of the fuller. 

Josh. 15. 7. 



En--Shemesh, en-she'mesh, fountain 
of the sun. Josh. 15. 7. 

En-tappuah, en-tap'pu-ah,/ of the 
apple tree. Josh. 17. 7. 

EpapliraS, ep'a-fras, contracted from 
the next word (?). Col. I. 7. 

Epaphl'OtlitUSje-paf-ro-dl'tus, hand- 
some. Phil. 2. 25. 

Epenetus, orEpaenetus, e-pen'e- 

tus, praiseworthy. Rom. 16. 5. 
Epliah, e'fah. Gen. 25. 4. 
Ephai, e'fai, languishing. Jer. 40. 8. 
Eplier, e'fer, calf. Gen. 25. 4. 
Ephes-dammim, eTej-dam'mim, 

boundary of blood. I Sam. 17. I. 
EphesiailS, e-fe'sjang, inhabitants of 

Ephesus. Acts 19. 28. 
Ephesus, ePe-sus. Acts 18. 19. 
Eplllal, ef'lal, judgment. I Chr. 2. 37. 
Eplipliatlia, ef'fa-tha, be opened. 

Mark 7. 34. 
EpllOtl, e'f6d. Num. 34. 23. 
Epliraim, e'fra-im. fruitful (?). Gen. 

41. 52. 
EpliraimiteS, e'fra-im-Ites, inhabit- 
ants of Ephraim. Judg, 12. 4. 
Eplirain, e'fra-ln, same as Ephron. 

2 Chr. 13. 19. 
Epliratli, eFrath, or Ephratah, 

fruitful (?). 1 Chr. 2. 50; Gen. 35. 16. 

EphratlliteS, ef'rath-Ites, inhabitants 
of Ephrath. Ruth I. 2. 

Ephron, e'fron, of or belonging to a 
calf. Gen. 23. 8. 

Epicureans, ep4-ka-re / an§, follow- 
ers of Epicurus. Acts 17. 18. 

Er, er, watchful. Gen. 38. 3. 

Eran, e'ran. Num. 26. 35. 

Erastus, e-ras / tus, beloved. Acts 19. 


Erech, e'rek. Gen. 10. 10. 

Eri, e/rl, same as Er. Gen. 46. 16. 

Erites, e'rltes, descendants of Eri. 

Num. 26. 16. 
Esaias, e-sa'jas, same as Isaiah. Mat. 

Esar-haddon, e'sar-had'don, Assur 

giveth a brother. 2 Kin. 19. 37. 
Esau, e'sau, hairy. Gen. 25. 25. 
Ezek, e'sek. strife. Gen. 26. 20. 
Esll-baal, esh-ba'al, man of Baal. 

I Chr. 8. 33. 
Esllban, esh'ban. Gen. 36. 26. 
EsIlCOl, esh'k6l, cluster. Gen. 14. 13. 
Esliean, e'she-an, support (?). josh. 

'5- S 2 - 
Esliek, e'shek, oppression. I Chr. 8. 

Eshkalonites, esh'ka-lon-Ites, men 

of Ashkalon. Josh. 13. 3. 
Eshtaol, esh'ta-ol. Josh. 15. 33. 
EshtauliteS, esh'ta-ul-Ites, inhabit- 
ants of Eshtaol. I Chr. 2. 53. 
Eslltemoa, esh-te-mO'a, obedience. 

Josh. 21. 14. 
Eshtemoh, esVte-moh, same as Esh- 

TEMOA. Josh. 15. 50. 
EshtOll, esh'ton, womanly. I Chr. 4. 

Esli, es'll, same as Azaliah (?). Luke 

3- 25. 
Esrom, es'rom, same as Hezron. 

Mat. I. 3. 
Esther, es'ther, star. Est. 2. 7. 
Etain, e'tarn, a place of ravenous 

creatures. Judg. 15. 8. 
Etham, e'tham, boundary of the 

sea(?). Ex. 13. 20. 
Ethan, e'than, firmness. I Kin. 4. 31. 
Ethanim, eth'a-nlm, gifts (?). 1 Kin. 


Ethbaal, eth'ba-al, living with Baal. 

I Kin. 16. 31. 
Ether, e'ther, plenty. Josh. 15. 42. 
Ethiopia, e-thl-o'pl-a, (region of) 

burnt faces. Gen. 2. 13. 
Ethiopian, e-thl-o'pi-an, a native of 

Ethiopia. Jer. 13. 23. 
Ethnan, eth'nan, a gift. I Chr. 4. 7. 
Ethni, eth'ni, bountiful. 1 Chr. 6. 


Eubulus, efl-bu'lus, good counsellor. 

2 Tim. 4. 21. 
Eunice, ea'nlce. 2 Tim. 1. 5. 
Euodias, ea-o'di-as, success. Phil. 

4. 2. 
Euphrates, ea-fra'tes., the fertile 

river (?). Gen. 2. 14. 
EuroClydon, eu-rok'ly-don, storm 

from the east. Acts 27. 14. 
Eutychus, eu'ty kus, fortunate. Acts 

20. 9. 
Eve, eve, life. Gen. 3. 20. 
Evi, e'vl. Num. 31. 8. 
Evil-merodach, e'vil-me-ro'dak, 

man of Merodach. 2 Kin. 25. 27. 
ExodllS, ex'6-dus, departure. 
Ezar, e'zar, treasure. I Chr. I. 38. 
Ezbai, ez'ba-I. I Chr. 11. 37. 
Ezbon, ez'b6n. Gen. 46. 16. 
Ezekias, ez-e-kl'as, same as Heze- 

KIAH. Mat. I. 9. 
Ezekiel, e-ze'kl-el, whom God will 

strengthen. Ezek. I. 3. 
Ezel, e'zel, departure. I Sam. 20. 19. 
Ezem, e'zem, bone. I Chr. 4. 29. 
Ezer, e'zer, help. I Chr. 4. 4. 
Ezion-gaber, or Ezion-g-eber, 

e'zi-on-ga'ber, the backbone of a giant. 

Num. 33. 35. 
Eznite, ez'nite. 2 Sam. 23. 8. 
Ezra, ez'ra, help. Ezra 7. I. 
Ezrahite, ez'ra-hlte, a descendant of 

Zerah. I Kin. 4. 31. 
Ezri, ez'rl, the help of Jehovah (?). 

I Chr. 27. 26. 

FELIX, fe'llx, happy. Acts 23. 24. 
Festus, fes'tus, joyful. Acts 24. 27. 
FortunatUS, for-ta-na'tus, prosper- 
ous. I Cor. 16. 17. 

IxAALi, ga'al, loathing. Judg. 9. 26. 
Gaash, ga'ash, shaking. Josh. 24. 30. 
Gaba, ga'ba, hill. Josh. 18. 24. 
Gabbai, gal/ha- 1, a collector of trib- 
ute. Neh. 11. 8. 
Gabbatha, gab'ba-tha, height. John 

19- 13- 
Gabriel, ga'brl-el, man of God. Dan. 

8. 16. 
Gad, gad, a troop, good fortune. Gen. 

30. 11. 
GadareneS, gad'a-renej, inhabitants 

of Gadara. Mark 5. I. 
Gaddi, gad'dl, fortunate. Num. 13. 1 1. 
Gaddiel, gad'di-el, fortune sent from 

God. Num. 13. io. 
Gadites, gad'ltes, persons belonging 

to the tribe of Gad. Deut. 3. 12. 
Gaham, ga'ham, sunburnt (?). Gen. 

22. 24. 
Gahar, ga'har, hiding-place. Ezra 

Gaius, ga'jus. The Greek form of 

Caius. Acts 19. 29. 
Galal, ga'lal, worthy (?). 1 Chr. 9. 15. 
Galatia, ga-la'shja, a place colonized 

by Gauls. Acts 16. 6. 
Galatians, ga-la'shjan§, inhabitants 

of Galatia. Gal. 3. I. 
Galeed, gal'e-ed, witness-heap. Gen. 

31- 47- 

Galilee, gal'i-lee, circuit. Josh. 20. 7. 

Gallim, gal'lfm, heaps. I Sam. 25.44. 

Gallio, gal'li-o. Acts iS. 12. 

Gamaliel, ga-ma'll-el, benefit of God. 
Num. I. 10. 

Gammadim, gam-ma'dlm, war- 
riors (?). Ezek. 27. II. 

Gamut, ga'mul, weaned. 1 Chr. 24. 


Gareb, ga'reb, scabby. 2 Sam. 23. 38. 

Garmite, gar'mlte, bony. I Chr. 4. 19. 

Gashmu, gash'majSame as Geshem. 
Neh. 6. 6. 

Gatam, ga'tam. Gen. 36. II. 

Gatll, gath, wine-press. Jo5h. II. 22. 

Gath-heplier, gath-he'fer, the wine- 
press of the well. 2 Kin. 14. 25. 

Gatll-rimmon, gath-rlm' 
press of the pomegranate. Josh. 19. 45. 

Gaza, ga'za, same as Azzah. Gen. 

10. 19. 
Gazathites, ga'zath'ltes, inhabitants 

of Gaza. Josh. 13. 3. 
Gazer, ga'zer, place cut off. 2 Sam. 


Gazez, ga'zez, shearer. I Chr. 2. 46. 

Gazites, ga'zltes, inhabitants of Gaza. 

. Judg. 16. 2. 

Gazzam, gaz'zam, eating up. Ezra 

Geba, ge'ba, hill. Josh. 21. 17. 

Gebal, ge-bal, mountain. Ps. 83. 7. 

Geber, ge'ber, man. I Kin. 4. 13. 

Gebim, ge'bim, trenches. Is. 10. 31. 

Gedaliah, ged-a-li'ah, whom Jeho- 
vah has made great. 2 Kin. 25. 22. 

Gedeon, ged'e-on, Greek form of 
Gideon. Heb. 11. 32. 

Geder, ge'der, wall. Josh. 12. 13. 

Gederah, ge-de'rah, enclosure, sheep- 
fold. Josh. 15. 36. 

Gederathite, ged'e-rath-Ite, an in- 
habitant of Gederah. 1 Chr. 12. 4. 

Gederite, ged'e-rlte, native of Geder. 
1 Chr. 27. 28. 

Gederoth, ge-de'r6th, sheep-folds. 
Josh. 15. 41. 

Gederothaim, ged-e roth-a'im, two 

sheep-folds. Josh. 13. 36. 

Gedor, ge'dor, wall. Josh. 15. 58. 

Gehazi, ge-ha'zl, valley of vision. 2 
Kin. 4. 12. 

Geliloth, gel'i-loth, regions. Josh. 
18. 17. ^ 

Gemalli, ge-mal'll, possessor of cam- 
els. Num. 13. 12. 

Gemariah, gem-a-rl / ah, whom Je- 
hovah has completed. Jer. 29. 3. 

Genesis, gen'e-sis, generation, or be- 

Gennesaret, gen-nesVet- Mat. 

14- 34- 
Gentiles, gen'tllei. Gen. 10. 5. 
Genubath, ge-nu / bath. I Kin. II. 

Gera, ge'ra, a grain. Gen. 46. 21. 
Gerah, ge'rah. Ex. 30. 13. 
Gerar, ge'rar, sojourning. Gen. io. 


Gei^gesenes, ger'ge-sene§, inhabit- 
ants of Gerasa. Mat. 8. 28. 

Gerizim, ger'i-zlm, persons living in 
a desert. Deut. 11. 29. 

Gershom, ger / sh&m, expulsion. Ex. 
2. 22. 

Gershon, ger'shon, same as preced- 
ing. Gen. 46. 11. 

GershoniteS, ger'shon-Ites, descend- 
ants of Gershon. Num. 3. 21. 

Gesham, ge'sham. 1 Chr. 2. 47. 

Geshem, ge'shem, stout (?}. Neh. 
2. 19. 

Geshur, ge'shur, bridge. 2 Sam. 3. 3. 

Geshuri, gesh / u-rl, inhabitants of 
Geshur. Deut. 3. 14. 

Geshurites, gesh / u-rnes, same as 
preceding. Josh. 12. 5. 

Gether, ge / ther, dregs (?). Gen. 10. 

Gethsemane. geth-sem / a-ne, oil 

press. Mat. 26. 36. 
Geuel, ge-a'd, majesty of God. Num. 

13- IS- 
Gezer, ge'zer, precipice. Josh. 10. 33. 
Gezrites, gez'ntes, dwelling in a 

desert land. I Sam. 27. 9. 
Giah, gl'ah, gushing forth. 2 Sam. 2. 

Gibbar, glb'bar, a hero. Ezra 2. 20. 
Gibbethon, glb'be-thon, a lofty place. 

Josh. 19. 44. 
Gibea, gnVe-a, hill. 1 Chr. 2. 49. 
Gibeah, gib'e-ah, hill. Tosh. 15. 57. 
Gibeath, glb'e-ath, hill. "josh. 18.28. 
Gibeon, gib'e-on, pertaining to a hill. 

Josh. 9. 3. 
Giblites,glb / lltes,inhabitants of Gebal. 

Josh. 13. 5. 
Giddalti, gld-dal'tl, I have increased. 

1 Chr. 25. 4. 

Giddel, gld'del, gigantic. Ezra 2. 47. 
Gideon, gld'e-on, one who cuts down. 

Judg. 6. 11. 
Gideoni, gld-e-cVnl, cutting down. 

Num. 1. 11. 
Gidom, gi'dom. Judg. 20. 45. 
Gihon, gl'hon, a river. Gen. 2. 13. 
Gilalai, gll'a-lai, dungy (?). Neh. 

12. 36. 

Gilboa, gil-bo'a, bubbling fountain. 

1 Sam. 28. 4. 

Gilead, gll'e-ad, hill of witness. Gen. 

31. 21. 
Gileadite, giPe-ad-Ite, inhabitant of 

Gilead. Judg. 10. 3. 
Gilgal, gil'gal, a circle. Josh. 4. 19. 
Giloh, g^loh, exile. Josh. 15. 51. 
Gilonite, gl'lo-nlte, an inhabitant of 

Giloh. 2 Sam. 15. 12. 
Gimzo, gim / zO, a place abounding 

with sycamores. 2 Chr. 28. 18. 
Ginath, gl'nath, garden. I Kin. 16. 

Ginnetho, gln'ne-tho, garden. Neh. 

12. 4. 
Ginnethon, gln^e-thon, same as 

preceding. Neh. 10. 6. 
Girgashite, glr'ga-shlte, dwelling in 

a clayey soil. I Chr. I. 14. 
Girgcisite, gir'ga-slte, same as pre- 
ceding. Gen. 10. 16. 
Gispa, gls'pa, flattery. Neh. II. 21. 

Gittah-hepher, git'tah-he'pher, 

wine-press of the well. Josh. 19. 13. 

Gittaim, glt'ta-Im, two wine-presses. 

2 Sam. 4. 8. 

Gittites, glt'tltes, inhabitants of Gath. 

Josh. 13. 3. 
Gittith, git'tith, after the manner of 

Gittites. Ps. 8, title. 
Gizonite, gilonite. 1 Chr. n. 34. 
Goath, go'afh, lowing. Jer. 31. 39. 
Gob, gob, pit, cistern. 2 Sam. 21. 18. 
Gogr» g<5g. I Chr. 5. 4. 
Golan, goTan, exile. Deut 4. 43. 
Golgotha, g&l'go-tha, a skull. Mat. 

27- 33- 
Goliath, go-l^ath, exile (?). 1 Sam. 

17. 4. 
Gomer, gO'mer, complete. Gen. 10. 2. 
Gomorrah, go-mor'rah. Gen. 10. 

Gomorrha, go-mOr^ha, same as pre- 
ceding. Mat. 10. 15. 
Goshen, go'shen. Gen. 45. 10. 
Gozan, gCzan. 2 Kin. 17. 6. 
Greece, greece, country of the Greeks. 

Acts 20. 2. 
Grecia, gre'shja, same as Greece. 

Dan. 8. 21. 
Grecian, gre'shjan, a Jew who speaks 

Greek. Acts II. 20. 
Gudgodah, gud-'go-dah, thunder (?). 

Deut. 10. 7. 
Guni, ga / nl, painted with colors. Gen, 

46. 24. 
Glinites, ga'Dltes, descendants of 

Guni. Num. 26. 48. 
Glir, gflr, a young lion. 2 Kin. 9. 27. 
Gur-baal, gur-ba'al, Gur of Baal. 

2 Chr. 26. 7. 

HaAHASHTARI, ha a hasr/ta- 
rl, the muleteer (?). 1 Chr. 4. 6. 

Habaiall, ha-ba'jah, whom Jehovah 
hides. Ezra 2. 61. 

Habakkllk, ha-bak'kak, embrace. 
Hab. 1. I. 

Habaziniah, hab-a-zl-nl'ah.lamp of 
Jehovah (?). Jer. 35. 3. 

Habor, ha'bdr, joining together, a 
Kin. 17. 6. 

Hachaliah, hak-a-ll'ah, whom Jeho- 
vah disturbs. Neh. 1. I. 

Hachilah, hak-'i-lah, dark. I Sam. 
23. 19. 

Ilachmoni, hak'mo-ni, wise. 1 Chr. 
27. 32. 

Hachmonite, hak'monlte, a de- 
scendant of Hachmoni. I Chr. 11. II. 

Hadad, ha'dad. Gen. 36. 35. 

a, e, I, 0, IS, y, long; a, 6, I, 6, fi, y, short ; a, e, 1, 6, intermediate ; a, e, i, o, obscure ; care, far, last, fall, term, firm, familjar, 

for, furl, rude, push, c as s, g as j, g as in get, § as z, $ as gz. 


Hadadezer, had-id-e'zer, whose help 

is Hadad. 2 Sam. 8. 3. 
Hadadrimmon, ha-dad-rlm'mon, 

named from Hadad and Rimmon. 

Zech. 12. II. 
Hadar, ha'dar. enclosure. Gen. 25. 15. 
Hadarezer, had-ar-e'zer, saine as 

Hadadezer. 1 Chr. 18. 3. 
Hadashall, had'a-shah, new. Josh. 

IS- 37- 
Hadassah, ha-das'sah, myrtle. Est. 

Hadattah, ha-dat'tah, new. Josh. 

i5- 25. 

Hadid, ha'did, sharp. Ezra 2. 33. 

Hadlai, had'la-l, rest. 2 Chr. 28. 1 2. 

Hadoram, ha-do'ram. Gen. 10. 27. 

Hadrach, ha'drak. Zech. 9. 1. 

llagab, ha'gab, locust. Ezra 2. 46. 

Hagaba, hag'a-ba, same as Hagab. 
Neh. 7. 48. 

Hagar, ha'gar, flight. Gen. 16. 3. 

Hagarenes, ha'gar-eneg, inhabitants 
of Hagar. Ps. 83. 6. 

Hagarites, ha'gar-ites, same as pre- 
ceding. 1 Chr. 5. 10. 

Hagerite, ha'ger-ite, same as Ha- 
GARENE. I Chr. 27. 31. 

Haggai, hag'ga-l, festive. Hag. I. I. 

Haggi, hag'gl, same as preceding. 
Gen. 46. 16. 

Haggeri s hag-ge'rt. 1 Chr. n. 38. 

Haggiah, hag-gl'ah, festival of Jeho- 
vah. I Chr. 6. 30. 

Haggites, hag'gites, the posterity of 
Haggi. Num. 26. 15. 

Haggith, hag'gith, festive. 2 Sam. 

Hai, ha r i, same as Ar. Gen. 12. 8. 
Hakkatau, hak'ka-tan, the small. 

Ezra 8. 12. 
Hakkoz, hak'kdz, the thorn. 1 Chr. 

24. 10. 
Hakupha, kaku'fa. Ezra 2. 51. 
llalali, ha'lah, same as Calah (?). 

2 Kin. 17. 6. 
Halak, ha'lak, smooth. Josh. II. 17. 
Hallllll, haKhul. Josh. 15. 58. 
Hali, ha / ll, necklace. Josh. 19. 25. 
Halohesh, ha-lo'hesh, the enchanter. 

Neh. 3. 12. 
Ham, ham, warm. Gen. 9. 18. 
Hainan, ha'man. Est. 3. 1. 
Ha math, ha'math, fortress. Num. 

Hamathite, ha'math-ite, a dweller 

at Hamath. Gen. 10. 18. 
Hamath-zobah, ha'math-zo'bah, 

fortress of Zobah. 2 Chr. 8. 3. 
Hamiliath, ham'math, warm springs. 

Josh. 19. 35. 
Hammedatha, ham-med'a-tha, giv- 
en by the moon (?). Est. 3. I. 
Hammelech, ham'me-lek, the king. 

Jer. 36. 26. 
Hamniolekotli, ham-mol'e-keth, 

the queen. I Chr. 7. 18. 
Hanimon, ham'mon, warm. Josh. 

19. 28. 
Hammoth-dor, hrtrn'moth-dor, 

warm springs of Dor. Josh. 21. 32. 
Hamonah, ha-mo'nah, multitude. 

Ezek. 39. 16. 
Hamon-gog, ha'mon-gdg, m. of 

Gog. Ezek. 39. 11. 
Hanior, ha'mor, ass. Gen. 33. 19. 
llamuel, ha-mu'el, heat (wrath) .of 

God. 1 Chr. 4. 26. 
Hamul, ha'mul, who has experienced 

mercy. Gen. 46. 12. 
Hamulites, ha'mul-ltes, the posterity 

of Hamul. Num. 26. 21. 
Hamutal, ha-mu'tal, refreshing like 

dew. 2 Kin. 23. 31. 
Haiiamecl, ha-nam'e-el, probably 

another form of Hananeel. Jer. 32. 7. 
Hanan, ha'nan, merciful. I Chr. 8. 23. 
Hananeel, ha-nan'e-el, whom God 

graciously gave. Neh. 3. I. 
Hanani, ha-na'nl, probably same as 
Hanan'.ah. 1 Kin. 16. 1. 

Hananiab, han-a-nl'ah, whom Jeho- 
vah graciously gave. I Chr. 3. 1 9. 

Hanes, ha'nej. Is. 30. 4. 
Haniel, han'I-el, favor of God. 1 Chr. 

Hannab, han'nah, gracious. I Sam. 

I. 2. 

Hannatbon, han'na-thon, gracious. 

Josh. 19. 14. 
Hanniel, han'nl-el, same as Haniel. 

Num. 34. 23. 
Hanoch, ha'nok, same as Enoch. 

Gen. 25. 4. 
Hanocbites, ha'nok-Ites, descend- 
ants of Hanock. Num. 26. 5. 
Hanun, ha'nun, whom (God) pities. 

2 Sam. 10. I. 
Hapbraim, haf-ra'im, two pits. Josh. 

19. 19". 
Hara, ha/ra, mountainous. I Chr. 4. 

Haradab, har'a-dah, fear. Num. 33. 

Haran, ha'ran, mountaineer. Gen. 

II. 27. 

Hararite, ha'ra-rlte, a mountaineer. 

2 Sam. 23. II. 
Harbonab, har-bo'nah. Est. 7. 9. 
Hareph, ha'ref, plucking. I Chr. 2. 51. 
Hareth, ha'reth, thicket. I Sam. 22. 5. 
Harbaiab, har-ha-l'ah, dried up (?). 

Neh. 3. 8. 
Hai'bas, har'has. 2 Kin. 22. 14. 
Harbur, har'hur, inflammation. Ezra 

Harim, ha'rim, flat-nosed. I Chr. 24. 8. 
Haripb, ha'rif, autumnal showers. 

Neh. 7. 24. 
Harnepber, har'ne-fer. 1 Chr. 7. 

Harod, ha'rod, terror. Judg. 7. 1. 
Harodite, ha'rod-lte, inhabitant of 

Harod. 2 Sam. 23. 25. 
Haroeb, har / 6 / eh, the seer. I Chr. 

2. 52. 

Harorite, ha'ro-rlte, probably another 
form of Harodite. 1 Chr. 11. 27. 

Harosheth, ha-16'sheth, carving. 
Judg. 4. 2. 

Harsba, har'sha, enchanter, magician. 
Ezra 2. 52. 

Harum, ha / rum, high (?). I Chr. 4. 8. 

Harumaph, ha-ru'maf, flat-nosed. 
Neh. 3. 10. 

Haruphite, har'u-iite. 1 Chr. 12. 5. 

Haruz, ha'ruz, active. 2 Kin. 21. 19. 

Hasadiah, has-a-dl'ah, whom Jeho- 
vah loves. 1 Chr. 3. 20. 

Hasenuab, has-e-nu'ah, she that is 
hated. I Chr. 9. 7. 

Hasbabiall, hash-a-bl'ah, whom Je- 
hovah esteems. 1 Chr. 6. 45. 

Hashabnah, ha-shab'nah, same as 
preceding (?). Neh. 10. 25. 

Hasbbadana, hash-bad'a-na. Neh. 

8.4. ' 

Hashem, ha'shem, fat. 1 Chr. 11.31.. 
Hasbmonab, hash-mo'nah, fatness, 

fat soil. Num. 33. 29. 
Hashub, ha'shub, thoughtful. Neh. 

3. II. 

Hashubah, ha-shu'bah, same as pre- 
ceding. 1 Chr. 3. 20. 

Hash urn, ha'shum, rich. Ezra 2. 19. 

Hashupha, ha-shu'fa, another form 
of Hasupha. Neh. 7. 46. 

Hasrah, has 'rah, probably same as 
Harhas. 2 Chr. 34. 22. 

Hassenaab, has-se-na'ah, the thorny. 
Neh. 3. 3. 

Hasshub, haVshub, same as Hashub. 
1 Chr. 9. 14. 

Hasupha, ha-su'fa, one of the Ne- 
thinims. Ezra 2. 43. 

Hatacb, ha'tak. Est. 4. 5. 

Hathath, ha'thath, terror. I Chr. 4.13. 
Hatipba, hat'i-fa, seized. Ezra 2. 54. 
Hatita, hat'i-ta, digging. Ezra 2. 42. 
Hattil, hat'til, wavering. Ezra 2. 57. 
Hattush, hat'tush, assembled (?). I 
Chr. 3. 22. 

Ha 11 ran, hau'ran, hollow land. Ezek. 

47. 16. 
Havilah, hav'Mah. Gen. 10. 7. 
Havoth-jair, ha'voth-ja'ir, villages 

of Jair. Num. 32. 41. 
Hazael, haz'a-el, whom God watches 

over. I Kin. 19. 15. 
Hazaiah, ha-za'jah, whom Jehovah 

watches over. Neh. 11. 5. 
Hazar-addar, ha'zar-ad'dar, Addar- 

town. Num. 34. 4. 
Hazar-enan, ha'zar-e'nan, fountain- 
town. Num. 34. 9. 
Hazar-gaddah, ha'zar-gad'dah, 

luck-town. Josh. 15. 27. 
Hazar-hatticon , ha'zar hat'ti-c&n, 

middle-town. Ezek. 47. 16. 

Hazarmavetb, ha'zar-ma'veth, 

death-town. Gen. 10. 26. 

Hazar-Shual, ha'zar-shu'al, jackal- 
town. Josh. 15. 28. 

Hazar-SUSah, ha'zar-sfi'sah, mare- 
town. Josh. 19. 5. 

Hazar-SUSim, ha'zar-su'sim, horse- 
town. 1 Chr. 4. 31. 

Hazelelponi, haz-e-lel-po'nl, the 
shadow looking on me. I Chr. 4. 3. 

Hazerim, ha-ze'rim, villages. Deut. 
2. 23. 

Hazeroth, ha-ze'roth, same as Ha- 
zerim. Num. 11. 35. 

Hazezon-tamar, haz'e-zon-ta'mar, 
pruning of the palm. Gen. 14. 7. 

Haziel, ha r zl-el, the vision of God. 
I Chr. 23. 9. 

Hazo, ha-zO, vision. Gen. 22. 22. 

Hazor, ha'zor, castle. Josh. II. I. 

Heber, he'ber, (1) same as Ebkr. 1 
Chr. 5. 13 ; (2) fellowship. Gen. 46. 17. 

HeberitCS, he'ber-Ites, descendants 
of Heber. Num. 26. 45. 

Hebrew, he'bm, the language spoken 
by the Jews. John 19. 20. 

Hebrews, he'bniz, descendants of 
Eber. Gen. 40. 15. 

Hebron, he'bron, alliance. Gen. 13.18. 

Hebronites, he'bron-ites, the people 
of Hebron. Num. 3. 27. 

Hegai, heg^-i. °r Hege, he^e. Est. 
2. 3, 8. 

Helah, he'lah, rust. 1 Chr. 4. 5. 

Helam, he / lam, stronghold. 2 Sam. 
10. 16. 

Helbah, heFbah, fatness. Judg. I.31. 

HelbOIl, heKbon, fertile. Ezek. 27. 18. 

Heldai, heKda-l, terrestrial. I Chr. 
27. 15. 

Heleb, he'leb, fat, fatness. 2 Sam. 
23. 29. 

Heled, he'led, the world. 1 Chr. it. 30. 

Helek, he'lek, portion. Num. 26. 30. 

Helekites, hVlek-Ites, descendants 
of Helek. Num. 26. 30. 

Helem, he'lem, another form of Hel- 
dai. 1 Chr. 7. 35. 

Helepb, he'lef, exchange. Josh. 19. 33. 

Helez, he'lez, liberation. 2 Sam. 23. 26. 

Heli, he'll, the Greek form of Eli. 
Luke 3. 23. 

Helkai, hel'ka-I, another form of 
Hii.kiah. Neh. 12. 15. 

HelkatL, hel'kath, a portion. Josh. 
19. 25. 

Helkath-bazziirim, hel'kath- 
haz'zu-rim, the field of swords (?). 2 
Sam. 2. 16. 

Helon, he'lon, strong. Num. I. 9. 

Heiiiam, he'mam, same as Homam. 
Gen. 36. 22. 

Heman, he'man, faithful. I Kin. 4. 31. 

Hemath, he'math, (1 ) fortress, I Chr. 
2. 55; (2) same as Hamath, Amos 
6. 14. 

Henidan, hem^an, pleasant. Gen. 
36. 26. 

Hen, hen, favor. Zech. 6. 14. 

Hena, he'na. 2 Kin. 18. 34. 

Henadad, hen'a-dad, favor of Ha- 
dad (?). Ezra 3. 9. 

Henoch, he'nok, same as Enoch. 
I Chr. 1. 3. 

Hepher, he'fer, pit. Josh. 12. 17. 

Hepherites, he'fer-Ites, descendants 
of Hepher. Num. 26. 32. 

Heph-zibah, hePzi-bah, in whom is 
my delight. 2 Kin. 21. I. 

Heres, he'rej, the sun. Judg. 1. 35. 

Heresh, he'resh, artificer. 1 Chr. 9. 15. 

Hernias, her'mas. Rom. 16. 14. 

Hermes, her'mes.. Rom. 16. 14. 

Hermogenes, her-m6g'e-nes_. 2 
Tim. 1. 15. 

Hermon, her'mon, lofty. Deut. 3. 8. 

Hermonites, her'nton-ltes, the sum- 
mits of Hermon. Ps. 42. 6. 

Herod, her'od. Mat. 2. 1. 

Herodians, he-ro'di.ang, partisans of 
Herod. Mat. 22. 16. 

Herodias, hS-ro'd: as. Mat. 14 3. 

Herodion, he-rO'dl-on. Rom. 16. 11. 

Hesed, he'sed, mercy. I Kin. 4. 10. 

Heshbon, hesh'ben, counting. Num. 

21. 25. 

Heshmon, hesh'mSn, fatness. Josh. 

15- 27- 

Heth, heth. Gen. 10. 15. 

Hethlon, heth'ldn, hiding-place. 
Ezek. 47. 15. 

Hezeki, hez'e-kl, shortened from 
Hizkiah. 1 Chr. 8. 17. 

Hezekiah, hez-e-kl'ah, the might of 
Jehovah. 2 Kin. 18. I. 

Hezion, he'zi-on, vision. I Kin. 15. 18. 

Hezir, he'zir, swine. I Chr. 24. 15. 

Hezrai, hez'ra-l, enclosed wall. 2 
Sam. 23. 35. ". 

Hezro, hez'rO, same as preceding. 1 
Chr. II. 37. 

Hezron, heVron, same as Hezrai. 
Gen. 46. 12. 

Hezronites, hez^on-Ites, descend- 
ants of Hezron. Num. 26. 6. 

Hiddai, hid'da-I, the rejoicing of Je- 
hovah. 2 Sam. 23. 30. 

Hiddekel, hid'de-kel. Gen. 2. 14. 

Hiel, hl'el, God liveth. I Kin. 16. 34. 

Hierapolis, hl-e-rap'o-lls, a sacred or 
holy city. Col. 4. 13. 

Higgaion, hig-ga'jon, meditation. Ps. 
9. 16. 

Hilen, hl'len. 1 Chr. 6. 58. 

Hilkiah, hil-kl'ah, portion of Jeho- 
vah. 2 Kin. 18. 18. 

Hillel, hil'lel, praising. Judg. 12. 13. 

Hinnoni, hln'nom. Josh. 15. 8. 

Hirah, hl'rah, nobility. Gen. 38. I. 

Hiram, hl'ram, noble (?). 2 Sam. 

5- ii- 

HittiteS, hit'tTtes, descendants of 
Heth. Gen. 15. 20. 

Hivites, hl'vites, villagers. Ex. 3. 8. 

Hizkiah, hlz-ki'ah, might of Jeho- 
vah. Zeph. 1. 1. 

Hizkijah, hlz-kl'jah, same as pre- 
ceding. Neh. 10. 17. 

Hobab, ho'bab, beloved. Num. 10. 

Hobah, hs'bah, a hiding-place. Gen. 
14. 15. 

Hod, h6d, splendor. I Chr. 7. 37. 

Hodaiah, hfid-a-i'ah, praise, of Je- 
hovah. 1 Chr. 3. 24. 

Hodaviall, hsd-a-vl'ah, Jehovah is 
his praise. I Chr. 5. 24. 

Hodesh, ho'desh, new moon. 1 Chr. 

Hodevah, hfi-de'vah, same as Hoda~ 
viah. Neh. 7. 43. 

Hodiah, ho-dl'ah, same as HODAIAH. 
I Chr. 4. 19. 

Hodijah, ho-dl'jah, same as preced- 
ing. Neh. 8. 7. 

Hoglah, hdg'lah, partridge. Num. 
26. 33. 

Hoham, ho'ham. Josh. 10. 3. 

Holon, ho'lon, sandy. Josh. 15. 51. 

Homam, ho'mam, destruction. I Chr. 

I. 39- 
Hophni, h6f'nT, pugilist. I Sam. I. 3. 
Hophra, hoFra, priest of the sun. Jei. 

44. 30. 
Hor, h5r, mountain. Num. 20. 23. 

a, e, I, 0, u, y, long; a, 6, I, 6, u, y, short; a, e, t, 6, intermeaiaie ; a, f , i, o, obscure; care, far, last, fall, term, firm, familjar, 

for, furlj r^de, pvsh, 9 as j>, % -^ j, g as in get, § as z, ^ as gz. 


Horam, ho'ram. Josh. 10. 33. 
Horeb, ho''reb, desert. Ex. 3. I. 
Horem, ho'rem. Josh. 19. 38. 
Hor-b.agidg'ad, hor-ha-gld'gad, 

mountain of Gudgodah. Num. 33. 32. 
H ori, ho'rl, cave-dweller. Gen. 36. 22. 
lloi'im, ho'rim, descendants of Hori. 

Deut. 2. 12. 
Hormah, hor'mah, a devoting, a place 

laid waste. Num. 14. 45. 
Iloronaim, her-o-na'im, two caverns. 

Is. 15. 5. 
Iloronite, hor'o-nlte, native of Beth- 

Horon. Neh. 2. 10. 
Hosall, ho'sah, fleeing to Jehovah for 

refuge (?). Josh. 19. 29. 
Hosaniia, ho-san'na, save us, we pray. 

Mat. 21. 9. 
Hosea, ho-je'a, salvation, Hos. I. I. 
Hoshaiah, h6sh-a-l'ah, whom Jeho- 
vah has set free. Neh. 12. 32. 
Hoshama, hosh'a-ma. I Chr. 3. 18. 
Hoshea, ho-she'a, same as Hosea. 

Deut. 32. 44. 
Hothaill, ho'tham, signet ring. I Chr. 

7- 32. 
Motlian, ho'than. 1 Chr. 11. 44. 
Hothir, h©-thir. I Chr. 25. 4. 
Hukkok, huk'kok, decreed. Josh. 

19- 34- 
Ililkok, ha'kSk, same as preceding. 

1 Chr. 6. 75. 

IIul, hul, circle. Gen. 10. 23. 
Iluldah, hul'dah, weasel. 2 Kin. 

22. 14. 
Hlimtah, hiim'tah, fortress (?). Josh. 

lllipham, ha'pham, inhabitant of the 

shore (?). Num. 26. 39. 
Hlippah, hup'pah, covering. I Chr. 

24. 13. 
Huppim, hup'pim, same as Hu- 

pham (?). Gen. 46. 21. 
Hur, hur, cavern. Ex. 17. 10. 
Hurai. hu'rai, another way of writing 

Hiddai. I Chr. 11. 32. 
Huram, hQ'ram, the older way of 

spelling Hiram. 2 Chr. 2. 23. 
Iluri, hu'rl, linen-worker (?). I Chr. 

5- 14- 
Hushah, ha'shah, haste. I Chr. 4. 4. 
Hushai, ha'shai, hasting. 2 Sam. 

15- 32- 
Husham, ha'sham, haste. Gen. 36.34. 
Hlishathitc, hu'shath-Ite, inhabitant 

of Hushah. 2 Sam. 23. 27. 
Hushim, hu'shim, those who make 

haste. Gen. 46. 23. 
Huz, huz. Gen. 22. 21. 
Huzzab, huz'zab, it is decreed. Nah. 

Hymenseus, hy-me-ne'us, belonging 

to Hymen. 2 Tim. 2. 1 7. 

1BHAK, Ib'har, whom God chooses. 

2 Sam. 5. 15. 

IMeam, Ib'le-am, He destroys the 

people. Josh. 17. 11. 
Ibneiall, ib-ne'jah, whom Jehovah 

will build up. 1 Chr. 9. 8. 
Ibnijah, ib-nl'jah, same as preceding. 

1 Chr. 9. 8. 
Ibri, ib'rl, Hebrew. I Chr. 24. 27. 
Ibzan, ib'zan, active (?). Judg. 12. 8. 
I-chabod, ik'a-bod, inglorious. I 

Sam. 4. 21. 
Iconiimi, i-ko'nl-um. Acts 13. 51. 
Idalab, i-da'lah, snares (?). Josh. 19. 


Idbasll, Id'bash, honeyed. I Chr. 4. 3. 
Iddo, id'do, (1) loving, 1 Chr. 27. 21 ; 

(2) Ezra 8. 17; (3) seasonable, Zech. 

1. I. 
Idumea, i-du-me'a, same as Edom. 

Is. 34. 5. 
Igal, I 'gal, whom God will avenge. 

ISum. 13. 7. 
Igdaliab., ig-da-ll'ah, whom Jehovah 

shall make great. Jer. 35. 4. 
Ig"eal, ig'e-al, same as Igal. I Chr. 


Iim, l'im, ruins. Num. 33. 45. 

Ije-abarim, Ij-e-ab'a-rim, ruinous 
heaps of Abarim. Num. 21. 11. 

Tjon, I'jon, a ruin. I Kin. 15. 20. 

ikkesll, Ik'k&sh, perverseness of 
mouth. 2 Sam. 23. 26. 

Ilai, I'lai, most high. 1 Chr. 11. 29. 

Illyricum, Il-lyr'I-cum. Rom. 15. 19. 

Imla, Im'la, same as Imlah. 2 Chr. 
18. 7. 

Imlah, mr'Iah, whom (God) will fill 
up. 1 Kin. 22. 8. 

Immanuel, Im-man / a-el, God with 
us. Is. 7. 14. 

Immer, Im'mer, talkative. I Chr. 9. 

Inina, Irc/na, whom (God) keeps back. 
I Chr. 7. 35. 

Imnah, im'nah, whom (God) as- 
signs (?). 1 Chr. 7. 30. 

Imrall, im'rah, stubborn. I Chr. 7. 36. 

Imri, Im'rl, eloquent. I Chr. 9. 4. 

India, ind'ja. Est. 1. 1. 

Ipbedeiah, If-e-de'jah, whom Jeho- 
vah frees. I Chr. 8. 25. 

Ir, ir, city. I Chr. 7. 12. 

Ira, I'ra, watchful. 2 Sam. 20. 26. 

Irad, I'rad. Gen. 4. 18. 

Irani, I'ram, belonging to a city. Gen. 

36- 43- 
Iri, I'rl, same as Iram. I Chr. 7. 7. 
Irijab, I-rl'jah, whom Jehovah looks 

on. Jer. 37. 13. 
Ir-nabasll, ir-na'hash, snake-town. 

1 Chr. 4. r2. 
Iron, i'ron, reverence. Josh. 19. 38. 
Irpeel, Ir'pfe-el, which God heals. Josh. 

18. 27. 
Ir_-Shemesh, ir-she'mesh, sun-town. 

Josh. 19. 41. 
Il'U, I'ru, same as Tram. 1 Chr. 4. 15. 
Isaac, I'gak, laughter. Gen. 17. 19. 
Isaiah, 1-s.a'jah, salvation of Jehovah. 

Is. I. I. 
Iscah, is'kah. Gen. 11. 29. 
Iscariot, Is-karT-ot, man of Kerioth. 

Mat. 10. 4. 
Ishfoah, Ish'bah, praising. 1 Chr. 

4- 17- 

Ishbak, ish'bak. Gen. 25. 2. 

Ishbi-benob, ish'bi-be'nob, onewho 
dwells at Nob. 2 Sam. 21. 16. 

Ish-boshetll, Ish-bo'sheth, man of 
shame. 2 Sam. 2. 8. 

Ishi, ish'I, my husband. Hos. 2. 16. 

Islli, Ish'I, salutary. I Chr. 2. 31. 

Ishiah, Ish-I'ah, whom Jehovah lends. 
I Chr. 7. 3. 

Ishljah, ish-I'jah, same as Ishiah. 
Ezra 10. 31. 

Islima, ish'ma. I Chr. 4. 3. 

Ishmael, Ish'ma-el, whom God hears. 
Gen. 16. 15. 

Ishmaelites, Isli'ma-el-ites, descend- 
ants of Ishmael. Judg. 8. 24. 

Ishmaiah, ish-ma-I'ah, whom Jeho- 
vah hears. I Chr. 27. 19. 

Ishllierai, ish'mfe-rai, whom Jehovah 
keeps. 1 Chr. 8. 18. 

Ishod, I'shod, man of glory. 1 Chr. 

Ishpan, Ish'pan, cunning (?). I Chr. 
8. 22. 

Ish-tob, ish'tob, men of Tob. 2 Sam. 
10. 6. 

Isllliah, ish'u-ah, level. Gen. 46. 17. 

Ishuai, Ish'u-ai, same as Isui. I Chr. 

7- 30. 

Ishui, Ish'u-I, same as Ishuah. i 
Sam. 14. 49. 

Ismachiah, Is-ma-ld'ah, whom Jeho- 
vah upholds. 2 Chr. 31. 13. 

Ismaiah, Is-ma-l'ah, same as Ish- 
maiah. I Chr. 12. 4. 

Ispah, Is'pah, bald. 1 Chr. 8. 16. 

Israel, Is/ra-el, soldier of God. Gen. 
32. 28. 

Israelites, is/ra-el-Ites, descendants 
of Israel. Ex. 9. 7. 

Israelitish, fs/ra-el-rt-ish, after the 
fashion of an Israelite. Lev. 24. 10. 

Issachar, Is'sa-kar, he is hired (?). 

Gen. 30. 18. 
Isshiah, is'shl-ah, same as Ishiah. 

1 Chr. 24. 21. 
Isiiah, Is'u-ah, same as Ishuah. i 

Chr. 7. 30. 
Isui, is'u-i.same as Ishui. Gen. 46. 17. 
Italian, i-tal'jan, belonging to Italy. 

Acts 10. 1. 
Italy, it'a-ly. Acts 18. 2. 
Ithai, Ith'a-I, ploughman. 1 Chr. 11. 31. 
Ithainar, Ith'a-mar, island of palms. 

Ex. 6. 23. 
Ithiel, Ith'I-el, God is with me. Neh. 

11. 7. 
Ithmah, Ith/mah, bereavedness. 1 

Chr. 11. 46. 
Ithnan, ith'nan. Josh. 15. 23. 
Ithra, Ith'ra, excellence. 2 Sam. 17.25. 
Ithran, Ith/ran, same as Ithra. Gen. 

36. 26. 
Ithream, UVre-am, remainder of the 

people. 2 Sam. 3. 5. 
Ithrite, ith'rlte, descendants of Je- 

ther (?). 2 Sam. 23. 38. 
Ittah-kazin, it'tah-ka'zin, time of 

the chief. Josh. 19. 13. 
Ittai, It'ta-I, same as Ithai. 2 Sam. 

15. 19. 
Iturjea, f-tu-re / a, a province so named 

from Jetur. Luke 3. I. 
Ivah, I'vah. 2 Kin. 18. 34. 
Izeliar, Iz^-har, oil. Num. 3. 19. 
Izeharites, iz'e-har-Ites, the descend- 
ants of Izehar. Num. 3. 27. 
Izhar, Iz'har, same as Izehar. Ex. 

6. 18. 
Izharites, Iz'har-Ites, the same as 

Izeharites. i Chr. 26. 23. 
Izrahiah, Iz / ra-hl / ah, whom Jehovah 

brought to light. I Chr. 7. 3. 
Izrahite, Iz'ra-hlte, probably same as 

Zarhite. 2 Chr. 27. 8. 
Izri, Iz'rl, a descendant of Jezer. I 

Chr. 25. II. 

J AAKAN, ja'a-kan, one who turns. 
Deut. 10. 6. 

Jaakobah, ja-ak'6-bah, same as 
Jacob, i Chr. 4. 36. 

Jaala, ja-a'la, wild she-goat. Neh. 7.58. 

Jaalah,ja-a / lah,same as JAALA. Ezra 
2. 56. 

Jaalam, ja-a/lam, whom God hides. 
Gen. 36. 5. 

Jaanai, ja-a'nai, whom Jehovah an- 
swers. 1 Chr. 5. 12. 

Jaare-oregim, ja-ar / g-6r / e-glm, 
forests of the weavers. 2 Sam. 21. 19. 

Jaasail, ja'a-sau. Ezra 10. 37. 

Jaasiel, ji-a'sl-el, whom God created. 
1 Chr. 27. 21. 

Jaazaniah, ja-az-a-nl'ah, whom Je- 
hovah hears. 2 Kin. 25. 23. 

Jaazer, ja-a'zer, whom (God) aids. 
Num. 21. 32. 

Jaaziah, ja-a-zl / ah, whom Jehovah 
strengthens. I Chr. 24. 26. 

Jaaziel, ja-a / zi-el, whom Godstrength- 
ens. 1 Chr. 15. 18 

Jabal, ja'bal. Gen. 4. 20. 

Jabbok, jab'bok, pouring out. Gen. 
32. 22. 

Jabesh, ja'besh, dry. 2 Kin. 15. 10. 

Jabesll-gilead, jVbesh-glFe-ad, 
Jabesh of Gilead. Judg. 21. 8. 

Jabez, ja'bgz, causing pain. I Chr.4. 9. 

Jabin, ja'bin, whom He (God) con- 
sidered. Judg. 4. 2. 

Jabneel, jab / ne-el, may God cause to 
be built. Josh. 15. 11. 

Jabneh, jab'neh, which (God) causes 
to be built. 2 Chr. 26. 6. 

Jachan, ja'kan, troubled. I Chr. 5. 1 3. 

Jachin, ja'kinjwhom (God) strength- 
ens. 1 Kin. 7. 21. 

Jacob, ja'kob, supplanter. Gen. 25. 26. 

Jada, ja'da, wise. I Chr. 2. 28. 

Jadau, ja-da't}. Ezra 10. 43. 

Jaddlia,jad-dfi / a, skilled. Neh. 10.21. 

Jadon, ja'don, a judge. Neh. 3. 7. 

Jacl, ja'el, same as Jaala. Judg. 4. 17. 

Jagur, ja'gur, a lodging. Josh. 15. 21, 

Jail, Jkh, poetic form of Jehovah. Ps. 

Jahath, ja'hath. 1 Chr. 6. 20. 

Jahaz, ja'haz, a place trodden down. 
Num. 21. 23. 

Jahaza, ja-ha'za, same as Jahaz. 
Josh. 13. 18. 

Jahaza h, ja-ha^ah, same as Jahaza. 
Josh. 21. 36. 

Jahaziah, ji-ha-zfah, whom Jeho- 
vah watches over. Ezra 10. 15. 

Jahaziel, ja-ha'zi-el, whom God 
watches over. 1 Chr. 16. 6. 

Jalldai, jaVda-I, whom Jehovah di- 
rects. 1 Chr. 2. 47. 

Jalldiel, jah'di-el, whom God makes 
glad. 1 Chr. 5. 24. 

Jahdo, jah'do, union. 1 Chr. 5. 14. 

Jahleel, jah'le-el, hoping in God. 
Num. 26. 26. 

Jahleelites, jah'le-el-ltes, descend- 
ants of Jahleel. Num. 26. 26. 

Jahniai, jah'ma-l. 1 Chr. 7. 2. 

Jahzall, jah / zah, same as Jahaz. I 
Chr. 6. 78. 

Jahzeel, jah'zg-el, whom God allots. 
Gen. 46. 24. 

Jahzeelites, jah'ze-el-ltes, descend- 
ants of Jahzeel. Nam. 26. 48. 

Jahzerah, jah / z£-rah, may he bring 
back. 1 Chr. 9. 12. 

Jahziel, jah'zl-el, same as Jahzeel> 

1 Chr. 7. 13. 

Jair, ja'Ir, (/. e. God) enlightens. Num. 

32. 41- 
Jairite, ja'ir-lte, a descendant of Jair. 

2 Sam. 20. 26. 

Jairus, ja-l'rus, Greek form of Jair. 

Mark. 5. 22. 
Jakan, ja'kan, same as Jaakan. I 

Chr. 1. 42. 
Jakehjja'keh, pious (?). Prov. 30. 1. 
Jakini, ja'kim, (God) sets up. 1 Chr. 

8. 19. 
Jalon, jalon, passing the night. I 

Chr. 4. 17. 
Jamb res, jam^rlj. 2 Tim. 3. 8. 
James, j&mej, the English equivalent 

for Jacob in the New Testament. Mat. 

4. 21. 
Jamin, ja'min^ighthand. Gen. 46. 10, 
Jamlech, jam'lek, He makes to reign. 

I Chr. 4. 34. 
Janna, jan / na, probably another form 

of John. Luke 3. 24. 
Jannes, jan'nes.. 2 Tim. 3. 8. 
Janoalljja-no' 2 Kin. 15. 29. 
Janohah, ja-nO'hah, same as preced- 
ing. Josh. 16. 6. 
Janiim, ja r num, sleep. Josh. 15. 53, 
Japheth, ja'feth, extension. Gen. 5.32. 
Jajphia, ja-ft'a, splendid. Josh. 19. 12. 
Japlllet, jaf'let, may he deliver. I 

Chr. 7. 32 
Japhleti, jaf-le'ti, the Japhletite, 01 

descendant of Japhlet. Josh. 16. 3. 
JapllO, ja'fo, beauty. Josh. 19. 46. 
Jarall, ja'rah, forest.. I Chr. 9. 42. 
Jareb, ja'reb, one who is contentious. 

Hos. 5. 13. 
Jared, ja'red, descent. Gen. 5. 15. 
Jaresiall, jar-e-sl'ah, whom Jehovah 

nourishes. 1 Chr. 8. 27. 
Jarha, jarTia. I Chr. 2. 34. 
Jarib, ja'rib, adversary. I Chr. 4. 24. 
Jarmilth, jar'muth, height. Josh. 10.3. 
Jaroah, ja-ro'ah, moon (?). 1 Chr. 

5- '4- 
Jashen, ja'shen, sleeping. 2 Sam. 

23. 3 2 - 

Jasher, ja'sher, upright. Josh. 10. 13, 

Jashobeam, ja-sho'be-am, the peo- 
ple returns. I Chr. II. 11. 

Jashub, jash/ub, he returns. Num. 
26. 24. 

Jashubi-lehem, jash'u-bi-le'hem, 

giving bread (?). I Chr. 4. 22. 
JashubiteS, jash'ub-ites, descend- 
ants of Jashub. Num. 26. 24. 

8, e, I, 0, a, y, long j a, b, I, 6, u, y, short ; a, e, f, 6, intermediate ; a, e, i, o, obscure ; care, far, last, fall, term, firm, familjar, 

for, furl, rude, push, c as s, g as j, g as in get, 5 as z, j as gz. 



Jasiel, ja'sl-el, whom God made. I 

Chr. II. 47. 
JasOll, ja'son, Greeco-Judaean equiva- 
lent of Joshua. Acts 17. 5. 

Jathniei, jath'nl-el, God gives. I 
Chr. 26. 2. 

Jattir, jat'Ur, excelling. Josh. 15. 48. 

Javan, ja'van, wine (?). Gen. 10. 2. 

Jazer, ja'zer, same as Jaazer. Num. 
32. 1. 

Jaziz, ja'zlz, wanderer (?). I Chr. 
27. 31. 

Jearim, je'a-rlm, forests. Josh. 15. 

Jeaterai, je-at'e-rai. 1 Chr. 6. 21. 

Jebereclliall, je-ber-e-kl'ah, whom 
Jehowah blesses. Is. 8. 2. 

JebllSjje'bus, a place trodden down(?). 
Judg. 19. 10. 

Jebusi, je'btts-i, a Jebusite. Josh. 
18. 16. 

Jebusites, jeb'u-sites, the descend- 
ants of Jebus, the son of Canaan. 
Num. 13. 29. 

Jecamiali, jek-a-ml'ah. I Chr. 3. 18. 

Jecboliall, jfik-o-ll'ah, Jehovah is 
strong. 2 Kin. 15. 2. 

Jechonias, jek-o-nl'as, the Greek 
way of spelling Jeconiah. Mat. I. II. 

Jecoliall, jek -o-ll'ah, same as Jecho- 
LIAH. 2 Chr. 26. 3. 

Jeconiah, jek-o-nl'ah, Jehovah es- 
tablishes. 1 Chr. 3. 16. 

Jedaiall, je-da'jah, ( 1 ) Jehovah — (?), 
I Chr. 4. 37 ; (2) Jehovah knoweth, 
I Chr. 24. 7. 

Jediael, je-dl/a-el, known of God. I 
Chr. 7. 6. 

Jedidah, je-dl'dah, beloved. 2 Kin. 
22. I. 

Jedidiah, jfid-I-dl'ah, beloved of Je- 
hovah. 2 Sam. 12. 25. 

Jed U til nil, jed'u-thun, friendship (?). 

1 Chr. 16. 38. 

Jeezer, jg-e'zSr, contracted from 
Abiezf.r. Num. 26. 30. 

Jeg-ar-sahadutha, je'gar-sa-ha- 

du'tha, the heap of testimony. Gen. 

3»- 47- 

Jehaleleel, je-ha-le'Ie-el, he praises 
God. 1 Chr. 4. 16. 

Jehalelel, je-hal'e-lel, same as pre- 
ceding. 2 Chr. 29. 12. 

Jehdeiah, jeh-de / jah,whom Jehovah 
makes glad. 1 Chr. 24. 20. 

Jehezekel, j£-hez'e-kel, same as 
Ezekiel. I Chr. 24." 16. 

Jehlall, je-hl'ah, Jehovah live*. I 
Chr. 15. 24. 

Jehiel, je-hl'el, God liveth. 1 Chr. 
IS- 18. 

Jehieli, je-hl'e-ll, a Jehielite. I Chr. 
26. 21. 

Jellizkiah, je-hlz-kl'ah, same as 
Hezekiah. 2 Chr. 28. 12. 

Jehoadall, je-ho'a-dah, whom Jeho- 
vah adorns. 1 Chr. 8. 36. 

Jehoaddan, je-ho-ad'dan, Jehovah 
is beauteous (?). 2-Kin. 14. 2. 

Jehoahaz, je-ho'a-haz, whom Jeho- 
vah holds fast. 2 Kin. 10. 35. 

Jehoash, j^-ha'ash, Jehovah supports. 

2 Kin. 11. 21. 
Jehohanan, je-ho-ha'nan, Jehovah 

is gracious. I Chr. 26. 3. 
Jchoiachin, je-hoi'a-kin, Jehovah 

has established. 2 Kin. 24. 6. 
Jchoiada, je-hoi'a-da, Jehovah know- 
eth. 2 Sam. 8. 18. 
Jehoiakim, je-hoi'a-kim, Jehovah 

has set up. 2 Kin. 23. 34. 
Jehoiarib, je-hoi'a-rib, Jehovah will 
■ contend. I Chr. 9. 10. 
Jchonadab, jS-h&n'a-d&b, Jehovah 

is bounteous. 2 Kin. 10. 15. 
Jehonatlian, je-hon'a-than, same as 

Jonathan, i Chr. 27. 25. 
Jehoram, jg-ho'ram, Jehovah is high. 

I Kin. 22. 50. 
Jell OShabeath, je-ho-shab'e-ath, 

Jehovah is the oath. 2 Chr. 22. 11. 

Jehoshaphat, je-hosh'a-fat, whom 

Jehovah judges. I Kin. 15. 24. 
Jehosheba, je-ljosh'e-ba, same as 

Jehoshabkath. 2 Kin. 11. 2. 
JellOSlma, je-hosh'u-a, same as 

Joshua. Num. 13. 16. 
Jehoshuall, je-hosl/u-ah, same as 

Joshua, i Chr. 7. 27. 
Jehovah, Je-ho'vah, the Eternal One. 

Ex. 6. 3. 
Jehovah-jireh, Je-ho'vah-ji'teh. 

Jehovah will provide. Gen. 22. 14. 
Jehovah-nissi, Je-ho'vah-mVsi, 

Jehovah my banner. Ex. 17. 15. 
Jehovah -shalom, Je-ho'vah-sha'- 

lom, Jehovah send peace. Judg. 6. 24. 
Jehozabad, jS-hoz'a-bad, Jehovah 

gave. 2 Kin. 12. 21. 
Jehozadak, je-h6z'a-dak, Jehovah is 

Jehu, je'hu, Jehovah is He (?). I 

Kin. 19. 16. 
Jehubbah, je-hub'bah, hidden. 1 

Chr. 7. 34. 
Jehucal, je'hQ-kal, Jehovah is mighty. 

Jer. 37. 3- 
Jehud, je'hud, praise. Josh. 19. 45. 
Jehudi, je-hu'dl, a ]e\v. Jer. 36. 14. 
Jehudijall, je-hu-dl'jah, a Jewess. 

I Chr. 4. 18. 
JellUSh, je'hush, to whom God has- 
tens. I Chr. 8. 39. 
Jeiel, je-I'el. 1 Chr. 5. 7. 
Jekabzeel, je-kab'ze-el, God gathers. 

Neh. 11. 25. 
Jekameam, jsk-a-me'am. 1 Chr. 

23. 19. 
Jekamiall, jek-a-ml'ah, same as 

Jecamiah. 1 Chr. 2. 41. 
Jekuthiel, je-kti'thl-el, the fear of 

God. 1 Chr. 4. 18. 
Jemima, je-ml'ma, dove. Job 42. 14. 
Jemuel, je-mu'el, day of God. Gen. 

46. 10. 
Jephthae, jef'tha-e, Greek way of 

writing Jephthah. Heb. II. 32. 
Jepllthall, jef'thah, God opens. Judg. 

II. I. 
JepllUlinell, je-fun / neh, for whom 

it is prepared. Num. 13. 6. 
Jerah, je'rah, the moon. Gen. 10. 26. 
Jerahmeel, je-rah'me-el, whom God 

loves. I Chr. 2. 9. 
Jerahmeelites, je-rah'me-el-ites, 

descendants of Jerahmeel. I Sam. 27. 

Jered, je'red, descent. I Chr. I. 2. 
Jeremai, jSr'e-mai, dwelling in 

heights. Ezra 10. 33. 
Jeremiah, jer-e-nu'ah, whom Jeho- 
vah has appointed. Jer. 1. I. 
Jeremias, jer-e-ml'as, Greek form 

of Jeremiah. Mat. 16. 14. 
Jeremoth, jer'e-moth, high places. 

I Chr. 8. 14. 
Jeremy, jeVe-my, shortened English 

form of Jeremiah. Mat. 2. 17. 
Jeriah, je-rl'ah, whom Jehovah re- 
gards (?). I Chr. 23. 19. 
Jeribai, jer'i-bai, contentious. I Chr. 

II. 46. 
Jericho, jSr'I-ko, a fragrant place. 

Num. 22. 1. 
Jeriel, je'rl-el, founded by God. I 

Chr. 7. 2. 
Jerijah, je-ri'jah, same as Jeriah. 

1 Chr. 26. 31. 
Jeriothjje'rI-oth, curtains. I Chr.2.18. 
Jeroboam, jer-o-bo'am, whose peo- 
ple are many. 1 Kin. 11. 26. 
Jeroham, jeVg-ham, who is loved. 

I Sam. I. 1. 
Jerubbaal, je-riib'ba-al, let Baal 

plead. Judg. 6. 32. 

Jerubbesheth, je-rub'be-sheth, let 
shame plead, another name for Jerub- 
baal. 2 Sam. 11. 21. 

Jeruel, jer'u-el, same as Jeriel. 2 
Chr. 20. 16. 

Jerusalem, je-ru'sa-lem, founded in 
peace (?). Josh. 10. I. 

Jerusha, je-ru'sha, possession. 2 Kin. 

IS- 33- 

Jerushall, je-ru'shah, same as pre- 
ceding. 2 Chr. 27. I, 

Jesaiah, je-sa'jah, same as Isaiah. 
1 Chr. 3. 21. 

Jeshaiall, je-sha'jah, same as pre- 
ceding. 1 Chr. 25. 3. 

Jeshanah, jesh'a-nah, old. 2 Chr. 
13. 19. 

Jesharelall, je-shaT'e-lah, right be- 
fore God (?). 1 Chr. 25. 14. 

Jeshebeab, j£-sheb'e-ab, father's 
seat. 1 Chr. 24. 13. 

Jesher, je'sher, uprightness. I Chr. 
2. 18. 

Jeshimon, jesh'i-m6n, the waste. 
Num. 21. 20. 

Jeshishai, je-shrsh'a-l, like an old 
man. 1 Chr. 5. 14. 

Jeshohaiah, jesh-6-ha-I'ah, whom 
Jehovah humbles. I Chr. 4. 36. 

Jeshua, jesh'u-a, Jehovah is salva- 
tion. Ezra 2. 2. 

Jeshuall, jesh'u-ah, help. lChr.24.II. 

Jeshurun, jesh'u-run, righteous. 
Deul. 32. 15. 

Jesiah, je-si'ah. 1 Chr. 12. 6. 

Jesimiel, je-slm'i-el, whom God 
founds (?). I Chr. 4. 36. 

Jesse, jes'se, gift (?). Ruth 4. 17. 

JeSUi, jes'u-i, same as Ishua. Num. 
26. 44- 

JeSlliteS, jeVu-Ites, the posterity of 
Jesui. Num. 26. 44. 

JeSUS, Je'sus, Saviour. Mat. I. 21. 
Greek form for Joshua. Heb. 4. 8. 

Jether, je'ther, same as Ithp.a. Judg. 
8. 20. 

Jetheth, je'theth. Gen. 36. 40. 

Jetlllall, jeth'lah, lofty. Josh. 19. 42. 

Jethro, je'thrS, same as Ithra. Ex. 

3- I- 

Jetur, je'tiir, an enclosure. Gen. 25.15. 
Jeuel, je-u'el, same as Jeiel. I Chr.9.6. 
Jeush, jg'ush, same as Jehush. Gen. 

36. 5- 
Jeuz, je'uz, counsellor. I Chr. 8. 10. 
Jew, ju, an Israelite. Est. 2. 5. 
Jewish, ju'ish, of or belonging to 

Jews. Tit. 1. 14. 
Jewry, ju'ry, Old English name for 

Judea. Dan. 5. 13. 
Jews, ju§, inhabitants of Judea. 2 Kin. 

16. 6. 
Jezailiall, jez-a-nl'ah, Jehovah 

adorns (?). Jer. 40. 8. 
Jezebel, jeVe-b£l, unmarried. I Kin. 

16. 31. 
Jezer, je'zer, anything made. Gen. 

46. 24. 
Jezerites, je'zer-Ites, descendants of 

Jezer. Num. 26. 49. 
Jeziah, je-zl'ah, whom Jehovah as- 
sembles. Ezra 10. 25. 
Jeziel, je'zi-el, the assembly of God. 

I Chr. 12. 3. 
Jezliah, jSz-ll'ah, deliverance (?). I 

Chr, 8. 18. 
Jezoar, j&z'o-ar, splendid. I Chr. 4. 7. 
Jezrahiah, jez-ra/hl'ah, Jehovah 

shines forth. Neh. 12.42. 
Jezreel, jez're-el, God scatters. I Chr. 

4- 3- 

Jezreelite, jez're-el-Ite, an inhabitant 

of Jezreel. I Kin. 21. 6. 
Jezreelitess, jez're-el-Itess, fem- 
inine of preceding. 1 Sam. 27. 3. 
Jibsani, jft/sam, frngrant. I Chr. 7. 2. 
Jidlaph, jld / laf, weeping (?). Gen. 

22. 22. 
Jimna, jlm'na, same as Imna. Num. 

26. 44. 
Jimnah, jlm'nah, same as Imnah. 

Gen. 46. 17. 
JimniteS, jlrn'mtes, descendants of 

Jimnah. Num. 26. 44. 
Jiphtah, jlPtah, same as Jephthah. 

Josh. 15. 43. 
Jiphthah-el, jif'thah-el, which God 

opens. Josh. 19. 14. 

Joab, jo'ab, Jehovah is father. 2 Sam. 
2. 13. 

Joah, jo'ah, Jehovah is brother. 2 
Kin. 18. 18. 

Joahaz, jO'a-haz, whom Jehovah 
holds. 2 Chr. 34. 8. 

Joanna, jo-an / na, Greek way of writ- 
ing Jehonan. Luke 3. 27. 

Joash, jO'ash, whom Jehovah sup. 
ports (?). 2 Kin. II. 2. 

Joatham, jo'a-tham, Greek form of 
Jotham. Mat. I. 9. 

Job, job, (1) a desert, Gen. 46. 13 j 
(2) one persecuted, Job I. I. 

Jobab, jo'bab, a desert. Gen. 10. 29. 

Jochebed, jok'e-bed, Jehovah is 
glorious (?). Ex. 6. 20. 

Joed, jo'ed, for whom Jehovah is wit- 
ness. Neh. 11. 7. 

Joel, jo / el, Jehovah is might. Joel I. I. 

Joelall, jo-e'lah, He helps (?). I Chr. 
12. 7. 

Joezer, jo-e'zer, Jehovah is help. 1 
Chr. 12. 6. 

Jogbehah, jog-'be-hah, lofty. Num. 

3 2 - 35- 

Jog'li, j6g / ll, an exile. Num. 34. 22. 

Joha, jo'ha, Jehovah lives (?). I Chr. 
8. 16. 

Johanan, jo-ha / nan, Jehovah is gra- 
cious. 2 Kin. 25. 23. 

John, j6n, English way of spelling 
Johanan. Mat. 3. I. 

Joiada, joi'a-da, Jehovah knows. Neh. 

12. 10. 

Joiakim, joi'a-klm, shortened from 
Jehoiakim. Neh. 12. 10. 

Joiarib, joi'a-rib, whom Jehovah de- 
fends. Ezra 8. 16. 

Jokim, jo'kim, shortened from Jeho- 
iakim. 1 Chr. 4. 22. 

Jokdeam, jok'de-am, burning of the 
people. Josh. 15. 56. 

Jokmeam, jok'me-am. I Chr. 6. 68. 

Jokneam, jok'ne-am, possessed by 
the people. Josh. 12. 22. 

Jokshan, jok'shan, fowler. Gen. 25. 2. 

Joktan, jok'tan, small. Gen. 10. 25. 

Joktheel, jdk'the-el, subdued by God. 
Josh. 15. 38. 

Jona, jo'na, a Greek way of spelling 
Johanan. John I. 42. 

Jonadab, jon'a-dab, same as Jeho- 
NADAB. 2 Sam. 13. 3. 

Jonah, js'nah, dove. 2 Kin. 14. 25. 

Jonail, jo'nan, contracted from JO- 
HANAN. Luke 3. 30. 

Jonas, jo'nas, (1) same as Jona, John 
21. 15; (2) or Jonah, Mat. 12. 39. 

Jonath-elem-rechokim, jo / - 
nath-e'lem-re-ko'kim, the silent dove 
afar off. Title of Ps. 56. 

Jonathan, j6n / a-than, whom Jeho- 
vah gave. I Sam. 13. 2. 

Joppa, jop'pa, beauty (?). 2 Chr. 
2. 16. 

Jorah, jo'rah, watering(P). Ezra 2. 18. 

Jorai, jo'ra-I, archer (?). 1 Chr. 5. 13. 

Jcram, jo'ram, same as Jehoram. 
2 Sam. 8. 10. 

Jordan, jor'dan, flowing down. Gen. 

13. 10. 

Jorim, jo'rim, a form of Joram (?). 
Luke 3. 29. 

Jorkoam, jor'ko-am, spreading of the 
people (?). 1 Chr. 2. 44. 

Josabad, jos'a-bad, same as Jeho- 
zabad. 1 Chr. 12. 4. 

Josaphat, jds'a-fat, Greek form of 
Jehoshaphat. Mat. I. 8. 

Josedech, jfis'e-dek, same as Jeho- 
zadak. Hag. 1. 1. 

Joseph, jo'sef, he shall add. Gen. 3a 


Joses, jo'ses. Mat. 13. 55. 
Joshah, jo'shah, Jehovah presents(?). 

I Chr. 4. 34. 
Joshapliat, jish'a-fat, shortened 

from Jehoshaphat. I Chr. II. 43. 
Joshaviah, j6sh-a-vl'ah, same as 

Joshah. i Chr. 11. 46. 

a, e, I, o, u, y, long; a, e, I, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, 6, intermediate; a, e, i, o, obscure; care, far, last, fall, term, firm, familjar, 

f6r. mrl, rude, push, 9 as s, g as j, g as in get, g as z, j as g«. 



Joshbekashah, j6sh-bek'a-shah, 

seat of hardship (?). i Chr. 25. 4. 
Joshua, josh'u-a, Jehovah is salvation. 

Num. 14. 6. 
Josiah, jd-sl'ah, whom Jehovah heals. 

2 Kin. 21. 24. 
Josias, jo-sl'as, Greek form of Josiah. 

Mat. 1. 10. 
Josibiah, jos-l-bl / ah, to whom God 

gives a dwelling. 1 Chr. 4. 35. 
Josiphiall, j&s-I-fl'ah, whom Jehovah 

will increase. Ezra 8. ID. 
Jotbah, j6t'bah, please .itne-s (?). 2 

Kin. 21. 19. 
Jotbath, jot'bath, same us Jotbah. 

Deut. 10. 7. 
Jotbathah, jot'ba-thah, same as Jot- 
bah. Num. 33. 33. 
Jotham, jo'tham, Jehovah is upright. 

Judg. 9. 5. 
Jozabad, ioz'a-bad, same as Jeho- 

ZABAD. I Chr. 12. 20. 
Jozachar, joz'a-kar, whom Jehovah 

has remembered. 2 Kin. 12. 21. 
Jozadak, jdz'a-dak, same as Jeho- 

ZADAK. Ezra 3. 2. 
Jllbal, ja'bal, music (?). Gen. 4. 21. 
Jucal, ja'kal, same as Jehi»_al. Jer. 

38. I. ' 

Judah, ja'dah, praised. Gen. 29. 35. 
Jlldas, ja'das, Greek form of Judah. 

Mat. 10. 4. 
Jude, jade, abbreviated from Judas. 

Jude I. 
Judea, ja-de'a, (land of Judah). Ezra 

Judith, ja'dith (probably from the 

same). Gen. 25. 34. 
Julia, ja'lja, feminine form of Julius. 

Rom. 16. 15. 
Julius, ja'ljus, downy. Acts 27. I. 
Junia, ja'nja. Rom. 16. 7. 
Jupiter, ja'pi tgr. Acts 14. 12. 
Jushab-hesed, ja'shpb-he'sed, 

whose love is returned. I Chr. 3. 20. 
Justus, jas'tus, upright. Acts I. 23. 
Juttah, jut 'tali, extended. Josh. 15.55. 

KaBZEEL, kab'ze-el, God has 

gathered. Josh. 15. 21. 
Kadesh, ka'desh, consecrated. Gen. 

20. 1. 
Kadesh-barnea, ka'desh-bar'ne-a. 

Num. 34. 4. 

Kadmiel, kad'ml-el, eternity of 
God (?). Ezra 2. 40. 

Kadmonites, kad'mon-Ites, Orien- 
tals. Gen. 15. 19. 

Kallai, kaPla-i, swift. Neh. 12. 20. 

Kanah, ka'nah, a place of reeds. Josh. 
19. 28. 

Kareah, ka-re'ah, bald. Jer. 40. 8. 

Karkaa, kar'ka-a, floor. Jcsh. 15. 3. 

Karkor, kar'kSr, plain (?). Judg. 8.10. 

Kamaim, kar'na-Im, two horns. Gen. 
14. 5. 

Kartah, kar'tah, city. Josh. 21. 34. 

Kartan, kar'tan, double city. Josh. 

21. 32. 

Kattath, kat'tath, small (?). 'Josh. 

19. 15. 
Kedar, ke'dar, black-skinned. Gen. 

25. 13. 
Kedemah, ked'e-mah, eastward. 
; Gen. 25. 15. 

Kedemoth, ked'g-moth, eastern 
' parts. Josh. 13. 18. 
Kedesll, ke'desh, sanctuary. Josh. 

12. 22. 
Kehelatliall, ke-hel'a-thah, assem- 
bly. Num. 33. 22. 
Keilah, kei'lah, sling (?). Josh. 15. 44. 
Kelaiah, ke-la'jah, contempc (?). Ezra 

IO. 23. 
Kelita, kel'I-ta, dwarf. Neh. 8. 7. 
Kemuel, ke-ma'el, congregation of 

God. Gen. 22. 21. 
Kenan, ke'nan, smith (?). I Chr. I. 2. 
Kenath, ke'nath, possession. Num. 

32. 42. 
Kenaz, ke'naz, hunting. Gen. 36. II. 

Kenezite, kdn'ez-lte, descendant of 

Kenaz. Num. 32. 12. 
Kenites, kgn'Ites, descendants of an 

unknown man named Kain. Gen. 15.19. 
Keren -happ UCh, ker'en-hap'puch, 

horn of paint. Job 42. 14. 
Kerioth, ke'rl-oth, cities. Josh. 15.25. 
Kei'OS, ke'ros, crook (?). Ezra 2. 44. 
Keturah, ke-tu'rah, incense. Gen. 

Kezia, ke-zPa, cassia. Job 42. 14. 
Keziz, ke'ziz, cut off. Josh. 18. 21. 


ta'a-vah, graves of lust. Num. 11. 34. 
Kibzaim, klb'za-im, two heaps. Josh. 

21. 22. 

Kidron, kld'ron, turbid. 2 Sam. 15. 23. 
Kinah, kPnah, song of mourning, 

lamentation. Josh. 15. 22. 
Kir, kir, town. 2 Kin. 16. 9. 
Kir-haraseth, kir-har'a-seth, brick- 
town. 2 Kin. 3. 25. 
Kir-hareseth, kir-har'e-seth, same 

as preceding. Is. 16. 7. 
Kir-haresll, kir-Iia'resh, same as 

preceding. Is. 16. 11. 
Kir-lieres, kir-he'res, same as pre- 
ceding. -Jer. 48. 31. 
Kiriatliaiin, klr-l-a-tha / im, same as 

Kirjathaim. Ezek. 25. 9. 
Kiriotb, kir'I-oth, cities. Amos 2. 2. 
Kirjath, klr / jath,city(?). Josh. 18.28. 
Kirjathaim, kir-jath-a'im, double 

city. Num. 32. 37. 
Kirjath-arba, kir'jath-ar'ba, city of 

Arba. Gen. 23. 2. 
Kirjath-arim, kir'jath-a'rim, con- 
tracted from Kirjath-jearim. Ezra 2. 25. 
Kirjath-baal, kir'jath-ba'al, city of 

Baal. Josh. 15. 60. 
Kirjath-huzoth, kn / jath-ha / zoth, 

c. of streets. Num. 22. 39. 
Kirjath-jearim, kir'jath-je'a-rim, 

c. of woods. Josh. 9. 17. 
Kirjath-saunall, kir'jath-san'nah, 

c. of thorns. Josh. 15. 49. 
Kirjath-sepher, kh-'jath-seTer, 

book-city. Josh. 15. 15. 
Kish, kish, bow. 1 Sam. 9. I. 
Kishi, kish / I, bow of Jehovah. I Chr. 

6. 44. 
Kisllion, klsTPI-dn, hardness. Josh. 

19. 20. 
Kishoil, kPshon, torture. Judg. 4. 7. 
Kison, kl'son, same as Kishon. Ps. 

Kithlisll, kith'lish, fortified. Josh. 

15. 40. 
Kitron, klt'ron, burning. Judg. I. 30. 
Kittim, kit'tim, same as Chittim. 

Gen. 10. 4. 
Koa, l<6'a, prince. Ezek. 23. 23. 
Kohath, ko'hath, assembly. Gen. 46. 

Kolaiall, k&l-a-l'ah, voice of Jeho- 
vah (?)'. Neh. 11. 7. 
Korall» ko'rah, bald. Num. 16. I. 
Korahites, ko'rah-Ites, descendants 

of Korah. I Chr. 9. 19. 
Korathites, ko'rath-Ites, same as 

preceding, Num. 26. 58. 
Kore, ko're, partridge. I Chr. 9. 19. 
Korhite, kor'hlte, same as Korath- 

ite. 2 Chr. 20. 19. 
Koz, koz, thorn. Ezra 2. 61. 
Kusliaiah, kash-a'jah, longer form 

of Kishi. I Chr. 15. 17. 

LAAT>AH, la'a-dah, order (?). I 

Chr. 4. 21. 
Laadail, la'a-dan, put in order (?). 

1 Chr. 7. 26. 
Laban, la'ban, white. Gen. 24. 29. 
Lacllish, lavish, impregnable. Josh. 

10. 3. 
Lael, Ia'el, (devoted) to God. Num. 

3- 2 4- 
Lahad, la'had, oppression. I Clir. 4. 2. 
Lahai-roi, la-hai'roi, to the living in 

sight. Gen. 24. 62. 
Laiimam, lah'mam. Josh. 15. 40. 

Lahmi, lah'ml, warrior. 1 Chr. 20. 5. 

Laish, la'ish, lion. 1 Sam. 25. 44. 

JLakum, la'kum, fort(?). Josh. 19.33. 

Lama, la'ma, why ? Mat. 27. 46. 

Laniech, la'mek, destroyer. Gen. 4.18. 

LaOdicea, la od-i-ge'a. Col. 2. 1. 

Laodiceans, la-od-i-ce'ans., inhabit- 
ants of Laodicea. Coi. 4. 16. 

Lapidoth, lap'i-doth, torches. Judg. 
4. 4. 

Lasea, la-se'a. Acts 27. 8. 

Lasha, la'sha, fissure. Gen. 10. 19. 

Lasharon, la-shar'on, of the plain. 
Josh. 12. 18. 

Latin, laf'in, the language spoken by 
Romans. John 19. 20. 

Lazarus, laz'a-rus, Greek form of 
Eleazer. Luke 16. 20. 

Leah, le'ah, languid. Gen. 29. 16. 

Lebaiiah, leb'a-nah, white. Ezra 2.45. 

Lebanon, leVa-non, the white (moun- 
tain). Deut. 1. 7. 

Lebaoth, leb'a-oth, lionesses. Josh. 

15- 32. 
Lebbaeus, leb-be'us. Mat. 10. 3. 

Lebonah, le-bo'nah, frankincense. 

Judg. 21. 19. 
Lccah, le'cah, journey (?). I Chr. 421. 
Lehabiin, le'ha-blm. Gen. 10. 13. 
Lehi, le'hl, jaw-bone. Judg. 15. 9. 
Lemuel, lem'u-el (devotedjto God(?). 

Prov. 31. 1. 
Leshem, le'shem, precious stone. 

Josh. 19. 47. 
Letushim, le-ta'shim, the hammered. 

Gen. 25. 3. 
Leiimminijle-am'mim, peoples. Gen. 

Levi, le'vl, associate (?). Gen. 29. 34. 
Leviathan, le-vi'a-than, a water 

monster. Ps. 104. 26. 
Levites, le / vltes, descendants of Levi. 

Ex. 6. 25. 
Leviticus, le-vlt'i-cus, the book which 

treats of the affairs of the Levitical law. 
Libertines, lib'er-tlneg, freedmen. 

Acts 6. 9. 
Libnah, lnVnah, whiteness. Num. 

33- 20. 
Libni, luVnl, white. Ex. 6. 17. 
Libya, lib'y-a. Acts 2. 10. 
Likhi, lik'hl, fond of learning (?). I 

Chr. 7. 19. 
Linus, ll'nus, flax. 2 Tim. '4. 21. 
Lo-ammi, 16-am'mI, not my people. 

Hos. 1. 9. 
Lod, lod, strife (?). 1 Chr. 8. 12. 
Lo-debar, 16-de'bar, without pas- 
ture (?). 2 Sam. 9. 4. 
Lois, lo'is. 2 Tim. I. 5. 
Lo-ruliamah, 16-ru/ha-mah, not hav- 
ing obtained mercy. Hos. I. 6. 
Lot, l6t, veil. Gen. 11. 27. 
Lotan, lo'tan, veiling. Gen. 36. 20. 
Lubim, lu'blm, same as Lehabim. 

2 Chr. 12. 3. 
Lucas, lu/kas, same as Luke. Philem. 

Lucifer, lu/cl-fer, light-bearer. Is. 

14. 12. 
Lucius, lu'cjus, a noble (?). Acts 13. 1. 
Llld, lad, strife (?). Gen. 10. 22. 
Ludim, lu'dim. Gen. IO. 13. 
Luhith, lu'hith, abounding in boards. 

Is. 15- 5- " 
Luke, luke, of or belonging to Lu- 

cania. Col. 4. 14. 
Luz, luz, almond tree. Gen. 28. 19. 
Lycaonia, lyk-a-o'nl-a. Acts 14. 6. 
Lycia, lish'ja. Acts 27. 5. 
Lydda, lyd'da, Greek form of Lod (?). 

Acts 9. 32. 
Lydia, lyd'I-a. Acts 16. 14. 
LysaniaS, ly-sa / nl-as, ending sorrow. 

Luke 3. 1. 
Lysias, Hsh'jas, a person of Lysia. 

Acts 23. 26. 
Lystra, lys'tra. Acts 14. 6. 

IVlAACAH, ma'a-kah (same as 
Maachah). 2 Sam. 3. 3. 

Maachah, ma'a-kah, royal (?). 1 
Kin. 2. 39. 

Maachathi, ma-ak^-thl, an inhabit- 
ant of Maachah. Deut. 3. 14. 

Maachathites, ma-ak'a-thites, plu- 
ral of preceding. Josh. 12. 5. 

Maadai, ma-ad'ai, adorned. Ezra 
10. 34. 

Maadiah, ma-a-dl / ah, ornament of 
Jehovah. Neh. 12. 5. 

Maai, ma-a / i, compassionate (?). Neh. 
12. 36. 

Maaleh-acrabbim, ma-aPeh-a- 

krab'bim, ascent of scorpions. Josh. 1 5.3. 

Maarath, ma-a-rath, a treeless place. 
Josh. 15. 59. 

Maaseiah, ma-a-se'jah, work of Je- 
hovah. Ezra 10. 18. 

Maasiai, ma-as'i-ai, same as Ama- 
shai (?). 1 Chr. 9. 12. 

Maath, ma'ath, small (?). Luke 3. 26, 

Maaz, ma'az, wrath. 1 Chr. 2. 27. i 

Maaziah, ma-a-zi'ah. 1 Chr. 24. 18. 

Macedonia, ma9-e-do / ni-a. Acts 
16. 9. 

Machbanai, mak'ba -nai, cloak. 1 

Chr. 12. 13. 

Machbenah, mak / be-nah, clad with 
a cloak (?). 1 Chr, 2. 49. 

Maclli, ma'kl. Num. 13. 15. 

Macllir, ma'kir, sold. Gen. 50. 23. 

Machirites, ma'kir-Ites, the descend- 
ants of Machir. Num. 26. 29. 

Machnadebai, mak-na-de'bai. Ezra 
1 a 40. 

Maclipelah, mak-pe'lah, a doubling. 
Gen. 23. 9. 

Madai, mad'a-I. Gen. 10. 2. 

Madian, ma'di-an, Greek form of 
Midian. Acts 7. 29. 

Madmannah, mad-man / nah, dung- 
hill. Josh. 15. 31. 

Madmen, mad'men, dungheap. Jer. 
48.' 2. 

Madmenah, mad-me / nah, same as 
Madmen. Is. 10. 31. 

Madon, ma'don, place of contention. 
Josh. 11. 1. 

Mag'bish, mag / bish, congregating. 
Ezra 2. 30. 

Magdala, mag^da-la, tower. Mat 

'5- 39- 
Mag-dalene, mag-da-le'nS, inhabit 

ant of Magdala. Mat. 27. 56. 
Magdiel, mag'dl-el, praise of God. 

Gen. 36. 43. 
Magog, ma-'gCg. Gen. 10. 2. 

Mag-or-missabib, ma / gar-mis / sa- 

blb, fear round about. Jer. 20. 3. 
Magpiash, mag / pl-ash. Neh. 10. 20. 
Malialah, ma-ha'lah, disease. I Chr. 

7. 18. 
Mahalaleel, mi-ha'la-le-el, praise of 

God. Gen. 5. 12. 
Mahalath, ma'ha-lath, a musical in- 
strument. Gen. 28. 9. 
Mahalath Leannoth, ma'ha-lath 

le-an'noth. Ps. 88, title. 
Mahali, ma'ha-ll, weak. Ex. 6. 19. 
MahaiiailU, ma-ha-na / im, two camps. 

Gen. 32. 2. 
Mahaneh-dan, ma'ha-neh-dan, 

camp of Dan. Judg. 18. 12. 
Maharai, ma-har'a-I, impetuous. 2 

Sam. 23'. 28. 
Maliath, ma'hath, taking hold (?). . 

1 Chr. 6. 35. 
Mahavite, ma'ha-vite. 1 Chr. 1 1. 46. 

Mahazioth, ma-ha'zi-fith, visions. I 
Chr. 25. 4. 

Maher-shalal-hash-baz, ma'- 

her-shaPal-hash'baz, the spoil hastens, 

the prey speeds. Is. 8. I. 
Mahlah, mar/lah, same as Mahalah. 

Num. 26. 33. 
Mahli, mah / li, same as Mahali. I 

Chr. 6. 19. 
Mahlon, mah'lon, a sick person. Ruth 

1. 2. 
Maliol, ma / hol, 2 dance. I Kin. 4. 31. 
Makaz, ma'kaz, end(?). I Kin. 4. 9. 

a, e, I, 0, a, y, long; a, 6, I, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, 6, intermediate ; a, e, i, q, obscure ; care, far, last, fall, term, firm, familjar. 

for. furU rude, push, c as s, g as j, g as in get, § as z, x. as gz. 



Makheloth, mak-he'loth, assemblies. 

Num. 33. 25. 
Makkedall, mak-ke'dah, place of 

shepherds (?). Josh. 10. 10. 
Maktesll, mak'tesh, a mortar. Zeph. 

I. 11. 
Malachi, mal'a-kl, the messenger of 

Jehovah. Mai. I. I. 
Malcham, mal'kam, their king. I 

Chr. 8. 9. 
TMalchiall, mal-kl'ah, Jehovah's Idng. 

I Chr. 6. 40. 
Malclliel, mal/kl-el, God's king. Gen. 

46. 17. 
Malcllielites, mal'ki-el-Ites, the de- 
scendants of Malchiel. Num. 26. 45. 
Ptlalcll ijall, mal-ki'jah, same as Mal- 

Ciiiah. I Chr. 9. 12. 
Malchiram, mal-kl'ram, king of 

height (?). I Chr. 3. 1 3. 
Malchi-shua, mal-ki-shu'a, king of 

aid. I Chr. 8. 33. 
Mai ell US, mal'kus, Greek form of 

Malluch. John 18. 10. 
Maleleel, ma-le'le-el, same as Ma- 

Halaleel. Luke 3. 37. 
Mallothi, mal'16-thi. 1 Chr. 25. 4. 
Mallueh, mal'luk, counsellor. I Chr. 

Mammon, mam'mon, fulness. Mat. 

6. 24. 
Mamre, mam're, fatness. Gen. 14. 13. 
Manaen, maii'ii-en, Greek form of 

Menahenr. Acts 13. I. 
Manahath, man'a-hath, rest. Gen. 

3<>- 23- 
ManaliethiteS, ma-na'heth-Ites, in- 
habitants of Manahath(P). I Chr. 2.52. 
Manasseh, ma-nas'seh, one who 

causes to forget. Gen. 41. 51. 
Manasses, ma-nas'seg, Greek form 

of Manasseh. Mat. 1. 10. 
ManassiteS, ma-nas'sltes, members 

of the tribe of Manasseh. Deut. 4. 43. 
Maneh, ma'neh, a weight. Ezek.45.12. 
Manoah, mi-no' Judg. 13. 2. 
Maoch, ma'ok, oppressed (?). I Sam. 

27. 2. 
Maon, ma'on, habitation. Josh. 15.55. 
Maonites, ma'on-ites. Judg. 10. 12. 
Mara, ma'ra, sad. Ruth I. 20. 
Marall, ma'rah, bitter. Ex. 15. 23. 
Maralak, mar'a-lah, trembling. Josh. 

19. II. 
Maranatha, mar-a-na'tha, our lord 

cometh. I Cor. 16. 22. 
MarcUS, mar'kus. Col. 4. 10. 
Mareshah, ma-re'shah, capital. Josh. 


Mark, mark, English form of Marcus. 
Acts 12. 12. 

Maroth, ma'roth, bitterness. Mic. 
1. 12. 

Marsena, mar'se-na. Est. I. 14. 

Martha, maltha, lady. Luke 10. 38. 

Mary, ma'ry, same as Miriam. Mat. 
I. 16. _ 

Maschil, mas'kfl, understanding. Ps. 
S3. t"le. 

Mash, mash. Gen. 10. 23. 

Mashal, ma'shal, entreaty (?). I Chr. 
6. 74- 

Masrekah, mas're-kah, vineyard. 
Gen. 36. 36. 

Massa, maVsa, burden. Gen. 25. 14. 

Massah, mas'sah, temptation. Ex. 
17. 7. 

Mathusala, rna-tlm/sa-la, Greek form 
of Methuselah. Luke 3. 37. 

Matred, ma'tred, pushing forward. 
Gen. 36. 39. 

Matri, ma'lrl, rainy. I Sam. 10. 21. 

Mattail, mat'tan, a gift. 2,Kin. 1 1. 18. 

Mattanah, mat'ta-nah, same as pre- 
ceding. Num. 21. 18. 

Mattailiah, mat-ta-ni'ah, gift of Je- 
hovah. 2 Kin. 24. 17. 

Mattatha, mat'ta-tha, a Greek form 
of above. Luke 3. 31. 

Mattathah, mat'ta-thah, gift of Je- 
hovah. Ezra 10. 33. 

Mattathias, mat'ta-thl-as, a Greek 

form of the preceding. Luke 3. 26. 
Mattenai, mat-te na'I, liberal. E;ra 

10. 33- 

Matthan, mat'than, gift. Mat. I. 15. 
Matthat, mat'that, another form of 

Matthan. Luke 3. 24. 
Matthew, math'thu, English way of 

spelling Mattathiah. Mat. 9. 9. 
Matthias, math'thl-as, another Greek 

form of Mattathias. Acts I. 23. 
Mattithiah, mat-tt-thl / ah, another 

form of Mattathias. 1 Chr. 9.31. 
Mazzaroth, maz'za-roth, the signs 

of the zodiac. Job 38. 32. 
Meah, me'ah, a hundred. Neh. 3. I. 
Mearah, me-a'rah, cave. Josh. 13. 4. 
Meblinnai, me-bun / nai, built (?). 2 

Sam. 23. 27. 
Mecheratllite, mek'e-rath-ite, in- 
habitant of Mecherah (?). 1 Chr. 11.36. 
Medad, me'dad. Num. 11. 26. 
Mo dan, me'dau, contention. Gen. 

25. 2. 

Medeba, mSd'e-ba, flowing water (?). 

Num. 21. 30. 
Medes, medes., inhabitants of Media. 

2 Kin. 17. 6. 
Media, me'di-a, Greek form of Madai. 

Est. I. 3. 
Megiddo, me-gld'do, place of troops. 

Josh. 12. 21. 
Megiddon, me-gld'don, same as pre- 
ceding. Zech. 12. II. 
Mehetabeel, me-het'a-beel, same as 

following. Neh. 6. 10. 
Mehetabel, me-het'a-bel, God makes 

happy. Gen. 36. 39. 
Mehida, me-hi'da. Ezra 2. 52. 
Mehir, me'hlr, price. I Chr. 4. 1 1 . 
Meholathite, me-hol'ath-ile, native 

of Meholah. I Sam. 18. 19. 
Mehujael, me-hu'ja-el, struck by 

God. Gen. 4. 18. 
Mehuinail, me-hii'man. Est. I. 10. 
Mehunim, me-hu / nim, the people of 

Maon (?). 2 Chr. 26. 7. 
Me-jarkon, me-jar'kon, waters of 

yellowness. Josh. 19. 46. 
Mekonah, mek'o-nah, a base. Neh. 

11. 28. 

Melatiah, mel-a-tl-'ah, whom Jehovah 

freed. Neh. 3. 7. 
Melchi, mel'kl, Greek form of Mel- 

chiah. Luke 3. 24. 
Melchiall, mel-ki'ah, Jehovah's king. 

Jer. 21. I. 
Melchi-shua, mel'kl-shu'a, same as 

Mat.chi-shua. i Sam. 14. 49. 
Melchizedek, mel-kiz'e-dek, king 

of righteousness. Gen. 14. 18. 
Melea, me'le-a, fulness (?). Luke 

3- 3 1 - 
Melech, me'lek, king. 1 Chr. 8. 35. 
Melicu, mel'i-ku, same as MaLLUCH. 

Neh. 12. 14. 
Melita, meKi-ta. Acts 28. I. 
Melzar, mel'zar, steward. Dan. I. II. 
Memphis, mem'fis. Hos. 9. 6. 
Memiican, me-mu'kan. Est. I. 14. 
Menahem, men'a-hem, comforter. 2 

Kin. 15. 14. 
Menan, me'nan. Luke 3. 31. 
Mene, me'ne, numbered. Dan. 5. 25. 
Meonenim, me-on'e-nim. Judg. 9. 


Meonothai, me-on'o-thai, my habi- 
tations. 1 Chr. 4. 14. 

Mephaath, mef'a-ath, beauty. Josh. 

13. 18. 

Mephiboshetll, me-flb'o-sheth, de- 
stroying shame. 2 Sam. 4. 4. 
Merab, me'rab, increase. I Sam. 

14. 49- 

Meraiah, mer-a-I'ah, contumacy. Neh. 

12. 12. 

Meraioth, me ra'joth, rebellions. 1 

Chr. 6. 6. 
Merari, me-ra / rl, bitter. Gen. 46. 11. 
Merathaim, mer-a-tha'im, rebellions. 

Jer. 50. 21. 

MercurillS, mer-ku'ri-us. Acts 14.12. 

Mered, me'red, rebellion. I Chr. 4. 17. 

Mereuioth, mer'e-moth, elevations. 
Ezra 8. 33. 

Meres, me'rei, worthy (?). Est. 1. 14. 

Meribah, mer'I-bah, water of strife. 
Ex. 17. 7. 

Merib-baal, meT'lb-ha'al, contend- 
er (?) against Baal. I Chr. 8. 34 

Merodach, me-ro'dak. Je ; z. 

Merodach-baladan, rne-ro'dak- 
bal'a-dan, Merodach gives a son. Is. 

39- I- 

Meroin, me'rom, a high place. Josh. 
11. 5. 

Meronothite, me-r6n'o-thlte, an in- 
habitant of Meronoth. I Chr. 27. 30. 

Meroz, me'roz, refuge (?). Judg. 5. 23. 

Mesech, me'sek, same as Meshech. 
Ps. 120. 5. 

Mesha, me'sha, deliverance. 2 Kin. 

S- 4- 

Meshach, me'shak. Dan. 1. 7. 

Meshech, me'shek, tall (?). Gen. 
10. 2. 

Meshelemiah, me-shel-e-ml'ah, Je- 
hovah repays. I Chr. 9. 21. 

Meshezabeel, me-shez'a-be-el, God 
delivers. Neh. 3. 4. 

Meshilleillith, me-shlPIe-mith, rec- 
ompense. 1 Chr. 9. 12. 

Meshillenioth, me-shll'le-mofh, ret- 
ribution. 2 Chr. 28. 12. 

Meshobab,me-shO'bab, brought back. 

1 Chr. 4. 34. 

Meshullaill, me-shul'lam, friend. 2 

Kin. 22. 3. 
Meshllllemeth, me-shuKle-meth, 

feminine of preceding. 2 Kin. 21. 19. 
MeSObaite, mes'o-ba-Ite, inhabitant 

of Mesoba (?). I Chr. 11. 47. 
Mesopotamia, mes'o-po-ta-mr-a, 

amidst the rivers. Gen. 24. 10. 
Messiah, Mes-sp'ah, anointed. Dan. 

9. 25. 
Messias, Mes-sl^s, Greek form of the 

above. John I. 41. 
Metheg'-ammall,me / theg-am / mah, 

bridle of Amman. 2 Sam. 8. I. 
Methusael, me-thi/sa-el, man of 

God. Gen. 4. 18. 
Methuselah, me-lhu/se-lah, man of 

the dart (?). Gen. 5. 21. 
Mezahab, mez'a-hab, water of gold. 

Gen. 36. 39. 
Miamin, ml'a-min, on the right hand. 

Ezra 10. 25. 
Mibhar, mlb / har, choicest. I Chr. 

it- 38. 
Mibsam, mlb'sam, sweet odor. Gen. 

25- r 3- 

Mibzar, mib'zar, a fortress. Gen. 
36. 42. 

Micah, ml^ah, who (is) like unto Je- 
hovah ? Judg. 17. I. 

Micaiah, ml-ka'jah, fuller form of 
Micah. 1 Kin. 22. 8. 

Michael, ml'kel, who (is) like unto 
God? Dan. 10. 13. 

Michah, ml'kah, same as Micah. 

2 Chr. 24. 24. 

Michaiah, ml-ka'jah, same as Mi- 
caiah. Neh. 12. 35. 

Michal, mi'kal, brook. I Sam. 14. 49. 

Michmas, mik'mas, later form of 
Michmash. Ezra 2. 27. 

Michmash, mik'mash, treasured. I 
Sam. 13. 2. 

Michmethah, mlk / me-thah, hiding- 
place (?). Josh. 16. 6. 

Michri, mlk'rl, precious(?). I Chr. 9.8. 

Michtam, mik'tam, writing (?). Ps. 
16, title. 

Middin, mid'din, extensions. Josh. 
15. 61. 

Midian, mld'I-an, strife. Gen. 25. 2. 

Migdal-el, mig'dal-el, tower of God. 
Josh. 19. 38. 

Migdal-g'ad, mlg'dal-gad, tower of 
Gad. Josh. 15. 37. 

Mig-dol, mlg'dol. Ex. 14. 2. 

Migron, mlg'ron, a precipice. Is. 10. 

Mijamin, mlj'a-mln, same as MlA- 

min. 1 Chr. 24. 9. 
Mikloth, mlk'loth, staves, lots. 1 

Chr. 8. 32. 
Mikneiah, mlk-ne'jah, possession of 

Jehovah. 1 Chr. 15. 18. 
Milalai, mll-a-la / l, eloquent (?). Neh- 

12. 36. 
Milcah, mil'kah, counsel (?). Gen. 

11. 29. 
Milcom, miPkom, same as Moloch. 

I Kin. 11. 5. 
Miletnm, ml-le'tum, improper form 

of Miletus. 2 Tim. 4. 20. 
Miletus, ml-hytus. Acts 20. 15. 
Millo, mlPlo, a mound. Judg. 9. 6. 
Miniamm, mi-ni'a-min, full form of 

Miamin. 2 Chr. 31. 15. 
Minni, min'nl, Armenia. Jer. 51. 27. 
Minnith, min'nith, allotment. Judg. 

I'- 33- 
Miphkad, mlPkad, place of meeting. 

Neh. 3. 31. 
Miriam, mlr / l-am, rebellion (?). Ex. 

15. 20. 
Mirma, mlr'ma, fraud. 1 Chr. 8. 10. 
Misgab, mis'gab, height. Jer. 48. I. 
Mishael, mlsh'a-el, who is what God 

is? Ex. 6. 22. 
Mishal, ml'shal, prayer. Josh. 21. 30. 
Misheal, ml'she-al, same as Mishal. 

Josh. 19. 26. 
Mi Sham, ml'sham, cleansing. 1 Chr. 

8. 12. 
Mishma, mlsh'ma, report. Gen. 25. 

Mishmannah, mish-man / nah, fat- 
ness. 1 Chr. 12. 10. 
Mishraites, mish'ra-ltes. I Chr. 2.53. 
Mispereth, mis^e-reth, number. 

Neh. 7. 7. 
Misrephoth-maim, mrs / re-foth- 

ma'im, burning of waters. Josh. 11. 8. 
Mithcah, mith'kah, place of sweet' 

ness. Num. 33. 28. 
Mithnite, mlth / nite. * 1 Chr. 11. 43. 
Mithredath, mlth / re-dath, given by 

Mithra. Ezra I. 8. 
Mityleue, mit'y-le-ne. Acts 20. 14. 
Mizar, ml'zar, smallness. Ps. 42. 6. 
Mizpah, mlz'pah, a lookout. Gen. 

31- 49- 

Mizpar, miz-'par, number. Ezra 2. 2, 

Mizpeh, mlz'peh, watch-tower. Josh. 
11. 3.^ 

Mizraim, mlz'ra-Im, fortresses. Gen. 
10. 6. 

Mizzah, mlz'zah. Gen. 36. 13. 

Mnason, na'son. Acts 21. 16. 

Moab 9 mo'ab, progeny of a father. 
Gen. 19. 37. 

Moadiah, ir.O-a-dl'ah, festival of Je- 
hovah. Neh. 12. 17. 

Moladah, mol'a-dah, birth. Josh. 
15. 26. 

Molech, mO'lek, English form fo} 
Moloch. Lev. 18. 21. 

Moloch, mo'lok, king. Amos 5. 26. 

Molid, mo'lid, begetter. I Chr. 2. 29. 

Morasthite, mo'ras-thlte, native of 
Moresheth. Jer. 26. 18. 

Mordecai, mor-'de-kai, worshipper ol 
Merodach (?). Est. 2. 5. 

Moreh, mo^eh, archer. Gen. 12. 6. 

Moreshetll-gath, mor'esh-eth- 
gath.the possession ofGath. Mic. 1. 14. 

Moriah, m6-rl / ah, provided by Jeho- 
vah. Gen. 22. 2. 

Mosera, mO-se'ra, bond. Deut. 10. 6. 

Moseroth, mo-se'roth, bonds. Num. 

33- 30- . 

Moses, mO'ieg, saved from the water. 

Ex. 2. 10. 
Moza, mS'za, fountain. I Chr. 2. 46. 
Mozah, mo-'zah, same as Moza. Josh- 

18. 26. 
Muppim, mtip / pim, probably written 

for Shupham. Gen. 46. 21. 
Mushi, mu'shl, withdrawn. Ex. 6. 19. 

a, e, I, 0, u, y, long; a, e, I, 6, u, y, short; a, e, 1, 6, intermediate; a, e, i, o, obscure; care, far, last, fall, term, firm, familiar, 

for, furl, rude, push, 9 as s, gasj, gasin get, § as z, g as gz. 



Muth-labben, mfith-lab'ben, death 

to the son (?). Ps. 9, title. 
Myra, my'ra, balsam. Acts 27. 5. 
Mysia, mish'ja. Acts 16. 7. 

JN AAM, na'am, pleasantness. I Chr. 

4- IS- 

Naamall, na'a-mah, pleasant. Gen. 

4. 22. 
Naamai), na'a-man, pleasantness. 2 

Kin. 5. 1. 
Naamathite, na'a-math-tte. Job 2. 

Naamites, na'a-mltes, descendants 

of Naaman. Num. 26. 40. 
Naarall, na'a-rah, a girl. I Chr. 4. 5. 
Naarai, na'a-rai, youthful. I Chr. 

"• 37- 

Naaran, na'a-ran, same as Naaraii. 

I Chr. 7. 28. 
Naarath, na'a-rath, to Naarah. Josh. 

16. 7. 
NaasllOIl, na-aslPon, enchanter. Ex. 

6. 23. 
NaaSSOn, na-as'son, Greek form of 

NAASHON. Mat. 1. 4. 
Nabal, na'bal, foolish. I Sam. 25. 3. 
Naboth, na'both, fruits (?). I Sam. 

21. I. 
Nachonjna'chd^prepared. 2 Sam. 6.6. 
Nachor, na'chdr, snorting. Josh. 24. 2. 
Nadab, na'dab, liberal. Ex. 6. 23. 
Nagge, nag'ge, Greek form of Nogah. 

Luke 3. 28. 
Nahalal, na'ha-la.1, a pasture. Josh. 

21. 35- 
Nalialiel, na-ha'll-el, valley of God. 

Num. 21. 19. 
Nahallal, na-haPlal, same as Na- 

HALAL. Josh. 19. 15. 

Nahalol, na'ha-lol, same as preced- 
ing. Judg. 1. 30. 
Naham, na'ham, consolation. I Chr. 

4. 19. 
Nahamani, na-hanPa-nl, comforter. 

Neh. 7. 7. 
Naharai, na-haPa-I, one who snores. 

I Chr. II. 39. 
Nahash, na'hash, serpent. I Sam. 

II. I. 
Nahath, na'hath, descent. Gen. 36.13. 
Nallbi, nah'bl, hidden. Num. ) 3. 14. 
Nahor, na'hor, another way of spelling 

Nachor. Gen. II. 22. 
Nahshon, nalPshon, same as Naa- 

SHON. Num. 1. 7. 
NallUIU, na'hum, comforter. Nah. 

I. I. 
Nain, na'in, pasture. Luke 7. 11. 
Naiotll, na'joth, habitations. I Sam. 

19. 18. 
Naomi, na-6'ml, pleasant. Ruth I. 2. 
Naphisb, na'fish, cheerful. Gen. 25. 


Naphtali, nafta-ll, my wrestling. 

Gen. 30. 8. 
Napbtubim, naPtu-hlm. Gen. 10. 

Narcissus, nar-cls'sus, benumbing. 

Rom. 16. 11. 
Nathan, na'than, gift. 2 Sam. 7. 2. 
Nathanael, na-thaiPa-cl, gift of God. 

John I. 45. 

Nathan-melech, na'than-me'lek, 

gift of the king. 2 Kin. 23. n. 
Naum, na'um,same as Nauum. Luke 

3- 25. 
Nazarene, naz'a-rene, a native of 

Nazareth. Mat. 2. 23. 
Nazareth, naz'a-reih, branch. Luke 

I. 26. 
Nazarite, naz'a-rlte, one separated. 

Num. 6. 2. 
Neah, ne'ah, of a slope. Josh. 19. 13. 
NeapolJS, ne-ap'o-lis, new city. Acts 

16. II. 
Neariab, ne-a-rl / ah, servant of Jeho- 
vah. 1 Chr. 3. 22. 
Nebai, neb'a-I, fruitful. Neh. 10. 19. 
Nebaioth, ne-ba'joth, high places. 

I Chr. 1. 29. 

Nebajoth, ne-ba'joth, same as Ne- 
baioth. Gen. 25. 13. 

Neballat, ne-baPlat. Neh. II. 34. 

Nebat, ne'bat, aspect. I Kin. 1 1 . 26. 

Nebo, ne'bo, a lofty place. Deut. 32.49. 

Nebuchadnezzar, neb-u-kad-nez'- 
zar, another way of spelling the follow- 
ing. 2 Kin. 24. I. 

Nebuchadrezzar, neb-u-kad-reV- 
zar, Nebo protect the crown. Jer. 
21. 2. 

Nebushasban,neb-u-shas / ban, Nebo 
will save me. Jer. 39. 13. 

Nebuzar-adail, nei /u-zar-a'dan, 
Nebo gives posterity. 2 Kin. 25. 8. 

Necho, ne'ko, conqueror (?). Jer. 
46. 2. 

Nedabiall, n£d-a-bPah, Jehovah is 
bountiful (?). 1 Chr. 3. 18. 

Neglnah, neg'I-nah, a stringed in- 
strument. Ps. 61, title. 

Neginotll, neg'i-noth, stringed instru- 
ments. Ps. 4, title. 

Jfego, ne'go, same as Nebo. Dan. 1. 7. 

Nehelainite, ne-h6Pa-mlte. Jer. 
29. 24. 

Neliemiah, ne-he-mPah, Jehovah 
comforts. Neh. 1. I. 

Nehiloth, ne-hPl&th, flutes. Ps. 5, 

Nehum, ne'hum, consolation. Neh. 

Nehushta, ne-huslPla, bronze. 2 

Kin. 24. 8. 
Nehushtail, ne-hush'tan, brazen. 2 

Kin. 18.4. 
Neiel, ne'I-el, moved by God. Josh. 

19. 27. 
Nekeb, ne'keb, cavern. Josh. 19. 33. 
Nekoda, ng-ko'da, a herdman. Ezra 

Nemuel, ne-mu'el, same as Jem- 

Uel (?). Num. 26. 9. 
Nepheg, ne'feg, sprout. Ex. 6. 21. 
Nephisll, ne'fish, same as Naphish. 

1 Chr. 5. 19. 
Nephishesim, ne-fish'e-sim, expan- 
sions. Neh. 7. 52. 
Nephthalim, nePtha-lim, Creek form 

of Naphtali. Mat. 4. 13. 
Nephtoah, nePto-ah, opened. Josh. 

Nephusim, ne-fu'sim, a better form 

for Nephishesim. Ezra 2. 50. 
Ner, ner, light. I Sam. 14. 50. 
Nereus, ne're-us, liquid (?). Rom. 

16. 15. 
Nergal, ngpgal, lion. 2 Kin. 17. 30. 
Nergal-sharezer, nePgalsha-re'- 

zer, Nergal protect the king. Jer. 39. 3. 
Neri, ne'rl, Greek form of Neriah. 

Luke 3. 27. 
Neriall, ne-rPah, lamp of Jehovah. 

Jer. 32. 12. 
Netbaneel, ne-than'e-el, same as 

Nathanael. Num. 1. 8. 
Nethaniah, n&h-a-nPah, whom Je- 
hovah gave. 2 Kin. 25. 23. 
Netophah, ne-tO'fah, dropping. Ezra 

2. 22. 
Netopbatbi, ng-tOPa-thl, an inhab- 
itant of Netophah. Neh. 12. 28. 
Netopliatllite, ne-tof'a-thlte, same 

as the preceding. 2 Sam. 23. 28. 
Neziah, ne-zpah, illustrious. Ezra 2.54. 
Nezib, ne'zib, garrison. Josh. 15. 43. 
Nibbaz, nib'haz. 2 Kin. 17. 31. 
Nibsban, nib'shan, level (?). Josh. 

IS- 62. 
Nicanor, ni-ka'nor. Acts 6. 5. 
NicodeniUS, nlk-o-de'mus. John 3. 1. 
Nicolaitans, nik-o-la / i-tan§, named 

after Nicolas. Rev. 2. 6. 
Nicolas, nikVlas. Acts 6. 5. 
NicopoliS, ni-kdp'o-lls, city of victory. 

Tit. 3. 12. 
Niger, nPger, black. Acts 13. I. 
Nillirah, ninPrah, limpid (water). 

Num. 32. 3. 
Nimrim, nlnPrim, clear waters. Is. 

15. 6. 

Nimrod, nlnProd, an inhabitant of 

Marad (?). Gen. 10. 8. 
Nimshi, nlnPshl, discloser (?). 1 Kin. 

19. 16. 
Nineveh, nin'e-veh.dwelling^). Gen. 

10. II. 
NineviteS, nin'e-vltes, inhabitants of 

Nineveh. Luke II. 30. 
Nisan, nPsan. Neh. 2. 1. 
Nisroch, nis'rok, eagle (?). 2 Kin. 

19- 37- 
No, no, abode (?). Nah. 3. 8. 
No Anion, no-a'mon, abode of Amon. 

Jer. 46. 25. 
Noadiah, n5 a-dPah, whom Jehovah 

meets. Neh. 6. 14. 
Noah, nO'ah, (1) rest, Gen. 5. 29; (2) 

wandering, Num. 26. ^. 
Nob, nob, high place. I Sam. 21. I. 
Nobah, no'bah, a barking. Num. 32.42. 
Nod, nod, flight, wandering. Gen. 4. 16. 
Nodab, no'ciab, nobility. 1 Chr. 5. 19. 
Noe, no'e, Greek form of Noah. Mat. 

24- 37- 
Nogah, no'gah, brightness. I Chr. 3. 7. 
Nobah, no'hah, rest. I Chr. 8. 2. 
Non, non, same as Nun. I Chr. 7. 27. 
Noph, nof, same as Memphis, ls.19.13. 
Nophah, no'fah, windy. Num. 21. 30. 
Nun, nun, fish. Ex. ^3- II. 
Nyiliphas, nym'fas, shertened form 

of Nymphodorus. Col. 4. 15. 

ObADIAH, O-ba-dl'ah, worshipper 

of Jehovah. Obad. I. 
Obal, Q/bal, hill (?). Gen. 10. 28. 
Obed, o'bed, worshipping (God). Ruth 

4. 17. 
Obed-edom, / bed-e / dom, serving 

Edom. 2 Sam. 6. 10. 
Obil, 5'bil, camel-keeper. I Chr. 27. 30. 
Oboth, o'both, bottles (of skin). Num. 

21. 10. 
Ocran, olf'ran, troublesome. Num. 1. 13. 
Oded, o'ded, setting up(?). 2 Chr. 15. 1. 
Og', og, circle (?). Num. 21. 33. 
Obad, O'had, might. Gen. 46. 10. 
Ohel, O'hel, tent. I Chr. 3. 20. 
Olivet, CPi-vet, place of olives. 2 Sam. 

IS- 30. 

Olynipas, o-lym'pas, bright (?). Rom. 

16. 15. 
Oinar, O'mar, talkative. Gen. 36. II. 
Omega, O'me-ga, great O. Rev. I. 8. 
Oniri, Cm'rl, like a sheaf (?). 1 Kin. 

16. 16. 
On, 6n, the sun. Gen. 41. 45. 
Onam, O'nam, wealthy. Gen. 36. 23. 
Onan, o'nan, strong. Gen. 38. 4. 
Onesimus, 6-nes^-mus, profitable. 

Col. 4. 9. 
Onesiphorus, fin-e-slfo-rus, bring- 
ing profit. 2 Tim. I. 16. 
Ono, S'no, strong. I Chr. 8. 12. 
Ophel, O'fel, a hill. 2 Chr. 27. 3. 
Ophir, 6'fir. Gen. 10. 29. 
Ophni, of'nl, man of the hill. Josh. 

18. 24. 
Opbrah, 6Prah, fawn. I Chr. 4. 14. 
Oreb, o'reb, raven. Judg. 7. 25. 
Oren, O'ren, pine tree. I Chr. 2. 25. 
Orion, 6-n / on. Job 9. 9. 
Ornan, or'nan. I Chr. 21. 15. 
Orpah, o^pah, hind (?). Ruth I. 4. 
Osee, o'see, same as Hosea. Rom. 

9. 25. 
Oshea, 6-she'a, same as Joshua. Num. 

13. 8. 
Othni, Cth'nl, powerful (?). I Chr. 

26. 7. 
Othniel, Cth-'nlel, powerful man of 

God. Josh. 15. 17. 
Ozem, O'zem, strength. I Chr. 2. 15. 
Ozias, 6-zI r as, Greek form of Uzziah. 

Mat. 1. 8. 
Ozni, oz'nl, hearing. Num. 26. 16. 

PAARAI, pa'a-rai, devoted to 

Peor (?). 2 Sam. 23. 35. 
Padan-aram, pa'dau-a'ram, the 

plain of Syria. Gen. 25. 20. 

Padon, pa'don, redemption. Ezra.2.44. 

Pagiel, pa'gi-el, intervention of God, 
Num. 1. 13. 

Pahath-moab, pa / hath-mo / ab, gov- 
ernor of Moab. Ezra 2. 6. 

Pai, pa'1, bleating. 1 Chr. I. 50. 

Palal, pa'lal, judge. Neh. 3. 25. 

Palestina, pal-es-tl / na, land ol 
strangers (?). Ex. 15. 14. 

Pallll, paKlu, distinguished. Ex. 6. 14. 

Palti, paPtl, deliverance of Jehovah, 
Num. 13. 9. 

Paltiel, paPtl-el, deliverance of God, 
Num. 34. 26. 

Paltite, paPtlte, a descendant of Palti. 
2 Sam. 23. 26. 

Pamphylia, pam-fyPi-a. Acts 27. 5. 

Paphos, pa'fos. Acts 13. 6. 

Parah, pa'rah, heifer. Josh. 18. 23. 

Paran, pa'ran, cavernous. Deut. 33. 2. 

Parbar, paPbar, open apartment. 1 
Chr. 26. 18. 

Parmashta, par-maslPta, supe- 
rior (?). Est. 9. 9. 

Parmenas, paPme-nas, standing finu 
Acts 6. 5. 

Parnach, par'nach. Num. 34. 25. 

Parosh, pa'rosh, flea. Ezra 2. 3. 

Parshandatha, par-shan'da-tha, 
given to Persia (?). Est. 9. 7. 

Parthians, paPthl-an§. Acts 2. 9. 

Paruah, par'u-ah, flourishing. I Kin. 
4. 17. 

Parvaim, par-va'im, Oriental re- 
gions (?). 2 Chr. 3. 6. 

Pasach, pa'sak, divider. I Chr. 7. 33. 

Pas-danimim, pas-danPmim, short- 
ened from Ephes-dammim. I Chr. 1 1. 13. 

Paseah, pa-se'ah, lam£. I Chr. 4. 12. 

Pashur, paslPur, prosperity round 
about. Jer. 20. I. 

Patara, paPa-ra. Acts 21. I. 

PathrOS, path'ros. Is. 11. II. 

Pathrusim, path-ru'sim, people of 
Pathros. Gen. 10. 14. 

PatniOS, paPmos. Rev. I. 9. 

Patrobas, paPro-bas. Rom. 16. 14. 

Pail, pa'u, older form of Pai. Gen. 

3°- 39- 

Paul, paul, or Paulus, pau'lus, little. 
Acts 13. 9. 

Pedahel, ped'a-hel, God redeemed. 
Num. 34. 28. 

Pedahzur, pe-dalPzur, the Rock re- 
deemed. Num. 1. 10. 

Pedaiah, p6-da / jah, Jehovah redeem- 
ed. I Chr. 27. 20. 

Pekah, pe'kah, open-eyed. 2 Kin. 15. 

Pekahiall, p6k-a-hl / ah, whose eyes 

Jehovah opened. 2 Kin. 15. 22. 
Pekod, pe'ked, visitation. Jer. 50. 21. 
Pelaiah, p6l-a-Pah, whom Jehovah 

made distinguished. I Chr. 3. 24. 
Pelaliah, pel-a-lPah, whom Jehovah 

judged. Neh. 11. 12. 
Pelatiah, pei-a-tPah, whom Jehovah 

delivered. Ezek. II. I. 
Peleg, pe'leg, division, •-^n. I<_. 25. 
Pelet, pe'let, liberation. ." Chr. 1. 47. 
Peletll, pe'leth, swiftness. Num. 16. 1. 
Pelethites, pe'leth-ites, runners, a 

Sam. 8. 18. 
Pelonite, pePo-mte. 1 Chr. 11. 27, 
Peniel, pe-nPel, the face of God. Gen. 

3 2 - 3°- 
Peninnah, pe-niiPnah, coral. I Sam. 

1. 2. 

Pentecost, pen'te-kost, fiftieth. Acts 

2. I. 

Penuel, p^-niPel, old form of Peniel. 

Gen. 32. 31. 
Peor, pe'or, point. Num. 23. 28. 
Perazim, pfePa-zIm, breaches. Is. 28. 

Peres, pe'rej, divided. Dan. 5. 28. 
Peresh, pe'resh, distinction. 1 Chr. 

7. 16. 
Perez, pa^ez, breach. I Chr. 27. 3. 
Perez-uzzah, pe / rez-uz / zah, breach 

of Uzzah. 2 Sam. 6. 8. 

0, e, I, O, u, y, long; a, fe, I, 6, u, y, short; a, e, 1, 6, intermediate ; a, e, j, 9, obscure ; care, far, last, fall, term, firm, familjar, 

for, furl, rude, push, c as s, g as j, g as in get, 5 as z, 5 as gz. 



Perga, per'ga. Acts 13. 13. 
Pergamos, per'ga-mos, citadel (?). 

Rev. I. II. 
Perida, pe-rZ'da, a recluse. Neh. 

7- 57- 

Perizzites, per'iz-zltes, belonging to 
a village. Gen. 34. 30. 

Persia, per'sja. 2 Chr. 36. 20. 

PersiS, per'sis, a Persian woman. Rom. 
16. 12. 

Peruda, pe-ru/da, same as Perida. 
Ezra 2. 55. 

Peter, pe'ter, a stone. Mat. 16. 18. 

Pethahiah, peth-a-hl'ah, whom Je- 
hovah looses. I Chr. 24. 16. 

Pethor, pe'thor. Num. 22. 5. 

Petlmel, pe-thu'el, God's opening (?). 
Joel 1. 1. 

Peultbai, pe-iil'thai, deed of Jeho- 
vah. 1 Chr. 26. 5. 

Plialec, fa'lek, Greek form of Peleg. 
Luke 3. 35. 

Pliallll, fal'lu, an English way of 
spelling Pallu. Gen. 46. 9. 

Phalti, fal'tl, deliverance of Jehovah. 

1 Sam. 25. 44. 

Plialtiel, fal'tl-el, deliverance of God. 

2 Sam. 3. 15. 

Plianuel, fan-u'el, Greek form of 

Penuel. Luke 2. 36. 
Pharaoh, fa'rO, the sun. Gen. 12. 15. 
Pharez, fa'rez, breach. Gen. 38. 29. 
Pharisees, far'i-seei, the separated. 

Mat. 5. 20. 
Pharosh, fa'rosh, same as Parosh. 

Ezra 8. 3. 
Pharpar, far'par, swift. 2 Kin. 5. 12. 
Pharzites, far'zites, descendants of 

Pharez. Num. 26. 20. 
Phaseah, fa-se'ah, same as Paseah. 

Neh. 7. 51. 
Phehe, fe'be, moon. Rom. 16. I. 
Phenice, fe-nl'ce, palm tree. Acts 

27. 12. 

jPheilicia, fe-nlsh'ja, land of palms. 

' Acts 21. 2. 

Phichol, fl'kol, attentive (?). Gen. 

21. 22. 
Philadelphia, fil-a-del'fja, brotherly 

love. Rev. 1. 11. 
Philemon, fl-le'mon, affectionate. 

Philem. I. 
Philetus, fl-le / tus, beloved. 2 Tim. 

2. 17. 
Philip, fil'Ip, lover of horses. Mat. 

10. 3. 
Philippi, fl-llp'pl, a town so called af- 
ter Philip of Macedon. Acts 16. 12. 
PhilippiailS, ft-lip'pi-ang, the people 

of Philippi. Phil. 4. 15. 
Philistia,' fl-lis'tja, the land of the 

Philistines. Ps. 60. 8. 
Philistim, fl-lls'tim, wanderers. Gen. 

10. 14. 
Philistines, fl-lls'tinej, same as 

Philistim. Gen. 21. 34. 
PhilologUS, fi-161'o-gus, talkative. 

Rom. 16. 15. 
Phinehas, fin'e-has, serpent's mouth. 

Num. 25. 7. 
PhlegOIS, fle'gon, zealous, burning. 

Rom. 16. 14. 
Phrygia, fryg'I-a. Acts 2. 10. 
Phurah, fu'rah, branch (?). Judg. 

7. 10. 
Phut, fut, foot. Gen. 10. 6. 
Phuvah, fu'vah, mouth. Gen. 46. 13. 
PhygellllS, fy-gel'lus, little fugitive. 

2 Tim. 1. 15. 
Pi-heseth, pi-be'seth, the city of 

Bast. Ezek. 30. 17. 
Pi-hahiroth, pl-ha-hl'roth, where 

sedge grows. Ex. 14. 2. 
Pilate, pl'late, armed with a javelin(?). 

Mat. 27. 2. 
Pildash, pll'dash, steelf?). Gen. 22.22. 
Pileha, pil'e-ha, ploughman (?). Neh. 

10. 24. 
Piltai, pil'tai, whom Jehovah delivers. 

Neh. 12. 71. 
Pi noil, pi'non, darkness. Gen. 36. 41. 

Piram, pl'ram, like a wild ass. Josh. 

10. 3. 
Pirathon, pir'a-thon, leader. Judg. 

12. 13. 
Pisgall, pis/gah, a part, boundary. 

Num. 21. 20. 
Pisidia, pi-sid'l-a. Acts 13. 14. 
PiSOU, pl'son, flowing stream (?). Gen. 

2. 11. 
Pispah, pis'pah, expansion. I Chr. 

Pithom, pi'thom. Ex. 1. 11. 

Pithon, pl'thon, simple (?). I Chr. 

Pleiades, ple'ja-deg, (coming at) the 

sailing season (?). Job 9. 9. 
Pocherethoi'Zebaiin,p6k / e-reth, 

ze-ba'im, offspring of gazelles (?). Ezra 

Pollux, pdl'lux. Acts 28. II. 
Pontius, pon'shi-us, belonging to the 

sea. Mat. 27. 2. 
Pontus, p6n'tus, sea. Acts 2. 9. 
Poratha, por'a-tha, having many 

chariots (?). Est. 9. 8. 
Porcius Festus, por'shl-us fes'tus. 

Acts 24. 27. 
Potiphar, pot / I-far, belonging to the 

sun. Gen. 37. 36. 
Poti-pherall, po-tlFe-rah, same as 

Potiphar. Gen. 41. 45. 
Prisca, pris'ka, ancient. 2 Tim. 4. 19. 
Priscilla, prls-cil'la, diminutive of 

Prisca. Acts 18. 2. 
Pl'OChorilS, prok'o-rus, he that pre- 
sides over the choir. Acts 6. 5. 
Ptolemais, tol-e-ma'is, city of Ptol- 
emy. Acts 21. 7. 
Pua, pu'a, same as Phuvah. Num. 

26. 23. 
Puah, pu'ah, splendor. Ex. I. 15. 
Pllblius, pub'll-us. Acts 28. 7. 
Pudens, pu'deng, shamefaced. 2 Tim. 

4. 21. 
PuhiteS, pu'hltes. 1 Chr. 2. 53. 
Pill, pul, ( 1) a short name for Tiglath- 

Pileser (?), 2 Kin. 15. 19; (2) son (?), 

Is. 66. 19. 
PuniteS, puAiItes, descendants of Pua. 

Num. 26. 23. 
Punon, pu'non, same as Pinon. Num. 

33- 4 2 - 
Pur, pur, a lot. Est. 3. 7. 
Plirim, pu'rim, lots. Est. 9.' 26. 
Put, put, same as Phut, i Chr. 8. 1. 
Puteoli, pa-te'o-li, wells. Acts 28. 

Putiel, pu'tl-el. Ex. 6. 25. 

QtJAKTUS, kwar'tus, the fourth. 
Rom. 16. 23. 

K/AAMAH, ra'a-mah, trembling. 

Gen. 10. 7. 
Baamiall, ra-a-ml'ah, trembling of 

Jehov;ih. Neh. 7. 7. 
Raamses, ra-am'se§, son of the sun. 

Ex. 1. 11. 
Kabbah, rab'bah, capital city. Josh. 

13- 25. 
Rabbi, rab'bl, master. Mat. 23. 7. 
Rabbith, rab'bith, populous. Josh. 

19. 20. 

Rabboni, rab-bo / nI, my master. John 

20. 16. 

Rab-mag, rab'mag, most exalted. 

Jer. 39- 3- 
Rabsaris, rab'sa-ris, chief eunuch. 

2 Kin. 18. 17. 
Rab-Shakell, rab'sha-keh, chief of 

the cupbearers. 2 Kin. 18. 17. 
Rachab, ra'kab, Greek form of Ra- 

hab. Mat. 1. 5. 
Rachal, ra'kal, traffic. I Sam. 30. 29. 
Rachel, ra'chel, ewe. Gen. 29. 6. 
Raddai, rad'da-I, subduing. 1 Chr. 

2. 14. 
Rag'au, ra'gau, Greek form of Reu. 

Luke 3. 35. 
Raguel, ra-gu'el, friend of God. Num. 

10. 29. 

Rahab, ra'hab, (1) broad, Josh. 2. I; 

(2) violence, Ps. 87. 4. 
Rahani, ra'ham. 1 Chr. 2. 44. 
Rahel, ra'hel, same as Rachel. Jer. 

3i- 15- 
Rakeui, ra'kem, variegated. 1 Chr. 

7. 16. 
Rakkathjrak'kafh.shore. Josh. 19.35. 
Rakkon, rak'kon, same as Rakkath. 

Josh. 19. 46. 
Rani, ram, high. Ruth 4. 19. 
Railia, ra'ma, Greek form of Ramah. 

Mat. 2. 18. 
Ramah, ra'mah, high place. Josh. 

Rama til, ra'math, same as preceding. 

Josh. 19. 8. 
Ramathaim, ra-math-a / im, douLle 

high place. I Sam. I. I. 
Ramathite, ra'math-lte, a native of 

Ramah. I Chr. 27. 27. 
Ramath-lehi, ra'math-le'hi, height 

of Lehi. Judg. 15. 17. 
Ramath-mizpeh, ra / math-miz / - 

peh, height of Mizpeh. Josh. 13. 26. 

Ranieses, ra-me'seg, same as Ra- 
amses. Gen. 47. 11. 

Railiiah, ra-mi'ah, Jehovah i3 high. 
Ezra 10. 25. 

Ramcth, ra'moth, plural of Ramah. 
I Chr. 6. 73. 

Ramoth-gilead, ra'moth-gil'e-ad, 
heights of Gilead. 1 Kin. 4. 13. 

Rapha, ra'fa, giant (?). I Chr. 8. 37. 

RapllU, ra'fu, healed. Num. 13. 9. 

Reaia, re-a-I'a, Jehovah has seen. I 
. Chr. 5. 5. " 

Reaiah, re-a-I'ah, correct form of 
Reaia. I Chr. 4. 2. 

Reba, re'ba, a fourth part. Num. 31.8. 

Rebecca, re-bee'ea, Greek form of 
Rebekah. Rom. 9. 10. 

Rebekah, re-bek'ah, a noose. Gen. 
22. 23. 

Rechab, re'kab, horseman. 2 Kin. 
10. 15. 

Rechabites, re'kab-Ites, descendants 
of Rechab. Jer. 35. 2. 

Rechah , re 'kah, side (?) . I Chr. 4. 1 2. 

Reelaiah, re-el-a'jah, trembling 
caused by Jehovah. Ezra 2. 2. 

Regem, re'gem, friend. 1 Chr. 2. 47. 

Regem-melech, re'gem-me'lek, 
friend of the king. Zech. 7. 2. 

Rehabiah, re-ha-bl'ah, Jehovah en- 
larges. 1 Chr. 23. 17. 

Rehob, re'hob, street. 2 Sam. 8. 3. 

Rehoboam, re-ho-bo'am, who en- 
larges the people. I Kin. 11. 43. 

Rehoboth, re-ho'both, roominess. 
Gen. 10. II. 

Rchum, re'hum, merciful. Ezra 4. 8. 

Rei, re'I, friendly. I Kin. I. 8. 

Rekem, re'kem, same as Rakf.m. 
Num. 31. 8. 

Remaliah, rem-a-ll'ah, whom Jeho- 
vah adorned. 2 Kin. 15. 25. 

Remeth, re / meth, a high place. Josh. 
19. 21. 

Renimon-methoar, rem'mon- 

meth'o-ar, R. stretching (to Neah). 

Josh. 19. 13. 
Remphan, rem'fan. Acts 7. 43. 
Rephael, reTa-el, whom God healed. 

1 Chr. 26. 7. 
Rephah, re'fah, riches. I Chr. 7. 25. 
Rephaiah, ref-a-I'ah, whom Jehovah 

healed. I Chr. 3. 21. 
Rcphaim, reT'a-Im, giants. 2 Sam. 

5. 18. 
Rephidim, reFl-dim, supports. Ex. 

17. 1. 
Resen, re^en, bridle. Gen. 10. 12. 
Resheph, re'shef, flame. I Chr. 7. 25. 
Reu, re'u, same as Raguei.. Gen. 11.18. 
Reuben, ru'ben, behold a son (?). 

Gen. 29. 32. 
Reubenites, ru'ben-Ites, descend- 
ants of Reuben. Num. 26. 7. 
Reuel, ru'el, friend of God. I Chr. 


Reumah, ru/mah, exalted. Gen. 22. 

Rezeph, re'zef, a stone. 2 Kin. 19. 12. 
Rezia, re-zl'a, delight. I Chr. 7. 39. 
Rezin, re'zin, firm. 2 Kin. 15. 37. 
Rezon, re'zon, lean. I Kin. 11. 23. 
Rhegium, re'gi-um. Acts 28. 13. 
Rhesa, re'sa, chieftain (?). Luke 3. 27. 
Rhoda, rO'da, a rose. Acts 12. 13. 
Rhodes, r5de§. Acts 21. I. 
Ribai, ri'bai, contentious. 2 Sam. 

23. 29. 
Riblall, rib'lah, fertility. Num. 34. 1 1. 
Rimnion, rlm'mon, pomegranate. 2 

Sam. 4. 2. 
Rimnion-parez, rim'mon-pa'rez, 

pomegranate of the breach. Num. 33. 19. 
Rinnah, rln'nah, shout. I Chr. 4. 20. 
Riphath, rlTath. Gen. 10. 3. 
Rissall, rls'sah, ruin. Num. 33. 21. 
Rithmall, rlth'mah, broom. Num. 

33- 18. 
Rizpah, riz / pah, hot coal. 2 Sam. 3. 7. 
Roboain, rob'o-am, Greek form of 

Rehoboam. Mat. 1. 7. 
Rogelim, ro-ge'lim, fullers. 2 Sam. 

17. 27. 
Rollgah, rO'gah, outcry. 1 Chr. 7. 34. 
Romamti-ezer, ro-man/ti-e'zer, I 

have exalted help. I Chr. 25. 4. 
Rome, rome, strength (?). Acts 2. 10. 
Rosh, rosh, head. Gen. 46. 21. 
RllfllS, ru'fus, red. Mark 15. 21. 
Ruhamah, ru'ha-mah, compassion- 
ated. Hos. 2. 1. 
Rumah, ni'mah, height. 2 Kin. 23. 

Ruth, ruth, friendship (?). Ruth I. 4. 

SABACHTHANI, sa bak tha'nl, 
thou hast forsaken me. Mark 15. 34. 

Sabaoth, sab'a-eth, hosts. Rom. 9. 29. 

Sabeans, sa-be'ang, people of Seba. 
Is. 45. 14. 

Sabtah, sab'tah, rest (?). Gen. 10. 7. 

Sabteclia, sab'te-ka. I Chr. I. 9. 

Sabtechall, sab'te-kah. Gen. 10. 7. 

Sacar, sa'kar, hire, reward. I Chr. 

"• 35- 
SadduceeS, sad'du-ceeg (named from 

Zadok, founderof the sect). Mat. 3. 7. 
Sala, sa'la, Greek form of Salah. Luke 

3- 35- 
Salah, sa'lah, sprout (?). Gen. 10. 24. 
Salamis, sal'a-mis. Acts 13. 5. 
Salatlliel, sa-la-'thl-el, Greek form of 

Shealtiel. I Chr. 3. 17. 
Salcah or Salchah, saKkah, road. 

Deut. 3. 10. 
Salem, sa'lem, perfect. Gen. 14. 18. 
Salilll, sa'lim, Greek form of Salem. 

John 3. 23. 
Sallai, sal'la-I, exaltation. Neh. II. 8. 
Sallll, sal'lu, same as Sallai. I Chr. 

9- 7- 
Salma, sal 'ma, garment. I Chr. 2. II. 
Salmon, sal'mon, shady. Ps. 68. 14. 
Salmone, sal-mO'ne. Acts 27. 7. 
Salome, sa-lO-'me, perfect. Mark 15. 

Salu, sa'lu, same as Sallu. Num. 25. 

Samaria, sa-ma^I-a, Greek equiva- 
lent of Shomron, which means guard. 

I Kin. 16. 24. 
Samaritans, sa-mar'i-tani, inabitants 

of Samaria. 2 Kin. 17. 29. 
Samgar-nebo, sam'gar-ne'bd, Be 

gracious, Nebo. Jer. 39. 3. 
Samlah, sam'lah, garment. Gen. 36.36. 
SaniOS, sa'mos, a height (?). Acts 20.15. 
Samothracia, sam-o-thra'shja. Acts 

16. 11. 
Samson, sam'son, like the sun. Judg 

13. 24. 
Samuel, sarVu-el, heard of God. I 

Sam. 1. 20. 
Sanballat, san-bal'lat, Sin (the rnoon) 

giveth life (?). Neh. 2. IO. 
Sansannah, san-san^ali, palm 

branch. Josh. 15. 31. 

a, e, I, 0, u, y, long; a, e, i, 6, u, y, short ; a, e, 1, 6, intermediate; a, e, i, o, obscure ; care, far, last, fall, term, firm, familjar, 

fSr, furl, rude, push, cass, gasj, gasin get, g as z, x as gz, 



Saph, saf, threshold. 2 Sam. 21. 1 8. 
Sapllir, saf'ir, beautiful. Mic. I. II. 
Sappllira, saf-fl'ia, Greek form of the 

above (feminine). Acts 5. I. 
Sarah, sa'rah, princess. Gen. 17. 15. 
Sarai, sa'rai, contentious (?). Gen. 

II. 29. 
Saraph, sa'raf, burning. I Chr. 4. 22. 
Sardis, sarMis. Rev. 1. n. 
Sardites, sar'dltes, descendants of 

Sered. Num. 26. 26. 
Sarepta, sa-rfep'ta, Greek form of 

Zarephath. Luke 4. 26. 
Sargon, sar'gon, (God) appoints the 

king. Is. 20. I. 
Sarid, sa'rid, survivor. Josh. 19. 10. 
Saron, sa'ron, Greek form of Sharon. 

Acts 9. 35. 
Barsechim, sar-se'kim. Jer. 39. 3. 
Saruch, sa'ruch, Greek form of Serug. 

Luke 3. 35. " 
Satan, sa'tan, adversary. 1 Chr. 21. I. 
Saul, saul, asked for. I Sam. 9. 2. 
Sceva, se'va, left-handed. Acts 19. 14. 
Scythian, slth'I-an. Col. 3. II. 
Seba, se'ba, man (?). Gen. 10. 7. 
Sebat, se'bat, rest (?). Zech. I. 7. 
Secacall, sfik'a-kah, enclosure. Josh. 

15. 61. 
Sechu, se'ku, watch-tower. I Sam. 

19. 22. 

Secundus, se-kun'dus, second. Acts 

20. 4. 

Segub, se'gub, elevated. I Kin. 16. 34. 
Seir, se'Ir, hairy. Gen. 36. 20. 
Seirath, se'i-rath, well vooded. Judg. 

3. 26. 
Sela, se'la, rock. Is. 1 5. I. 
Sela-hammahlekoth, se'la-ham- 

mah-le / koth, rock of escapes. I Sam. 
23. 28. 

Selah, se'lah, forte (?), a musical di- 
rection. Ps. 3. 2. 

Seled, se'Ied, exultation, or burning. 
I Chr. 2. 30. 

Seleucia, se-leu'shl-a, called after 
Seleucus. Acts 13. 4. 

Sem, sem, Greek form of Shem. Luke 

Semachiah, sem-a-kl'ah, whom Je- 
hovah sustains. I Chr. 26. 7. 

Semei, sgm'e-i, Greek form of Shimei. 
Luke 3. 26. 

Senaall, sg-na'ah, perhaps thorny. 
Ezra 2. 35. 

Seneh, sfi'neh, crag, thorn. I Sam. 14. 4. 

Senir, se'nir, coat of mail. I Chr. 5. 23. 

Sennacherib, sen-nak'e-"" 11 '. Sin (the 
moon) multiplies brethren. 2 Kin. 18. 1 3. 

Senuah, se-nu'ah, bristling (?). Neh. 
II. 9. 

Seorim, se-o'rim, barley. I Chr. 24. 8. 

Sephar, sa-far, a numbering. Gen. 
10. -jo. 

Sepharad, seT'a-rad. Obad. 20. 

Sepharvaim, sef-ar-va'im. 2 Kin. 
17. 24. 

Serah, se'rah, abundance. Gen. 46. 17. 

Seraiah, sSr-a-I'ah, soldier of Jeho- 
vah (?). 2 Sam. 8. 17. 

Seraphim, ser'a-flm, burning ones. 
Is. 6. 2. 

Sered, se'red, fear. Gen. 46. 14. 

Sergius, ser'gl-us. Acts 13. 7. 

Serug, se'rug, shoot. Gen. 11. 20. 

Seth, sSth, substitute. Gen. 4. 25. 

Sethur, se'thur, hidden. Num. 13. 13. 

Shaalabbill, sha-al-ab'bin, earths of 
foxes. Josh. 19. 42. 

Shaalbim, sha-al'bim, same as pre- 
ceding. Judg. 1. 35. 

Shaalbonite, sha-al'bo-nlte, inhabit- 
ant of Shaalbim. 2 Sam. 23. 32. 

Shaaph, sha'af, anger (?). I Chr. 2.47. 

Shaaraim, sha-a-ra'im, two gates. 
I Sam. 17. 52. 

Shaasllgaz, sha-ash'gaz, beauty's ser- 
vant (?). Est. 2. 14. 

Shabbethai, shab-b&h'a-I, born on 
the sabbath. E/ra 10. 15. 

Shachia, shak-I'a, lustful. I Chr. 8. 10. 

Shaddai, Shad'da-I, Almighty. Num. 

1. 6. 

Shadrach, shad'rak. Dan. 1. 7. 
Shage, sha'ge, wanderer. I Chr. 11.34. 
Shaharaim, sha-ha-ra'im, two dawns. 

1 Chr. 8. 8. 
Shahazilliah, sha-haz'i-mah, lofty 

places. Josh. 19. 22. 
Shalcm, sha'lem, safe, perfect. Gen. 

33- .18- 
Shalini. sha'lim, foxes. I Sam. 9. 4. 
Shalisha, shaKi-sha, a third part. I 

Sam. 9. 4. . 

Shallecheth, shal'le-keth, felling. 

I Chr. 26. 16. 
Shallum, shal'lum, retribution. 2 

Kin. 15. 10. 

Shallun, shal'lun, spoliation. Neh. 

3- IS- 
Shalmai, shal'ma-I, peaceful (?). Ezra 

2. 46. 

Shalman, shal'man, shortened form 
of following. Hos. 10. 14. 

Shalmaiieser, shal-man-e'ser, Shal- 
man, be propitious. 2 Kin. 17. 3. 

Shama, sha'ma, obedient. I Chr. 
II. 44. 

Shamariah, sham-a-rl'ah, whom Je- 
hovah guards. 2 Chr. II. 19. 

Shamed, sha'med, destroyer. I Chr. 
8. 12. 

Sliamer, sha'mer, keeper. 1 Chr. 6.46. 

Shamgar, sham'gar, destroyer (?). 
Judg. 3. 31. 

Shamhuth, sham'huth, notoriety (?). 
I Chr. 27. 8. 

Shamir, sha'mir, a thorn. 1 Chr. 
24. 24. 

Shamma, sham'ma, desert. I Chr. 

7- 37- 

Shammah,sham / mah, same as Sham- 
ma. Gen. 36. 13. 

Shammai, sham'ma-I, wasted. I Chr. 
2. 28. 

Shammoth, shani'moth, deserts. I 
Chr. II. 27. 

Shammua, sham-md'a, famous. Num. 

Shammuah, sham-ma'ah, same as 

preceding. 2 Sam. 5. 14. 
Shamsherai, sham-she-ra'I. I Chr. 

8. 26. 
Shapham, sha'fam.bald. I Chr. 5. 12. 
Shaphan, shaman, coney. 2 Kin. 22.3. 
Shaphat, sha-fat, judge. Num. 13. 5. 
Shapher, sha'fer, pleasantness. Num. 

33- 23. 
Sharai, shar'a-I, free. Ezra 10. 40. 
Sharaiin, shar-a'Im, same as Sha- 

ARAIM. Josh. 15. 36. 
Sharar, sha'rar, firm. 2 Sam. 23. 33. 
Sharezer, sha-re'zer, (God) protect 

the king. 2 Kin. 19. 37. 
Sharon, shar'on, plain. I Chr. 27. 29. 
Sharonite, shar'on-Ite, one who lives 

in Sharon. 1 Chr. 27. 29. 
Sharilhen, sha-ru'hen. Josh. 19. 6. 
Shashai, shash'a-i, pale. Ezra 10. 40. 
Shashak, sha'shak, activity (?). I 

Chr. 8. 14. 
Shaul, sha'ul, same as Saul. Gen. 

46. 10. 
Shavell, sha'veh, plain. Gen. 14. 17. 
Shaveh Kiriathaim, sha'veh kir- 

i-a-tha'im, plain of Kiriathaim. Gen. 

14. 5. 
Shavsha, shav'sha, another name of 

Seraiah. I Chr. 18. 16. 
Sheal, she'al, prayer. Ezra 10. 29. 
Shealtiel, she-al'ti-el, I asked from 

God. Ezra 3. 2. 
Sheariah, she-a-rl^h, gate of Jeho- 
vah. I Chr. 8. 38. 
Shear-jashub, she'ar-ja'shub, the 

remnant shall return. Is. 7. 3. 
Sheba, she'ba, an oath. 2 Sam. 20. I. 
Shebah, she'bah, seven. Gen. 26. 33. 
Shebam, she'bam, fragrance. Num. 

32. 3- 
Shebaniah, sh£b-a-nl'ah, whom Je- 
hovah hides. 1 Chr. 15. 24. 

Shebarim, sheb'a-rlm, breaches. 

Josh. 7. 5. 
Sheber, she'ber, breaking. I Chr. 2.48. 
Sheblia, sheb'na, youth (?). 2 Kin. 

18. 18. 
Shebuel, sheb'u-el, captive of God. 

1 Chr. 23. 16. 
Shecaniah, shek-a-nl'ah, same as fol- 
lowing. 1 Chr. 24. 11. 
Shechaniah, shek-a-nl'ah, Jehovah 

dwells. 1 Chr. 3. 21. 
Shechem, she'kem, back, shoulder. 

Gen. 34. 2. 
Shechemites, she'kem-Ites, people 

of Shechem. Num. 26. 31. 
Shedeur, shed'e-ur, giving forth of 

light. Num. 1. 5. 
Shehariah, she-ha-rl'ah, Jehovah 

seeks. I Chr. 8. 26. 
Shelah, she'lah, petition. Gen. 38. 5. 
Shelanites, she'lan-Ites, descendants 

of Shelah. Num. 26. 20. 
Shelemiah, shel-e-ml'ah, whom Je- 
hovah repays. I Chr. 26. 14. 
Sheleph, she'lef, drawing out. Gen. 

10. 26. 
Shelesh, she'lesh, triad. 1 Chr. 7. 35. 
Shelomi, shel'o-ml, peaceful. Num. 

34- 27. 

Lev. 24. 11. 
Shelomoth, shel'o-meth, same as 

Shelomith. 1 Chr. 24. 22. 
Shelumiel, she-lu'mi-el, friend of 

God. Num. 1. 6. 
Shem, shgm, name. Gen. 5. 32. 
Shema, she'ma, (I) echo (?), Josh. 

15. 26; (2) fame, I Chr. 2. 43. 
Shemaah, she-ma'ah, fame. I Chr. 

12. 3. 

Shemaiah, shem-a-I'ah, Jehovah has 

heard. I Kin. 12. 22. 
Shemariah, shem-a-rl'ah, Jehovah 

guards. I Chr. 12. 5. 
Shemeber, shem / e-ber, soaring on 

high (?). Gen. 14. 2. 
Shemer, she'mer, guardian. I Kin. 

16. 24. 

Shemida, she-ml'da, fame of wisdom. 
Num. 26. 32. 

Shemidah, she-mi'dah, same as pre- 
ceding. I Chr. 7. iq. 

Sheminith, shem'i-nlth, eighth. I 
Chr. 15. 21. 

Shemiramoth, sl.e-mlr'a-moth, 

most high name. I Chr. 15. 18. 

Shemiiel, she-ma / el,same as Samuel. 
Num. 34. 20. 

Shell, shen, tooth. I Sam. 7. 12. 

Shenazar, shg-na / zar. I Chr. 3. 18. 

Shenir, she'nir, same as Senir. Deut. 

3- 9- 

Shepham, shebam, nakedness. Num. 
34. io. 

Shephathiah, shef-a-thl / ah, an in- 
correct way of spelling the next word. 
I Chr. 9. 8. 

Shephatiall, shef-a-tl'ah, whom Je- 
hovah defends. 2 Sam. 3. 4. 

Shephi, she'fl, baldness. I Chr. 1.40. 

SliepllO, she'fo, same as Siiephi. 
Gen. 36. 23. 

Shepllliphan, she-fu / fan,serpent(?). 
I Chr. 8. 5. 

Sherah, she'rah, consanguinity. I 
Chr. 7. 24. 

Sherebiah, shgr-e-bl'ah, heat of Je- 
hovah. Ezra 8. 18. 

Sberesh, she'resh, root. I Chr. 7. 16. 

Sherezer, she-re'zer, same as Sha- 
rkzer (?). Zech. 7. 2. 

Sheshacll, she'shak, a name for Babel. 
Jer. 25. 26. 

Sheshai, she'shai, clothed in \vhite(?). 
Num. 13. 22. 

Sheshan, she'shan, lily (?). I Chr. 

Shesllbazzar, shesh-baz'zar. Ezra 

Sheth, shah, tumult. Num. 24. 17. 

Shethar, sheshai, star. Est. I. 14. 

Shethar-boznai, she'thar-boz'na-4 

bright star. Ezra 5. 3. 
Sheva, she'va, vanity. 2 Sam. 20. 25. 
Shibboleth, shib'bo-Itth, an ear of 

corn or a flood. Judg. 12. 6. 
Sllibma'h, shlb'mah, fragrant. Num. 

32. 38. 
Shid'On, shl / kron, drunkenness. Josh. 

15. II. 
Shiggaion, shig-ga'jon, irregular. Ps. 

7, title. 
Shigionoth, shl-gi / o-noth. Hab. 3. 1. 
Shihon, shl'hon, ruin. Josh. 19. 19. 
Shihor, shl'hor, black. I Chr. 13. 5. 
Sllihor-libnath, shl / hor-lib / nath. 

Josh. 19. 26. 
Shilhi, shiKhl, darter. I Kin. 22. 42. 
Shilhiin, shIKhim, aqueducts. Josh, 

15- 32. 
Shillem, shil'lem, requital. Gen.46.24. 
Shiloah, shi-lo'ah, outlet of water. Is. 

Shiloh, shi'loh, rest. Josh. 18. I. 
Shiloni, shi-lo'nl, native of Shiloh. 

Neh. 11. 5. 
Shilonite, shl'lo-nlte, same as pre- 
ceding. 1 Kin. n. 29. 
Shilshall, shlKshah, triad. I Chr.7.37. 
Shimea, shlm / e-a, famous. I Chr. 3. 5. 
Shillieah, shim / e-ah, same as She. 

Maah. 2 Sam. 21. 21. 
Sllimeam, shim / e-am, same as pre- 

ceding. 1 Chr. 9. 38. 
Shimeath, shlm'e-ath, fame. 2 Kin. 

12. 21. 
Shimeathite, shlir/e-ath-ite. 1 Chr. 

Shimei, shlm / e-l. my fame. Num. 3.18. 
Shillieon, shim / e-on, a hearkening. 

Ezra 10. 31. 
Shimhi, shimei, same as Shimei. 

1 Chr. 8. 21. 
Shillli, shl'ml, same as preceding. Ex. 

6. 17. 
ShimiteS, shim-'Ites, descendants of 

Shimei. Num. 3. 21. 
Shimma, shlm / nia, rumor. I Chr. 

2. 13. 
Shimon, shi'mon, 1 Chr. 4. 20. 
Shimrath, shlm'rath, watchfulness. 

I Chr. 8. 21. 
Shimri, shirn'rl, watchful. I Chr. 4. 37, 
Shimrith, shim'rith, vigilant. 2 Chr. 

24. 26. 
Shim roil, shlm'ron, watchful. Josh. 

II. 1. 
Shimron-meron,shim / ron-me / ron. 

Josh. 12. 20. 
Shimshai, shlm'shai, sunny. Ezra 

Shinab, shl / nab, hostile(?1. Gen. 14.2. 
Shinar, shi'nar. Gen. 10. 10. 
Shiphi, shi / ft, abundant. I Chr. 4. 37. 
Shiphmite, shlf'mlte, a native of 

Shephan. 1 Chr. 27. 27. 
Slliphrah, shif'rah, beauty. Ex. 1.1$. 
Shiplltan, shif'tan, judicial. Num. 

34- 24. 
Sllisha, shl'sha, brightness. I Kin. 4.3. 
Shishak, shl'shak, illustrious. I Kin. 

II. 40. 
Sliitrai, shit'ra-I, official. I Chr. 

27. 29. 
Shittim, shit'tim, acacias. Num. 25. 1 
Shiza, shl'za, cheerful (?). 1 Chr 

II. 42. 
Shoa, sho'a, opulent. Ezek. 23. 23. 
Shobab, sho / bab, apostate. 2 Sam. 

5- 14. 
Sliobach, shVbak, pouring. 2 Sam. 

10. 16. 
Shobai, shO'ba-I,bright(?). Ezra 2. 42. 
Shobal, sho'bal, stream. Gen. 36. 20. 
Shobek, sho'bek, forsaken. Neh, 

10. 24. 
Shobi, sho'bl, taking captive. 2 Sam, 

17. 27. 
Shochoh, sho'koh, a hedge. I Sam. 

17. 1. 
Shoco, sko'ko, same as the preceding 

word. 2 Chr. II. 7. 

a, 6, 1, 5, to, y, long ; &,£,!, 6, u, y, short ; a, 6, i, 6, intermediate ; a, e, j, o, obscure ; care, far, last, fall, term, firm, familiar, 

for, furl, rude, push, c as £ s g as j, g as in get, § as z, j as gz. 



Shoham. sho'ham, onyx. 1 Chr. 24 

Shomer, sho'mer. watchman. 2 Kin. 

12. 21 
Shophach, shs'fak, same as Shobak. 

1 Chr. 19. 16. 
Sbophan, shO'fan, baldness. Num. 

3 2 - 35- 
SllOSliannim, sho-shan'nim, lilies. 
Ps. 45, title. 

Shoshannim-Eduth, sho-shan'- 
nim-e'duth, lilies a testimony. Ps. 80, 

Sliua, shu'a, wealth. I Chr. 2. 3. 

Sliuall, shu/ah, depression. Gen. 25. 2. 

Shual, shu'al, jackal. I Chr. 7. 36. 

bhubael, shu'ba-el, same as She- 
duel (?). 1 Chr. 24. 20. 

Shu ham, shu/ham, pitman (?). Num. 
26. 42. 

Shuhite, shulilte, a descendant of 
Shua. Job 8. I. 

Shulamite, shulam-Ite, same as 
Shelomith. Cant. 6. 13. 

Shumathites, shu 'math-It es, people 
of Shumah. I Chr. 2. 53. 

Shunammite, shu'nam-mlte, an in- 
habitant of Shunem. I Kin. I. 3. 

Shu ueiii, shu'nem, two resting-places. 
Josh. 19. 18. 

Slllini, shu'nl, quiet. Gen. 46. 16. 

Shupham, shu'fam, serpent. Num. 
26. 39. 

Shuphaillites, shu'fam-Ites, the de- 
scendants of Shupham. Num. 26. 39. 

Shuppim, shup'pim. I Chr. 7. 12. 

Shur, sliur, a fort. Gen. 16. 7. 

Shushau, shu'sban. Neh. 1. r. 

Shushan-eduth, slm'shan-e'duth, 
lily of the testimony. Ps. 60, title. 

Num. 26. 35. 

Sia, sl'a, assembly. Neh. 7. 47. 

Siaha, sl'a-ha, council. Ezra 2. 44. 

Sibbecai, sib'be-kai, entangling. I 
Chr. II. 29. 

Sibbecliai, sib'be-kai, same as pre- 
ceding. 2 Sam. 21. 18. 

Sibboleth, slb'bo-leth, same as Shib- 
boleth. Judg. 12. 6. 

Sibmah, sib'mah, same as Shibmah. 
Josh. 13. 19. 

Sibraim, slb'ra-Im, two hills (?). 
Ezek. 47. 16. 

Sicheni, si'kem, the shoulder-blade. 
Gen. 12. 6. 

Siddim, sld'dim, the plains. Gen. 

14- 3- 
Sidon, sl'don, fishing. Gen. 10. 15. 
Sihou, sl'hon, brush. Num. 21. 21. 
Sihor, sl'h&r, same as Shichor. Josh. 

*3- 3- 
Silas, sl'las, shortened form of Sil- 

vanus. Acts 15. 22. 
Silla, sll'la, way, highway (?). 2 Kin. 

12. 20. 
Siloam, sMo'am, same as Shiloah. 

John 9. 7. 
Sil vanus, sll-va'nus, of the forest. 2 

Cor. 1. 19. 
Simeon, slm'g-on, same as Shimeon. 

Gen. 29. 33. 
Simon, sl'mon, same as preceding. 

Mat. 10. 4. 
Simri, slm'rl, same as Shimri. i Chr. 

26. 10. 
Sin, sin, clay. Ex. 16. I. 
Sina, sl'na, Greek form of Sinai. Acts 

Sinai, sl'nai, pointed. Ex. 19. I. 
Sini 111, sl'nim, Chinese (?). Is. 49. 12. 
Sinite, sln'lte. Gen. 10. 17. 
Si on, si 'on, (1) lifted up, Deut. 4. 48; 

(2) Greek name for Mount Zion, Mat. 


Siphmoth, slf'moth, bare places (?). 
I Sam. 30. 28. 

Sippai, sip'pai, belonging to the door- 
step (?). I Chr. 20. 4. 

Sirah, sl'rah, withdrawing. 2 Sam. 
3- 26. 

Sirion, slr'i-dn, a coat of mail. Deut. 

3- 9- 

Sisamai, sl-sam'a-I, fragrant (?). I 

Chr. 2. 40. 
Sisera, sis'e-ra, binding in chains (?). 

Judg. 4. 2. 
Sitnali, sit'nah, contention. Gen. 26. 

Sivan, sl'van, bright. Est. 8. 9. 
Smyrna, smir'na, myrrh. Rev. I. II. 
So, so, Hebrew form of Egyptian word 

Sevech. 2 Kin. 17. 4. 
SocliO, so'ko, same as Shocho. I Chr. 

4. 18. 
Socoll, sO'ko, same as Shochoh. Josh. 

15- 35- 
Sodi, sO'dl, an acquaintance. Num. 

13. 10. 
Sodom, s&d'om, burning. Gen. 10. 19. 
Sodoma, sod'om-a, Greek form of the 

preceding. Rom. 9. 29. 
Sodomites, sdd'om-Ites, persons who 

were as wicked as the men of Sodom. 

1 Kin. 15. 12. 
Solomon, s&l'o-mon, peaceable. 2 

Sam. 5. 14. 
Sopater, sop'a-ter. Acts 20. 4. 
Sopberetb, sof'e-r£th, scribe. Ezra 

Sorek, so'rek, choice vine. Judg. 

16. 4. 
Sosipater, so-slp'a-ter. Rom. 16.21. 
Sostlienes, sos'the-nes.. Acts 18. 17. 
Sotai, sO'ta-I, deviator. Ezra 2. 55. 
Spain, spain. Rom. 15. 24. 
Stachys, sta'kls, an ear of corn. Rom. 

16. 9. 
Stephanas, steT'a-nas, crowned. I 

Cor 1. 16. 
Stephen, ste'ven, English form of 

Stephanas. Acts o. 5. 
Stoics, sto'iks, philosophers whose 

founder taught in a famous porch or 

stoa. Acts 17. 18. 
Suah, su'ah, sweepings. I Chr. 7. 36. 
Snccoth, suk'koth, booths. Gen. 33. 

Snccoth-benoth, suk'koth-be'- 

noth. 2 Kin. 17. 30. 
Suchathites, su'kath-ites. 1 Chr. 

2. 55- 

Sukkiim, suk'kl-im, nomads. 2 Chr. 

Snr, sur. 2 Kin. 11. 6. 

Susaucllites, su'san-kltes, inhabit- 
ants of Susa or Susinak. Ezra 4. 9. 

Susanna, su-san'na, lily. Luke 8. 3. 

Slisi, su'si, horseman. Num. 13. II. 

Sycbar, sy'kar, drunken (?). John 

4- 5- 

Sychem, sy'kem, Greek form of She- 

chem. Acts 7. 16. 
Syene, sy-e'ne, opening. Ezek. 29. 

Syntyclie, syn'ty-ke, fortunate. Phil. 

4. 2. 
Syracuse, syr'a-kuse. Acts 28. 12. 
Syria, syr'I-a. Judg. 10. 6. 
Syrian, syr'I-an, inhabitant of Syria. 

Gen. 25. 20. 
Syrophenician, sy-ro-fe-nlsh'jan, 

Phenician living in Syria. Mark 7. 


TAANACH, ta'a-nak, castle (?). 
Josh. 12. 21. 

Taanath-shiloh, ta'a-nath-shi'loh, 

fig-tree of Shiloh (?). Josh. 16. 6, 
Tabbaoth, tab'ba-&th, rings. Ezra 

Tabbath, tab'hath, pleasantness. Judg. 

7. 22. 
Tabeal, ta'be-al, God is good. Is. 

Tabeel, ta'be-el, another way of 

writing Tabeal. Ezra 4. 7. 
Taberah, tab'e-rah, burning. Num. 

II. 3. 
Tabitha, tab'j-tha, gazelle. Acts 9. 

Tabor, ta'bar, height. Josh. 19. 22. 

Tabrimon, tab'rl-m6n, Rimmon is 

good. I Kin. 15. 18. 
Tachsnonite, tak'ino-nite, same as 

Hachmonite (?). 2 Sam. 23. 8. 
Tadmor, tad'mor, city of palms (?). 

I Kin. 9. 18. 
Tahan, ta'han, camp. Num. 26. 35. 
Tahapaues, ta-hap'a-nes., head of 

the land. Jer. 2. 16. 
Tahpanhes, tah'pan-hes., same as 

preceding. Jer. 43. 7. 
Tahpenes, tah'pen-es.. 1 Kin. 11. 

Taliath, ta'hath, substitute. I Chr. 

6. 24. 
Tahrea, tah-re'a, cunning (?). I Chr. 

Tahtim-hodslii, tah'tim-hod'shl, 

nether land newly inhabited (?). 2 

Sam. 24. 6. 
Talitha, tal'I-tha, girl. Mark 5. 41. 
Talmai, tal'mai, abounding in furrows. 

Num. 13. 22. 
Talmon, tal'mon, oppressed. I Chr. 

9. 17. 
Tamah, ta'mah, joy. Neh. 7. 55. 
Tamar, ta'mar, a palm tree. Gen. 

Tammuz, tarn'muz, son of life (?). 

Ezek. 8. 14. 
Tanach, ta'nak, same as Taanach. 

Josh. 21. 25. 
Tanhumeth, tanlm-m&h, consola- 
_ tion. 2 Kin. 25. 23. 
Taphath, ta'fath, a drop (?). 1 Kin. 

4. II. 
Tappuali, tap'pu-ah, apple. 1 Chr. 

Tarall, ta'rah, station. Num. 33. 27. 
Taralah, tar'a-lah, reeling (?). Josh. 

18. 27. 
Tarea, ta're-a, same as Tahrea. I 

Chr. 8. 35. " 
Tarpelites, tar'pel-Ites, people of 

Tarpel. Ezra 4. 9. 
Tarshish, tar'shish. Gen. 10. 4. 
Tarsus, tar'sus. Acts 9. 11. 
Tartak, tar'tak. 2 Kin. 17. 31. 
Tartan, tar'tan, military chief. 2 Kin. 

18. 17. 
Tatnai, tat'na-I, gift (?). Ezra 5. 3. 
Tebah, te'bah, slaughter. Gen. 22. 

Tebaliah, teb-a-ll-'ah, whom Jehovah 

has immersed. I Chr. 26. 11. 
Tebeth, te'beth. Est. 2. 16. 
Tehaplmehes, te-haf'ne-hej, same 

as Tahapanes. Ezek. 30. 18. 
Tehinnah, te-htn'nah, cry for mercy. 

1 Chr. 4. 12. 

Tekel, te'kel, weighed. Dan. 5. 25. 
Tekoa, te-ko'a, sound of trumpet. I 

Chr. 2. 24. 
Tekoah, te-ko'ah, same as Tekoa. 

2 Sam. 14. 2. 

Tekoite, te-kO'Ite, inhabitant of Te- 
koah. 2 Sam. 23. 26. 

Tel-abib, tel-a'bib, hill of ears of 
corn. Ezek. 3. 15. 

Telah, te'lah. 1 Chr. 7. 25. 
Telaiin, tel'a-im, lambs. 1 Sam. 

Telassar, te-las'sar, Assyrian hill. Is. 

37. 12. 
Telem, te'lem, oppression. Ezra 10. 


Tel-haresha, tel-ha-re'sha, forest- 
hill. Neh. 7. 61. 

Tel-harsa, tel-hai'sa, same as pre- 
ceding. Ezra 2. 59. 

Tel-melah, tel-me'lah, salt-hill. Ezra 


Tenia, te'ma, a desert. Gen. 25. 15. 

Teman, te'man, on the right hand. 
Gen. 36. 11. 

Temani, tem'a-nl, descendants of 
Teman. Gen. 36. 34. 

Temanite, te'man-ite, same as pre- 
ceding. Job 2. II. 

Temeni, tem'e-ni, same as Temani. 
1 Chr. 4. 6. 

Terah, te'rah, a station (?). Gen. 11. 

Teraphim, ter'a-fim, nourishers. 

Judg. 17. 5. 
Teresll, te'resh, severe (?). Est. 2. 

Tertius, ter'shjus, the third. Rom. 

16. 22. 

Tertullus, ter-tul'lus ( Urn. of Ter- 
tius). Acts 24. 1. 

Thaddseus, thad-de'us, Greek form 
of Theudas. Mat. 10. 3. 

Thahasll, tha'hash, seal (?). Gen. 
22. 24. 

Thamah, tha'mah, laughter. Ezra 


Thainar, tha'mar, Greek equivalent 
of Tamar. Mat. I. 3. 

Thara, tha'ra, Greek form of Terah. 
Luke 3. 34. 

Tharshish, thar'shish, same as Tar- 
shish. 1 Kin. 10. 22. 

Tliebez, the'bez, brightness. Judg. 

9. 50. 

Thelasar, thS-la'sar, same as Telas- 
sar. 2 Kin. 19. 12. 

Theophilus, thS-ofi-las, loved of 
God. Luke I. 3. 

Thessalonica, thes-sa-16-ni / ka. Acts 

17. 1. 

Theudas, theu'das, praise (?). Acts 

5- 36. 
Thimnathah, thim'na-thah, portion. 

Josh. 19. 43. 
Thomas, tOm'as, a twin. Mat. 10. 3. 
Thummim, thuu^mim, truth(?). Ex. 

28. 30. 
Thyatira, thy-a-tl / ra. Acts 16. 14. 
Tiberias, ti-te'rl-as, a place named 

after Tiberius. John 6. I. 
Tiberius, ti-be'ri-us. Luke 3. 1. 
Tibhath, tlb'hath, butchery. 1 Chr. 

Tibni, tuVnl, made of straw (?). I 

Kin. 16. 21. 
Tidal, tl'dal, dread. Gen. 14. I. 
Tiglath-pileser, tig'lath-pi-le'ser, 

the son of the temple of Sarra is a 

ground of confidence (?). 2 Kin. 15. 

Tikvah, tlk'vah, expectation. 2 Kin. 

22. 14. 
Tikvath, tlk-'vath, same as Tikvah. 

2 Chr. 34. 22. 
Tilgath-pilneser, tiKgath-pil-ne / - 

jer, same as Tiglath-pileser. I Chr. 

Tilon, tl'lon, gift (?). I Chr. 4. 20. 
Timajus, tl-me'us, polluted(?). Mark 

10. 46. 

Timna, tlm'na, unapproachable Gen. 

36. 12. 
Timnah, tlrn'oah, a portion. Josh. 

15. 10. 
Timnath, tlm / nath, same as Timnah. 

Gen. 38. 12. 
Timnath -heres, tin/nath-he'rej, 

portion of the sun. Judg. 2. 9. 
Timnath-serah, tim / nath-se / rah, 

portion of the remainder. Josh. 19. 

Timnite, tlm'nlte, a man of Timna. 

Judg. 15. 6. 
Timon, tl'mon. Acts 6. 5. 
Timotheus, tl-mo'the-us, honoring 

God. Acts 16. I. 
Timothy, tlm'o-thy, English form of 

the above. 2 Cor. I. I. 
Tiphsah, tlf'sah, passage. 1 Kin. 

Tiras, tl'ras, crushing (?). Gen. 10. 

Tirathites, tl'rath-ltes. 1 Chr. 2. 

Tirhakah, tir'ha-kah, distance (?). 

2 Kin. 19. 9. 
Tirhanah, th-'ha-nah, murmuring (?) 

1 Chr. 2. 48. 
Tiria, tir'I-a, fear, i Chr. 4. 16. 
Tirshatha, tlr'sha-tha, the feared (?) 

a, e, I, O, u, y, long; a, e, I, 6, u, y, short ; a, e, i, 6, intermediate ; a, e, i, o, obscure ; care, far, last, fall, term, firm, familjar, 

fdr, furl, rade, push, ?ass, gasj, gasin get, § as z, x as gz. 



Tirzah, tlr'zah, pleasantness. Num. 

26. 33. 
Tisllbite, tlsh / blte, inhabitant of 

Tishbe. I Kin. 17. x. 
Titus, tl'tus, protected. 2 Cor. 2. 13. 
Tizite, ti'zite. 1 Chr. 11. 45. 
Toall, to'ah, low. I Chr. 6. 34. 
Tob, tob, good. Judg. II. 3. 

is my lord Jehovah. 2 Chr. 17. 8. 
Tobiah, to-bl'ah, Jehovah is good. 

Ezra 2. 60. 
Tobijali, to'bl'jah, same as Tobiah. 

2 Chr. 17. 8. 
Tochen, to'ken, a measure. I Chr. 

4- 3 2 - 
Togarmall, to-gar'mah, rugged. Gen. 

10. 3. 
Toll U, to'hu, same as Toah. I Sam. 

I. I. 
Toi, to'I, wanderer. 2 Sam. 8. 9. 
Tola, to'la, worm. Gen. 46. 13. 
Tolad, tO'lad, birth. I Chr. 4. 29. 
Tophel, to'phel, lime. Deut. 1. 1. 
Topliet, tO'phet, burning. Is. 30. 33. 
Tophetll, to'feth, same as Tophet. 

2 Kin. 23. 10. 
Torinah, tdr'mah, privily. Judg. 9. 

Toil, tO'u, older form of Toi. I Chr. 

18. 9. 

Trachonitis, trak-o-ni'tis, rugged. 

Luke 3. 1. 
Troas, trO'as, so called from Tros. 

Acts 16. 8. 
Trogyllium, tro-gyKH-um. Acts 20. 

TrophimilS, traf'l-mus, master of the 

house (?). Acts 20. 4. 
Tryplieua, try-fe'na, delicate. Rom. 

16. 12. 
Tryphosa, try-fo'sa, delicate. Rom. 

16. 12. 
Tubal, tu'bal, production (?). Gen. 

10. 2. 
Tilbal-cain, tu'bal-kain, producer of 

weapons (?). Gen. 4. 22. 
Tychicus, tyk'i-kus, fortuitous. Acts 

20. 4. 
TyrailllUS, ty-ran / 'nus, tyrant. Acts 

Tyre, tyre, rock. Josh. 19. 29. 
Tyrus, ty'rus, Latin name of Tyre. 

Jer. 25. 22. 

XJCAL, tt'kal, I shall prevail. Prov. 

30. 1. 
Uel, u'el, will of God (?). Ezra 10. 

Ulai, tt'la-L Dan. 8. 2. 
Ulaill, u'lam, foremost. I Chr. 7. 16. 
Ulla, ul'la, yoke. I Chr. 7. 39. 
Ullllliall, urn'mah, community. Josh. 

19. 30. 

Uimi, un'nl, depressed. I Chr. 15. 

Upharsill, u-far'sin, and dividers. 

Dan. 5. 25. 
XJphaz, u'faz. Jer. 10. 9. 
Ur, ur, light. Gen. 11. 28. 
Urbane, urbane, pleasant. Rom. 

16. 9. 
Uri, a'rl, fiery. Ex. 31. 2. 
Uriah, u-rl'ah, light of Jehovah. 2 

Sam. 11. 3. 
Ur(as, u-rt'as, Greek form of Uriah. 

Mat. 1. 6. 
Uriel, u'ri-el, light of God. I Chr. 

6. 24. 
Urijall, u-rl'jah, same as Uriah. 2 

Kin. 16. 10. 
Urim, u'rim, light. Ex. 28. 30. 
Uthai, u'tha-I, helpful. I Chr. 9. 4. 
Uz, uz, fertile. Gen. 10. 23. 
Uzai, u'za-I, hoped for (?). Neh. 3. 

Uzal, u'zal, wanderer. Gen. 10. 27. 
Uzza, uz'za, strength. 2 Kin. 21. 

Uzzah, uz'zah, another form of Uzza. 

2 Sam. 6. 3. 

Uzzen-sherah, uz'zen-she'rah. 1 

Chr. 7. 24. 
Uzzi, uz'zl, shortened form of Uzziah. 

1 Chr. 6. 5. 
Uzzia, uz-zl'a, another form of Uzziah. 

1 Chr. 11. 44. 

Uzziab, uz-zi'ah, might of Jehovah. 

2 Kin. 15. 13. 

Uzziel, uz'zi-el, power of God. Ex. 
6. 18. 

VA JEZ ATH A,va-jez'a-iha, strong 

as the wind (?). Est. 9. 9. 
Vaniall, va-nl'ah, distress (?). Ezra 

10. 36. 

Vashlli, vash'nl, strong (?), but per- 
haps not a proper name. I Chr. 6. 

Vasllti, vash'tl, beautiful. Est. I. 9. 

Voplisi, vofsi, expansion (?). Num. 
13. 14. 

iLAANAIM, za-a-na/im, wander- 
ings (?). Judg. 4. 11. 
Zaanan, za'a-nan, place of flocks. 

Mic. 1. 11. 
Zaaiiaiillim, za-a-nan'nim, same as 

Zaanaim. Josh. 19. 33. 
Zaavan, za'a-van, disturbed. Gen. 

36. 27. 
Zabad, za'bad, gift. 1 Chr. 2. 36. 
Zabbai, zab'bai: Ezra 10. 28. 
Zabbud, zab'bud, given. Ezra 8. 14. 
Zabdi, zab'di, the gift of Jehovah. 

Josh. 7. 1. 
Zabdiel, zaVdl-el, the gift of God. 

Chr. 27. 2. 
Zabud, za'bud, same as Zabbud. i 

1 Kin. 4. 5. 
Zablllon, zab'u-lon, Greek form of 

Zebulun. Mat. 4. 13. 
Zaccai, zak'ka-I, pure. Ezra 2. 9. 

ZaccliaeusorZacclieus, zak-ke'us, 

Greek form of Zaccai. Luke 19. 2. 

Zacclllir, zak'kur, mindful. I Chr. 
4. 26. 

Zaccur, zak'kur, same as preceding. 
Num. 13. 4. 

Zacliariall, zak-a-rl'ah, whom Jeho- 
vah remembers. 2 Kin. 14. 29. 

Zacharias, zak-a-rl'as, Greek form 
of preceding. Mat. 23. 35. 

Zacber, za'ker, memorial. I Chr. 8. 

Zadok, za'dak, just. 2 Sam. 8. 17. 
Zaham, za'ham, loathing. 2 Chr. 

11. 19. 

Zair, za'ir, small. 2 Kin. 8. 21. 
Zalapli, za'laf, wound (?). Neh. 3. 


Zalmon, zal'mon, shady. 2 Sam. 
23. 28. 

Zalniouall, zal'mO'nah, same as pre- 
ceding. Num. 33. 41. 

Zalmunna, zal-man / na, shelter de- 
nied. Judg. 8. 5. 

Zailizuilimilll, zam-zum'mim. Deut. 
2. 20. 

Zanoab, za-no'ah, marsh. Josh. 15. 

Zaphnath-paaiieah, zaPnath-pa- 

a-ne'ah, prince of the life of the age. 

Gen. 41. 45. 
Zaphon, za'fon, north. Josh. 13. 27. 
Zara, za'ra, Greek form of Zarah. Mat. 

Zarah, za'rah, sunrise (?). Gen. 38. 


Zareall, za're-ah, hornet. Neh. II. 

Zareathites, za're-ath-Ites, inhabit- 
ants of Zareah. I Chr. 2. 53. 

Zarcd, za'red, exuberant growth. Num. 
21. 12. 

Zarephath, zar'e-fath, workshop for 
refining metals. I Kin. 17. 9. 

Zaretan, zar'e-tan, same as Zarthan. 
Josh. 3. 16. 

Zareth-shahar, za'refh-sha'har, 
the splendor of the morning. Josh. 
13. 19. 

Zarhites, zar'hlles, persons descended 

from Zerah. Num. 26. 13. 
Zartanah, zar'ta-nah. 1 Kin. 4. 12. 
Zarthail, zar'than, same as Zaretan. 

1 Kin. 7. 46. 
Zatthu, zat'thu, same as Zattu. Neh. 

10. 14. 

Zattu, zat'tu, irascible (?). Ezra 2. 8. 
Zavail, za'van, same as Zaavan. I 

Chr. 1. 42. 
Zaza, za'za. I Chr. 2. 33. 
Zebadiah, zeb-a-dl'ah, full form of 

Zabdi. i Chr. 8. 15. 
Zebah, ze'bah, sacrifice. Judg. 8. 5. 
Zebaim, ze-ba'im, same as Zeboim. 

Ezra 2. 57. 
Zebedee, zeVe-dee, Greek form of 

Zebadiah. Mat. 4. 21. 
Zebina, ze-bl'na, bought. Ezra 10. 

Zeboim, ze-bo'im, gazelles. Gen. 10. 

Zeblldall, ze-bu'dah, given. 2 Kin. 

23- 36. 
Zebul, :e / bul, habitation. Judg. 9. 

Zeblllonite, zSb'u-lon-lte, a mem- 
ber of the tribe of Zebulon. Judg. 12. 

Zebulun, zeb'u-lun. Gen. 30. 20. 
Zebulunites, zeb'u-lun-ltes, a less 

correct way of spelling Zebulonites. 

Num. 26. 27. 
Zechariall, zek-a-rl'ah, a better way 

of spelling Zachariah. 2 Chr. 24. 20. 
Zedad, ze'dad, hunting (?). Num. 

34- 8. 
Zedekiall, z£d-e-kl'ah, justice of Je- 
hovah. 1 Kin. 22. 11. 
Zeeb, ze'eb, wolf. Judg. 7. 25. 
Zelall, ze'lah, side. Josh. 18. 28. 
Zelek, ze'lek, fissure. 2 Sam. 23. 37. 
Zelophehad, ze-lo'fe-had, feature. 

Num. 26. 23. 
Zelotes, ze-15'teg, Greek equivalent 

of Canaanite, an emulator. Luke 6. 

Zelzah, zSl'zah, shade in the heat. I 

Sam. 10. 2. 
Zemaraim, zgm-a-ra'im, two fleeces. 

Josh. 18. 22. 
Zemarite, zem'a-rlte. Gen. 10. 18. 
Zeniira, ze-ml'ra. I Chr. 7. 8. 
Zenan, ze'nan, same as Zaanan. Josh. 

Zenas, ze'nas, contraction of Zeno- 

dorus. Tit. 3. 13. 
Zephaniah, zef a-nl'ah, whom Jeho- 
vah hid. 2 Kin. 25. 18. 
Zephatll, ze'fath, watch-tower (?). 

Judg. 1. 17. 
Zephathah, zeFa-thah. 2 Chr. 14. 

Zephi, ze'ft, same a3 Zephath. i 

Chr. 1. 36. 
Zepho, ze'fo, older form of Zephi. 

Gen. 36. 11. 
Zephon, ze'fon, a looking out. Num. 

26. 15. 
Zer, zer, flint (?). Josh. 19. 35. 
Zerah, ze'rah, dawn. 2 Chr. 14. 9. 
Zeralliah, zSr-a-hl'ah, whom Jehovah 

caused to rise. I Chr. 6. 6. 
Zered, ze'red, same as Zared. Deut. 

2. 13. 
Zereda, zer'e-da, cool. 1 Kin. 11. 26. 
Zeredathah, ze-red''a-thah, same as 

preceding. 2 Chr. 4. 17. 
Zererath, zer'e-rath. Judg. 7. 22. 
Zeresh, zc'resh, gold. Est. 5. 10. 
Zereth, ze'reth, gold (?). 1 Chr. 4. 7. 
Zeri, ze'rl, same as Izri. i Chr. 25. 3. 
Zeror, ze'ror, bundle. I Sam. 9. I. 
Zeruah, ze-ru/ah, leprous. I Kin. 

11. 26. 

Zerubbabel, ze-rub / ba-bel, scattered 

in Babylon. Hag. I. I. 
Zeruiah, z£r-u-I'ah. 1 Sam. 26. 6. 
Zetham, ze'tham, olive. 1 Chr. 23. 8. 
Zethan, ze'than, same as Zetham. 

I Chr. 7. 10. 

Zethar, ze'thar. Est. 1. 10. 
Zia, zl'a, motion. I Chr. 5. 13. 
Ziba, zi'ba, planter. 2 Sam. 9. 2. 
Zibeon, zlb'e-on, dyed. Gen. 36. 2. 
Zibia, zib'i-a, gazelle (?). 1 Chr. 

8. 9. 
Zibiall, zib-'I-ah, same as ZlBIA. 2 

Kin. 12. I. 
Zichri, zlk'rl, famous. 2 Chr. 23. 1. 
Ziddini, zld'dim, sides. Josh. 19. 

Zidkijah, zid-kl'jah, justice of Jeho- 
vah. Neh. 10. 1. 
Zidon, zl'don, fishing. Gen. 49. Ij. 
Zif, zif, blossom. 1 Kin. 6. 1. 
Ziba, zl'ha, drought. Ezra 2. 43. 
Ziklag', zlk'lag. Josh. 15. 31. 
Zillah, zll'lah, shade. Gen. 4. 19. 
Zilpall, zil'pah, dropping. Gen. 29. 

Zilthai, zil'thai, shady. 1 Chr. 8. 

Zimmall, zim'mah, planning. 1 Chr. 

6. 20. 
Zimran, zlm'ran, celebrated. Gen. 

25. 2. 
Zimri, zlrn'rl, same as Zimran. i Kin. 

16. 9. 
Zin, zin, thorn. Num. 13. 21. 
Zina, zl'na, abundance (?). I Chr. 

23. 10. 
Zion, zl'on, sunny. 2 Sam. 5. 7. 
Zior, zl'or, smallness. Josh. 15. 54. 
Ziph, zif, flowing. 1 Chr. 4. 16. 
Ziphall, zl'fah, feminine of ZlFH. I 

Chr. 4. 16. 
Ziphim, ziFim, inhabitants of Ziph. 

Ps. 54, title. 
Ziphites, ziPites, same as Ziphim. 

I Sam. 23. 19. 
Ziphion, ziFl-on, same as Zephon. 

Gen. 46. 16. 
Ziphron, ziFron, sweet smell. Num. 

Zippor, zTp'por, bird. Num. 22. 2. 
Zipporah, zip-po'rah, fem. of Zippor. 

Ex. 2. 21. 
Zithri, zitVrl, protection of Jeho- 
vah (?). Ex. 6. 22. 
Ziz, zlz, a flower. 2 Chr. 20. 16. 
Ziza, zl'za, abundance. I Chr. 4. 37. 
Zizah, zr'zah. 1 Chr. 23. 11. 
Zoan, zo'aiijlow region. Num. 13. 22. 
Zoar, za'ar, smallness. Gen. 13. 10. 
Zoba, zO'ba, a plantation. 2 Sam. 

10. 6. 
Zoball, zO'bah, same as preceding. I 

Sam. 14. 47. 
Zobeball, zo-be'bah, walking slowly. 

I Chr. 4. 8. 
Zohar, zO'har, light. Gen. 23. 8. 
Zoheleth, zo'he-leth, serpent stone. 

1 Kin. 1. 9. 
Zoheth, zO'heth, strong (?). I Chr. 

4. 20. 
Zophah, zO'fah, a cruse (?). I Chr. 

7- 35- . 
Zophai, zO-fai, honeycomb. I Chr. 

6. 26. 
Zophar, zO'far, chatterer. Job 2. II. 
Zopllim, zO'fim, watchers. Num. 23. 

Zerah, zC'rah, a place of hornets. Josh. 

19. 41. 
Zorathites, zo'rath-ltes, people of 

Zorah. 1 Chr. 4. 2. 
Zoreah, zo're-ah, same as Zorah. 

Josh. 15. 33. " 
Zorites, zo'rites, same as Zorath- 
ites. 1 Chr. 2. 54. 
Zorobabel, zo-rab'a-bel, Greek form 

of Zerubbabel. Mat. I. 12. 
Zuar, zu'ar, same as Zoar. Num. 

1. 8. 
Zlipll, zuf, flag, sedge. I Sam. 1. I. 
Zur, zur, rock. Num. 25. 15. 
Zuriel, zu'rl-el, God is the Rock. 

Num. 3. 35. 
Zurishaddai, zu-rl-shad'da-l, whose 

/.Imighty is the Rock. Num. I. 6. 
Zilizim, zu'zim. Gen. 14. 5. 

a, e, I, 0, 0, y, long; a, e, I, 6, fi, y, short; a, e, t, 6, intermediate; a, e, J, o, obscure ; care, far, last, fall, term, firm, familjar, 

for, farL rude, push, 5 as s, g as j, g as in get, g as z, j as gz- 




Year before the Common Year of CHRIST, 4004. — Julian Period, 0710. — Cycle of the Sun, 0010. — Dominical Letter, B.— 

Cycle of the Moon, 0007. — Indiction, 0005. — Creation from Tisri, 0001. 


1 The creation of heaven and earth. 14 Sun, moon and stars are created. 26 Man is 
■made in the image of God. 29 The appointment of food. 

IN a the beginning 6 God created the heaven and 
the earth. 

2 And the earth was "without form, and void ; 
and darkness was upon the face of the deep. d And 
the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. 

3 II 'And God said, Let there be light : and there 
was light. 

4 And God saw the light, that it was good : and 
God divided Hhe light from the darkness: 

5 And God called the light r Day, and the dark- 
ness he called Night. 2 And the evening and the 
morning were the first day. 

6 If And God said, "Let there be a 3 firmament in 
the midst of the waters, and let it divide the wa- 
ters from the waters. 

7 And God made the firmament, and divided the 
waters which were under the firmament from the 
waters which were above the firmament : and it 
was so. 

8 And God called the firmament Heaven. And 
the evening and the morning were the second day. 

9 II And God said, fe Let the waters under the heaven 
be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry 
land appear : and it was so. 

10 And God called the dry land Earth ; and the 
gathering together of the waters called he Seas : 
and God saw that it was good. 

11 And God said, f Let the earth bring forth 4 grass, 
the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding 
fruit j after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon 
the earth : and it was so. 

12 And the earth brought forth grass, and herb 
yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding 
fruit, whose seed was in itself, after his kind : and 
God saw that it was good. 

13 And the evening and the morning were the 
third day. 

14 If And God said, fc Let there be lights in the fir- 
mament of the heaven to divide 5 the day from the 
night ; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, 
and for days, and years : 

15 And let them be for lights in the firmament 
of the heaven to give light upon the earth : and it 
was so. 

16 And God made two great lights ; the greater 


B. C. 4004. 

a John 1. 1,3. 

Heb. 1. 10. 
b Job 38. 4. 

Isa. 44. 24. 

Rom. 1. 20.. 

Col. 1. 16. 

Heb. 11. 3. 

Rev. 4. 11. 
c Jer. 4. 23. 
d Isa. 40. 12. 
e Ps. 33. 9. 

1 between the 
light and be- 
tween the 

/ Ps. 74. 16. 

2 And the even- 
ing was, and 
the morning 

g Job 37. 18. 
Ps. 33. 6. 
Ps. 136. 5. 
Jer. 10. 12. 

3 expansion. 

h Job 26. 10. 

Job 38. 8. 

Ps. 33. 7. 

Ps. 95. 5. • 
i Heb. 6. 7. 

4 tender grass. 
/ Luke G. 44. 

k Deut. 4. 19. 
Job 25. 3, 5. 
Ps. 74. 16. 
Ps. 136. 7. 

5 between the 
day and be- 
tween the 

6 for the rule of 
the day, etc. 

I Ps. 8. 1. 

m Ps. 104. 24. 

7 Or, creeping. 

8 soul. 

9 let fowl fly. 

10 face of the 
firmament of 

n Ps. 104. 18-23. 

Ps. 100. 3. 
p Eph. 4. 24. 

Jas. 3. 9. 
q Ps. 8. 6. 
r 1 Cor. 11. 7. 

Eph. 4. 24. 

Col. 3. 10. 
s Mai. 2. 15. 

Matt. 19. 4. 

Mark 10. 6. 

1 Ps. 127. 3. 

1 Tim. 4. 3. 
u ch. 9. 1, 7. 
Lev. 26. 9. 
Ps. 128. 3, 4. 

11 creepeth. 

12 seeding seed. 
v Job 36. 31. 

Ps. 104. 14, 15. 
Ps. 136. 25. 
Ps. 146. 7. 
Acts 14. 17. 

light G to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule 
the night : he made the stars also. 

17 And God *set them in the firmament of the 
heaven to give light upon the earth, 

18 And to rule over the day and over the night, 
and to divide the light from the darkness : and God 
saw that it was good. 

19 And the evening and the morning were the 
fourth day. 

20 And God said, m Let the waters bring forth 
abundantly the 7 moving creature that hath 8 life, 
and 9 fowl that may fly above the earth in the 10 open 
firmament of heaven. 

21 And God created great whales, and every liv- 
ing creature that moveth, which the waters brought 
forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged 
fowl after his kind : and God saw that it was good. 

22 And God blessed them, saying, Be fruitful, and 
multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let fowl 
multiply in the earth. 

23 And the evening and the morning were the 
fifth day. 

24 If And God said, w Let the earth bring forth the 
living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping 
thing, and beast of the earth after his kind : and 
it was so. 

25 And God made the beast of the earth after his 
kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing 
that creepeth upon the earth after his kind : and 
God saw that it was good. 

26 Tf And God said, "Let us make man p in our 
image, after our likeness : and let them have q do- 
minion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl 
of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the 
earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth 
upon the earth. 

27 So God created man in his own image, in the 
r image of God created he him ; s male and female 
created he them. 

28 And 'God blessed them, and God said unto 
them, Be u fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the 
earth, and subdue it : and have dominion over the 
fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and 
over every living thing that " moveth upon the earth. 

29 If And God said, Behold, I have given you every 
herb 12 bearing seed, which is upon the face of all 
the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit 
of a tree yielding seed ; "to you it shall be for meat 


The garden of Eden. 

GENESIS, 2, 3. 

The fall of man. 

30 And w to every beast of the earth, and x to every 
fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth 
upon the earth, wherein there is 13 life, i" have given 
every green herb for meat : and it was so. 

31 And ^God saw every thing that he had made, 
and, behold, it was very good. And the evening 
and the morning were the sixth day. 


1 The first sabbath. 8 The garden of Eden. 21 The making of woman, 24 The insti- 
tution of marriage. 

THUS the heavens and the earth were finished, 
and all the host of them. 

2 And "on the seventh day God ended his work 
which he had made ; and he rested on the seventh 
day from all his work which he had made. 

3 And God b blessed the seventh day, and sancti- 
fied it : because that in it he had rested from all his 
work which God 'created and made. 

4 If These are the generations of the heavens and 
of the earth when they were created, in the day 
that the Lord God made the earth and the heavens, 

5 And c every plant of the field before it was in 
the earth, and every herb of the field before it 
grew : for the d LoRD God had not caused it to rain 
upon the earth, and there ivas not a man to till the 

6 But 2 there went up a mist from the earth, and 
watered the whole face of the ground. 

7 And the Lord God formed man 3 o/ the dust of 
the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath 
of life ; and man became a living soul. 

8 J And the Lord God planted a e garden eastward 
in E'den ; and there he put the man whom he had 

9 And out of the ground made the Lord God to 
•'grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and 
good for food ; "the tree of life also in the midst of 
the garden, and the tree of knowledge of good and 

10 And /l a river went out of E'den to water the 
garden ; and from thence it was parted, and became 
into four heads. 

11 The name of the first is Pi'son : that is it which 
compasseth the whole land of ^Hav'i-lah, where 
there is gold ; 

12 And the gold of that land is good : there is 
bdellium and the onyx stone. 

13 And the name of the second river is Gl'hon : 
the same is it that compasseth the whole land of 

14 And the name of the third river is ^'Hid'de-kel : 
that is it which goeth 5 toward the east of As-syr'i-a. 
And the fourth river is Eu-phra'teg. 

15 And the Lord God took 6 the man, and put 
him into the garden of E'den to dress it and to 
keep it. 

16 And the Lord God commanded the man, saying, 
Of every tree of the garden 7 thou may est freely eat : 

17 But of the tree of the knowledge of good and 
evil, thou shalt not eat of it : for in the day that 
thou eatest thereof 8 thou shalt surely die. 

B. C. 4004. 

w Ps. 145. 15, 16. 

Ps. 147. 9. 
x Job 38. 41. 
13 a living soul. 

y Ps. 104. 24. 
1 Tim. 4. 4. 

a Ex. 31. 17. 
Heb. 4. 4. 

b Ex. 16. 22-30. 

1 created to 

c Ps. 104. 14. 

d Ps. 65. 9, 11. 

2 Or, a mist 
which went up. 

3 the dust of, etc. 

e ch. 13. 10. 
/Ezek. 31. 8. 
g ch. 3. 22. 

Rev. 22. 2, 14. 
h Ps. 46. 4. 
i ch. 25. IS. 

4 Cush. 

j Dan. 10. 4. 

5 Or, eastward 
to Assyria. 

6 Or, Adam. 

7 eating thou 
shalt eat. 

8 dying thou 
shalt die. 

9 as before him. 
k Ps. 8. 6. 

10 Or, the man. 

11 called. 

I ch. 15. 12. 

12 builded. 

m Prov. 18. 22. 

Heb. 13. 4. 
n ch. 29. 14. 

Judg. 9. 2. 

2 Sam. 5. 1. 

Eph. 5. 30. 

13 Isha. 

14 Ish. 

1 Cor. 11. 8. 
Ps. 45. 10. 

Matt. 19. 5. 

Mark 10. 7. 

1 Cor. 6. 16. 
p Eph. 5. 28-31. 
q Ex. 32. 25. 

Isa. 47. 3. 

a Matt. 10. 16. 
Rev. 12. 9. 
Rev. 20. 2. 

1 because, etc. 
b ch. 2. 16, 17. 
c 2 Cor. 11. 3. 

1 Tim. 2. 14. 

2 a desire. 

d Rom. 5. 12-19. 

3 Or, things to 
gird about. 

e Job 38. 1. 

4 wind. 
/■Job 31. 33. 

Ps. 139. 1-12. 

Jer. 23. 34. 

Amos 9. 3. 
g ch. 4. 9. 
h Job 23. 15. 

1 John 3. 20. 

18 Tf And the Lord God said, It is not good that 
the man should be alone ; I will make him an help 
9 meet for him. 

19 And out of the ground the Lord God formed 
every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air ; 
and k brought them unto Ad 'am to see what he would 
call them : and whatsoever 10 Ad'am called every 
living creature, that was the name thereof. 

20 And Ad'am "gave names to all cattle, and to 
the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field ; 
but for Ad'am there was not found an help meet 
for him. 

21 And the Lord God caused a deep 'sleep to fall 
upon Ad'am, and he slept : and he took one of his 
ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof ; 

22 And the rib, which the Lord God had taken 
from man, 12 made he a woman, and m brought her 
unto the man. 

23 And Ad'am said, This is now bone n of my bones, 
and flesh of my flesh : she shall be called 13 Woman, 
because she was taken out of 14 Man. 

24 Therefore ° shall a man leave his father and 
his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife : and 
p they shall be one flesh. 

25 And they were both naked, the man and his 
wife, and were not "ashamed. 


1 Ere deceived. 6 The fall of man. 14 The curse. 22 Expulsion from the garden. 

"1VTOW the serpent was more subtil "than any beast 
-^ of the field which the Lord God had made. 
And he said unto the woman, Yea, ' hath God said, 
Ye shall not eat of every tree of the garden ? 

2 And the woman said unto the serpent, We may 
eat of the fruit of the trees of the garden : 

3 6 But of the fruit of the tree which is in the 
midst of the garden, God hath said, Ye shall not eat 
of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die. 

4 And the serpent said unto the woman, c Ye shall 
not surely die : 

5 For God doth know that in the day ye eat 
thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall 
be as gods, knowing good and evil. 

6 And when the woman saw that the tree was good 
for food, and that it was 2 pleasant to the eyes, and 
a tree to be desired to make one wise, she took of 
the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave also unto 
her husband with her ; d and he did eat. 

7 And the eyes of them both were opened, and 
they knew that they were naked ; and they sewed 
fig leaves together, and made themselves 3 aprons. 

8 And they heard "the voice of the Lord God 
walking in the garden in the 4 cool of the day : and 
Ad'am and his wife •'hid themselves from the pre- 
sence of the Lord God amongst the trees of the 

9 And the Lord God called unto Ad'am, and said 
unto him, ° Where art thou ? 

10 And he said, I heard thy voice in the garden, 
and h l was afraid, because I was naked ; and I hid 

11 And he said, Who told thee that thou wast 

Driven from the garden. 


The curse of Cain. 

naked? Hast thou eaten of the tree, whereof I 
commanded thee that thou shouldest not eat ? 

12 And the man said, 'The woman whom thou 
gavest to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and 
I did eat. 

13 And the Lord God said unto the woman, What 
is this that thou hast done ? And the woman said, 
The serpent beguiled me, and I did eat. 

14 And the Lord God said unto the serpent, Be- 
cause thou hast done this, thou art cursed above all 
cattle, and above every beast of the field ; upon thy 
belly shalt thou go, and J 'dust shalt thou eat all the 
days of thy life : 

15 And I will put k enmity between thee and the 
woman, and between thy seed and her seed ; l \t 
shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel. 

16 Unto the woman he said, I will greatly multiply 
thy sorrow and thy conception ; ™in sorrow thou 
shalt bring forth children ; and thy desire shall be 
5 to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee. 

17 And unto Ad' am he said, Because thou hast 
hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten 
of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying, 
Thou shalt not eat of it : cursed is the ground for 
thy sake ; n in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the 
days of thy life ; 

18 Thorns also and thistles shall it 6 bring forth 
to thee ; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field ; 

19 In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, 
till thou return unto the ground ; for out of it wast 
thou taken : for dust thou art, and °unto dust shalt 
thou return. 

20 And Ad'am called his wife's name 7 Eve; be- 
cause she was the mother of all living. 

21 Unto Ad'am also and to his. wife did the Lord 
God make coats of skins, and clothed them. 

22 If And the Lord God said, v Behold, the man is 
become as one of us, to know good and evil : and 
now, lest he put forth his hand, 9 and take also of 
the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever : 

23 Therefore_the Lord God sent him forth from 
the garden of E'den, to till the ground from whence 
he was taken. 

24 So he drove out the man ; and he placed r at 
the east of the garden of E'den s Cher'u-bim§, and 
a, flaming sword which turned every way, 4 to keep 
the way of the tree of life. 


1 Cain and Abel. 11 The curse of Cain. 19 Lantech's family. 25 Birth of Seth. 

AND Ad'am knew Eve his wife ; and she con- 
- ceived, and bare 1 Cain, and said, I have gotten 
a man from the Lord. 

_2 And she again bare his brother 2 A'bel. And 
A'bel was 3 a keeper of sheep, but Cain was a tiller 
of the ground. 

3 And 4 in process of time it came to pass, that 
Cain brought of the fruit of the ground an offering 
unto the Lord. 

4 And A'bel, he also brought of Hhe firstlings of 
his 5 flock and of the fat thereof. And the Lord 
had b respect unto A'bel and to his offering : 

B. C. 4004. 

1 Piov. 28. U 
Jaa 1. 13. 

j Isa. 65. 25. 
Mic. 7. IT. 

k Num. 21. G, 7. 

I Rom. 16. 20. 
Heb. 2. 14. 
1 John 3. 8. 

m John 16. 21. 
1 Tim. 2. 15. 

5 Or, subject to 
thy husband. 

n Job 5. 7. 
Eccl. 2. 23. 

6 cause to bud. 

ol Cor. 15.21,22. 

7 Chavah, or, 

p verse 5. 
a oh. 2. 9. 
r ch. 2. 8. 
« Ps. 104. 4. 

Heb. 1.7. 
I John 14. 0. 

1 That is, gotten, 
or, acquired. 

2 Hebel. 

3 feeder. 

4 at the end of 

a Ex. 13. 12. 
Ex. 34. 19. 
Lev. 27. 26. 
Num. 18. 17. 
Prov. 3. 9. 

5 sheep, or, 

b Judg. 6.21. 
cHeb. 11.4. 
Or, have the 


Heb. 11. 4. 

7 Or, subject 
unto thee, 
ch. 3. 16. 

d Matt. 23. 35. 

1 John 3. 
Jude 11. 

8 bloods. 

e Heb. 12. 24. 

Rev. 6. 10. 
/Deut. 2S. 15-20. 

Gal. 3. 10. 
g Job 16. 18. 

9 Or, Mine 
iniquity is 
greater than 
that it may be 

h Ezek. 9. 4, 0. 
i 2 Ki. 13. 23. 

2 Ki. 24. 20. 
Jer. 23. 39. 
Jer. 52. 3. 

10 Chanoch. 
j Ps. 49. 11. 

11 Lemech. 

12 vvhetter. 

13 Or, I would 
slay a man in 
my wound, etc. 

14 Or, in my 

5 But c 'unto Cain and to his offering he had not 
respect. And Cain was very wroth, and his counte- 
nance fell. 

6 And the Lord said unto Cain, Why art thou 
wroth ? and why is thy countenance fallen ? 

7 If thou doest well, shalt thou not c be accepted? 
and if thou doest not well, sin lieth at the door. And 
' unto thee shall be his desire, and thou shalt rule 
over him. 

8 And Cain talked with A'bel his brother : and it 
came to pass, when they were in the field, that Cain 
rose up against A'bel his brother, and d slew him. 

9 ]f And the Lord said unto Cain, Where is A'bel 
thy brother ? And he said, I know not : Am I my 
brother's keeper ? 

10 And he said, What hast thou done ? the voice 
of thy brother's 8 blood e crieth unto me from the 

11 And now art thou •'"cursed from the earth, which 
hath opened her ° mouth to receive thy brother's 
blood from thy hand ; 

12 When thou tillest the ground, it shall not hence- 
forth yield unto thee her strength ; a fugitive and 
a vagabond shalt thou be in the earth. 

13 And Cain said unto the Lord, 9 My punishment 
is greater than I can bear. 

14 Behold, thou hast driven me out this day from 
the face of the earth ; and from thy face shall I be 
hid ; and I shall be a fugitive and a vagabond in the 
earth ; and it shall come to pass, that every one that 
findeth me shall slay me.. 

15 And the Lord said unto him, Therefore who- 
soever slayeth Cain, vengeance shall be taken on him 
sevenfold. And the Lord h set a mark upon Cain, 
lest any finding him should kill him. 

16 If And Cain went out from the * presence of the 
Lord, and dwelt in the land of Nod, on the east of 

17 And Cain knew his wife ; and she conceived, 
and bare 10 E'noch : and he builded a city, J 'and called 
the name of the city, after the name of his son, 

18 And unto E'noch was born I'rad : and I'rad be- 
gat Me-hu'ja-el : and Me-hu'ja-el begat Me-thu'- 
sa-el : and Me-thu'sa-el begat "La'mech. 

19 If And La'mech took unto him two wives : the 
name of the one was A'dah, and the name of the 
other Zil'lah. 

20 And A'dah bare Ja'bal : he was the father of 
such as dwell in tents, and of such as have cattle. 

21 And his brother's name was Ju'bal : he was the 
father of all such as handle the harp and organ. 

22 And Zil'lah, she also bare Tu'bal-cain, an 12 in- 
structer of every artificer in brass and iron : and the 
sister of Tu'bal-cain was Na'a-mah. 

23 And La'mech said unto his wives, A'dah and 
Zil'lah, Hear my voice ; ye wives of La'mech, hearken 
unto my speech : for 13 I have slain a man to my 
wounding, and a young man 14 to my hurt. 

24 If Cain shall be avenged sevenfold, truly La'- 
mech seventy and sevenfold. 

25 If And Ad'am knew his wife again ; and she 


Genealogy of the patriarchs. 

GENESIS, 5, 6. 

Wickedness of man. 

bare a son, and called his name 15 Seth : For God, 
said she, hath appointed me another seed instead 
of A'bel, whom Cain slew. 

26 And to Seth, to him_also there was born a son ; 
and he called his name 16 E'nos : then began men " to 
call upon the name of the Lord. 


1 The genealogy and age of the patriarchs. 24 Translation of Enoch. 

THIS is the "book of the generations of Ad'am. 
In the day that God created man, in Hhe like- 
ness of God made he him ; 

2 Male and female created he them ; and blessed 
them, and called their name Ad'am, in the day when 
they were created. 

3 11 And Ad'am lived an hundred and thirty years, 
and begat a son in his own likeness, after his image ; 
and called his name Seth : 

4 And the days of Ad'am after he had begotten 
Seth were eight hundred years : and he begat sons 
and daughters : 

5 And all the days that Ad'am lived were nine 
hundred and thirty years : c and he died. 

6 And Seth lived an hundred and five years, and 
begat E'nos : 

7 And Seth lived after he begat E'nos eight hun- 
dred and seven years, and begat sons and daugh- 
ters : 

8 And all the days of Seth were nine hundred and 
twelve years : and he died. 

9 H And E'nos lived ninety years, and begat ! Ca- 
I'nan : 

10 And E'nos lived after he begat Ca-T'nan eight 
hundred and fifteen years, and begat sons and 
daughters : 

11 And all the days of E'nos were nine hundred 
and five years : and he died. 

12 If And Ca-I'nan lived seventy years, and begat 
2 Ma-ha'la-le-el: 

13 And Ca-T'nan lived after he begat Ma-ha'la-le-el 
eight hundred and forty years, and begat sons and 
daughters : 

14 And all the days of Ca-I'nan were nine hundred 
and ten years : and he died. 

15 IF And Ma-ha'la-le-el lived sixty and five years, 
and begat 3 Ja'red : 

16 And Ma-ha'la-le-el lived after he begat Ja'red 
eight hundred and thirty years, and begat sons and 
daughters : 

17 And all the days of Ma-ha'la-le-el were eight 
hundred ninety and five years : and he died. 

18 If And Ja'red lived an hundred sixty and two 
years, and he begat d E'noch : 

19 And Ja'red lived after he begat E'noch eight 
hundred years, and begat sons and daughters : 

20 And all the days of Ja'red were nine hundred 
sixty and two years : and he died. 

21 If And E'noch lived sixty and five years, and 
begat 4 Mi-thu'se-lah : 

22 And E'noch e walked with God after he begat 
Me-thu'se-lah three hundred years, and begat sons 
and daughters : 


B. C. 4004. 

15 Slieth, that 
is, appointed, 
or, put. 

1G Enosh. 
17 Or, to call 

themselves by 

the name of 

the Lord. 

ch. G. 2. 

1 Ki. IS. 24. . 

Ps. 11G. 17. 

Joel 2. 32. 

Zeph. 3. 9. 

John 1. 12. 

Acts 15. 17. 

1 Cor. 1. 2. 

a 1 Chr. 1. 1. 

Matt. 1.1. 

Luke 3. 38. 
b ch. 1. 2G, 27. 

Eph. 4. 24. 

Col. 3. 10. 

c ch. 3. 19. 
Job 30. 23. 
Ps. 49. 7-9. 
Ps. 89. 48. 
Rom. 5. 12. 
1 Cor. 15. 21. 
Heb. 9. 27. 

1 Kenan. 

2 Maleleel, that 
is, Praiser of 

3 Jered, that is, 

d\ Chr. 1. 3. 
Jude 14, 15. 

4 Or, Mathu- 
selah, that is, 
at his death 
the sending 
forth of 

e ch. G. 9. 

ch. 17. 1. 

2 Ki. 20. 3. 

Ps. 1G. 8. 

Mic. 6. 8. 

Mai. 2. 6. 

1 Thess. 2. 
f'2 Ki. 2. 11. 

Heb. 11. 5. 

5 Lemech. 

6 that is, rest, 
or, comfort. 

g ch. 3. 17. 
ch. 4. 11. 


a 2 Cor. 6. 18. 
6 Deut. 7. 3, 4. 
c Luke 19. 42. 

Gal. 5. 16, 17. 

1 Pet. 3. 20. 
d Ps. 78. 39. 
e Rom. 1. 28-31. 

1 the whole 
with the pur- 
poses and 
desires of 
the heart. 

/ch. 8. 21. 
Deut. 29. 19. 
Prov. G. 18. 
Matt. 15. 19. 

2 every day. 

g Num. 23. 19. 

1 Bam. 15. 

11, 29. 
h Isa. G3. 10. 

Eph. 4. 30. 

3 from man unto 

i ch. 19. 19. 
Ex. 33. 12. 
Luke 1. 30. 
Acts 7. 46. 

4 Or, upright. 
j Ps. 14. 2. 

Ps. 33. 13. 

23 And all the days of E'noch were three hundred 
sixty and five years : 

24 And ■''E'noch walked with God : and he was not ; 
for God took him. 

25 And Ms-thu'se-lah lived an hundred eighty and 
seven years, and begat 5 La'mech. 

26 And Mg-thu'se-lah lived after he begat La'mech 
seven hundred eighty and two years, and begat sons 
and daughters : 

27 And all the days of Me-thu'se-lah were nine 
hundred sixty and nine years : and he died. 

28 If And La'mech lived an hundred eighty and 
two years, and begat a son : 

29 And he called his name G No'ah, saying, This 
same shall comfort us concerning our work and toil 
of our hands, because of the ground 9 which the 
Lord hath cursed. 

30 And La'mech lived after he begat No 'ah five 
hundred ninety and five years, and begat sons and 
daughters : 

31 And all the days of La'mech were seven hun- 
dred seventy and seven years : and he died. 

32 And No'ah was five hundred years old : and 
No'ah begat Shem, Ham, and Ja'pheth. 


1 Wickedness of man. 9 Generations of Nouh. 14 Noah instructed to build the ark. 

\ ND it came to pass, when men began to multiply 
-£*- on the face of the earth, and daughters were 
born unto them, 

2 That "the sons of God saw the daughters of men 
that they were fair ; and they Hook them wives of 
all which they chose. 

3 And the Lord said, c My spirit shall not always 
strive with man, rf for that he also is flesh : yet his 
days shall be an hundred and twenty years. 

4 There were giants in the earth in those days ; 
and also after that, when the sons of God came in 
unto the daughters of men, and they bare children 
to them, the same became mighty men which were 
of old, men of renown. 

5 If And e G0D saw that the wickedness of man was 
great in the earth, and that 1 every •''imagination of 
the thoughts of his heart was only evil 2 continually. 

6 And 9 it repented the Lord that he had made 
man on the earth, and it h grieved him at his heart. 

7 And the Lord said, I will destroy man whom I 
have created from the face of the earth ; 3 both 
man, and beast, and the creeping thing, and the 
fowls of the air ; for it repenteth me that I have 
made them. 

8 But No'ah i found grace in the eyes of the Lord. 

9 If These are the generations of No'ah : No'ah 
was a just man and i perfect in his generations, and 
No'ah walked with God. 

10 And No'ah begat three sons, Shem, Ham, and 

11 The earth also was corrupt before God, and 
the earth was filled with violence. 

12 And God i looked upon the earth, and, behold, 
it was corrupt ; for all flesh had corrupted his way 
upon the earth. 

Building of the ark. 

GENESIS, 7, 8. 

The flood upon the earth. 

13 And God said unto No' ah, /c The end of all flesh 
is come before me ; for the earth is filled with vio- 
lence through them ; and, behold, I will destroy 
them 5 with the earth. 

14 1 Make thee an ark of gopher wood ; 6 rooms 
shalt thou make in the ark, and shalt pitch it within 
and without with pitch. 

15 And this is the fashion which thou shalt make 
it of: The length of the ark shall be three hundred 
cubits, the breadth of it fifty cubits, and the height 
of it thirty cubits. 

16 A window shalt thou make to the ark, and in a 
cubit shalt thou finish it above ; and the door of the 
ark shalt thou set in the side thereof ; with lower, 
second, and third sto7*ies shalt thou make it. 

17 l And, behold, I, even I, do bring a flood of waters 
upon the earth, to destroy all flesh, wherein is the 
breath of life, from under heaven ; and every thing 
that is in the earth m shall die. 

18 But with thee will I establish my covenant ; 
and thou shalt come into the ark, thou, and thy 
sons, and thy wife, and thy sons' wives with thee. 

19 And of every living thing of all flesh, two of 
every sort shalt thou bring into the ark, to keep 
them alive with thee ; they shall be male and fe- 

20 Of fowls after their kind, and of cattle after 
their kind, of every creeping thing of the earth af- 
ter his kind, two of every sort shall come unto thee, 
to keep them alive. 

21 And take thou unto thee of all n food that is 
eaten, and thou shalt gather it to thee ; and it shall 
be for food for thee, and for them. 

22 "Thus did No 'ah ; p according to all that God 
commanded him, so did he. 


1 Noah enters the ark. 17 The flood upon the earth. 

AND the Lord said unto No'ah, "Come thou and 
- all thy house into the ark; 6 for thee have I 
seen righteous before me in this generation. 

2 Of every c clean beast thou shalt take to thee by 
1 sevens, the male and his female : and of beasts 
that are not clean by two, the male and his female. 

3 Of fowls also of the air by sevens, the male and 
the female ; to keep seed alive upon the face of all 
the earth. 

4 For yet seven days, and d I will cause it to rain 
upon the earth forty days and forty nights ; and 
every living substance that I have made will I 2 de- 
stroy from off the face of the earth. 

5 And No'ah did according unto all e that the 
Lord commanded him. 

6 And No'ah was six hundred years old when the 
flood of waters was upon the earth. 

7 If •'"And No'ah went in, and his sons, and his 
wife, and his sons' wives with him, into the ark, be- 
cause of the waters of the flood. 

8 Of clean beasts, and of beasts that are not 
clean, and of fowls, and of every thing that creep- 
eth upon the earth, 

9 There went in two and two unto No'ah into the 

B. C. 2349. 

k Ezek. 7. 2. 
Amos 8. 2. 
1 Pet. 4. 7. 

5 Or, from the 

6 nests. 

/ 2 Pet. 2. 5. 

m Rom. 5. 12,14. 

n ch. 1. 29, 30. 
o Heb. 11. 7. 

p ch. 7. 5. 

aPs. 91. 1-10. 
Heb. 11. 7. 

1 Pet. 3. 20. 

2 Pet. 2. 5. 
b eh. G. 9. 

Ps. 33. 18, 19. 
2 Pet. 2. 9. 
c Lev. 11. 

1 seven seven. 
d Job 22. 16. 

2 Pet. 2. 5. 

2 blot out. 
e eh. G. 22. 

Ps. 119. 6. 
/Heb. 6. 18. 

3 Or, on the 
seventh day. 

g ch. 8. 2. 

Prov. 8. 28. 

Ezek. 26. 19. 
h Ps. 78. 23. 

Isa. 24. 18. 

Mai. 3. 10. 

4 Or, flood-gates. 

5 wing. 

i Ps. 91. 
Ps. 17. 8. 
Ps. 145. 20. 

1 Pet. 1. 5. 
/ Ps. 104. 26. 
k Ps. 104. 6. 

I ch. G. 13, 17. 
Job 22. 16. 
Matt. 24. 39. 
Luke 17. 27. 

2 Pet. 3. 6. 
m ch. 2. 7. 

G the breath of 

the spirit of 

n Ezek. 14. 14. 

Mai. 3. 17, 18. 

Heb. 11. 7. 

1 Pet. 3. 20. 

2 Pet. 2. 5. 
ch. 8. 3. 4. 

compared with 
verse 1 1 of this 

a ch. 19. 29. 

Ex. 2. 24. 

1 Sam. 1. 19. 

Ps. 105. 42. 

Ps. 136. 23. 
b Ex. 14. 21. 

Ex. 15. 10. 

Ps. 104. 7. 
c ch. 7. 11. 
d 1 Ki. 8. 35. 

Job 38. 37. 

ark, the male and the female, as God had com- 
manded No'ah. 

10 And it came to pass 3 after seven days, that 
the waters of the flood were upon the earth. 

11 1[ In the six hundredth year of No'ah's life, 
in. the second month, the seventeenth day of the 
month, the same day were all ° the fountains of the 
great deep broken up, and the hi windows of heaven 
were opened. 

12 And the rain was upon the earth forty days 
and forty nights. 

13 In the selfsame day entered No'ah, and Shem, 
and Ham, and Ja'pheth, the sons of No'ah, and 
No'ah's wife, and the three wives of his sons with 
them, into the ark ; 

14 They, and every beast after his kind, and all 
the cattle after their kind, and every creeping thing 
that creepeth upon the earth after his kind, and 
every fowl after his kind, every bird of every 
5 sort. 

15 And they went in unto No'ah into the ark, two 
and two of all flesh, wherein is the breath of life. 

16 And they that went in, went in male and fe- 
male of all flesh, as God had commanded him : and 
the Lord *shut him in. 

17 And the flood was forty days upon the earth ; 
and the waters increased, and bare up the ark, and 
it was lift up above the earth. 

18 And the waters prevailed, and were increased 
greatly upon the earth ; •'and the ark went upon 
the face of the waters. 

19 And the waters prevailed exceedingly upon 
the earth ; fc and all the high hills, that were under 
the whole heaven, were covered. 

20 Fifteen cubits upward did the waters prevail ; 
and the mountains were covered. 

21 'And all flesh died that moved upon the earth, 
both of fowl, and of cattle, and of beast, and of 
every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth, 
and every man : 

22 All in m whose nostrils was G the breath of life, 
of all that was in the dry land, died. 

23 And every living substance was destroyed 
which was upon the face of the ground, both man, 
and cattle, and the creeping things, and the fowl 
of the heaven ; and they were destroyed from the 
earth : and "No'ah only remained alive, and they 
that were with him in the ark. 

24 "And the waters prevailed upon the earth an 
hundred and fifty days. 


1 The waters assivage. 4 The ark rests. IS Xonh goes forth. 21 God promises to curse 

the earth no more- 

AND God a remembered No'ah, and every living 
- thing, and all the cattle that was with him in 
the ark : b and God made a wind to pass over the 
earth, and the waters asswaged ; 

2 c The fountains also of the deep and the win- 
dows of heaven were stopped, and d the rain from 
heaven was restrained ; 

3 And the waters returned from off the earth 


The ark rests. 


The covenant established. 

Continually : and after the end e of the hundred 
and fifty days the waters were abated. 

4 And the ark rested in the seventh month, on the 
seventeenth day of the month, upon the mountains 
of Ar'a-rat. 

5 And the waters 2 decreased continually until the 
tenth month : in the tenth month, on the first day 
of the month, were the tops of the mountains seen. 

6 Tf And it came to pass at the end of forty days, 
that No'ah opened y the window of the ark which 
he had made : 

7 And he sent forth °a raven, which went forth 
3 to and fro, until the waters were dried up from off 
the earth. 

8 Also he sent forth a dove from him, to see if the 
waters were abated from off the face of the ground ; 

9 But the dove h found no rest for the sole of her 
foot, and she returned unto him into the ark, for 
the waters were on the face of the whole earth : 
then he put forth his hand, and took her, and i pulled 
her in unto him into the ark. 

10 And he stayed yet other seven days ; and again 
he sent forth the dove out of the ark ; 

11 And the dove came in to him in the evening ; 
and, lo, in her mouth was an 'olive leaf pluckt off : 
so No'ah knew that the waters were abated from 
off the earth. 

12 And he stayed yet other seven days ; and sent 
forth the dove ; which returned not again unto him 
any more. 

13 Tf And it came to pass in the six hundredth and 
first year, in the first month, the first day of the 
month, the waters were dried up from off the earth : 
and No'ah removed the covering of the ark, and 
looked, and, behold, the face of the ground was dry. 

14 And in the second month, on the seven and 
twentieth day of the month, was the earth dried. 

15 1[ And God spake unto No'ah, saying, 

16 Go j forth of the ark, thou, and thy wife, and 
thy sons, and thy sons' wives with thee. 

17 Bring forth with thee every living thing that 
is with thee, of all flesh, both of fowl, and of cattle, 
and of every creeping thing that creepeth upon the 
earth ; that they may breed abundantly in the earth, 
and ''be fruitful, and multiply upon the earth. 

18 And No'ah went forth, and his sons, and his 
wife, and his sons' wives with him : 

19 Every beast, every creeping thing, and every 
fowl, and whatsoever creepeth upon the earth, after 
their 5 kinds, went forth out of the ark. 

20 Tf And No'ah builded an altar unto the Lord ; 
and took of l every clean beast, and of every clean 
fowl, and offered burnt offerings on the altar. 

21 And the Lord smelled 6 a sweet savour; and 
the Lord said in his heart, I will not again m curse 
the ground any more for man's sake ; 7 for the n im- 
agination of man's heart is evil from his youth ; 
"neither will I again smite any more every thing 
living, as I have done. 

22 8 While the earth remaineth, seedtime and har- 
vest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, 
and May and night shall not cease. 


B. C. 2349. 

1 in going and 

e ch. 7. 24. 

; were m going 
and decreas- 

/ch. G. 16. 

g 1 Ki. 17. 4. 

3 in going forth 
and returning. 

h Deut. 28. 65. 

4 caused her to 

I Luke 2. 14. 

i ch. 7. 13. 

Ps. 121. 8. 
k ch. 1. 22. 

5 families. 
/Lev. 11. 

6 savour of rest. 
Lev. 1. 9. 

Ex. 20. 41. 
2 Cor. 2. 15. 
Eph. 5. 2. 
m ch. 3. 17. 
ch. 6. 17. 
Isa. 54. 9. 

7 Or, though. 
n ch. 6. 5. 

Ps. 51. 5. 
Job 14. 4. 
Job 15. 14. 
Jer. 17. 9. 
Rom. 1. 21. 
Rom. 3. 23. 
Eph. 2. 1-3. 
o ch. 9. 15. 

8 As yet ail the 
days of the 

1> Jer. 33. 20, 25. 

a oh. 1. 28. 
b Hos. 2. 18. 

Jas. 3. 7. 
c Deut. 12. 15. 

Deut. 14. 3. 
d Lev. 17. 10. 

Lev. 19. 26. 

Deut. 12. 23. 

1 Sam. 14. 34. 

Acts 15. 20, 29. 
cEx. 21. 28,29. 
/Num. 35. 31. 
g Acts 17. 20. 
h Ex.21. 12, 14. 

Lev. 24. 17. 

Matt. 26. 52. 

Rev. 13. 10. 
i ch. 1. 27. 

1 Cor. 11. 7. 
j ch. 8. 1. 

k 2 Pet. 3. 5. 

/ Matt. 26. 26-28. 

m Ex. 28. 12. 

Lev. 26. 42, 45. 

Ezek. 16. 60. 

Isa. 54. 9. 
n ch. 17. 13, 19. 

2 Sam. 23. 5. 

ch. 10. 6. 

1 Chenaan. 
p ch. 10. 32. 

1 Chr. 1. 4. 


1 Noah blessed. 8 The covenant established. 13 The rainbow. 25 Canaan cursed. 

AND °God blessed No'ah and his sons, and said 
-£*- unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and re- 
plenish the earth. 

2 6 And the fear of you and the dread of you shall 
be upon every beast of the earth, and upon every 
fowl of the air, upon all that moveth upon the 
earth, and upon all the fishes of the sea ; into your 
hand are they delivered. 

3 c Every moving thing that liveth shall be meat 
for you ; even as the green herb have I given you 
all things. 

4 d But flesh with the life thereof, which is the 
blood thereof, shall ye not eat. 

5 And surely your blood of your lives will I re- 
quire ; e at the hand of every beast will I require it, 
and ■'"at the hand of man ; at the hand of every 
"man's brother will I require the life of man. 

6 h Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his 
blood be shed : 'for in the image of God made he 

7 And you, be ye fruitful, and multiply ; bring 
forth abundantly in the earth, and multiply therein. 

8 Tf And God spake unto No'ah, and to his sons 
with him, saying, 

9 And I, behold, I establish my covenant with you, 
and with your seed after you ; 

10 And with j every living creature that is with 
you, of the fowl, of the cattle, and of every beast 
of the earth with you ; from all that go out of the 
ark, to every beast of the earth. 

11 And I will establish my covenant with you ; 
neither shall all flesh be cut off any more by the 
waters of a flood ; neither shall there any more be 
k a flood to destroy the earth. 

12 And God said, This is 'the token of the cove- 
nant which I make between me and you and every 
living creature that is with you, for perpetual gen- 
erations : 

13 I do set my bow in the cloud, and it shall be 
for a token of a covenant between me and the 

14 And it shall come to pass, when I bring a cloud 
over the earth, that the bow shall be seen in the 
cloud : 

15 And I will remember my covenant, which is 
between me and you and every living creature of 
all flesh ; m and the waters shall no more become a 
flood to destroy all flesh. 

16 And the bow shall be in the cloud ; and I will 
look upon it, that I may remember "the everlasting 
covenant between God and every living creature of 
all flesh that is upon the earth. 

17 And God said unto No'ah, This is the token of 
the covenant, which I have established between me 
and all flesh that is upon the earth. 

18 Tf And the sons of No'ah, that went forth of the 
ark, were Shem, and Ham, and Ja'pheth : °and Ham 
is the father of ^a'naan. 

19 These are the three sons of No'ah : "and of 
them was the whole earth overspread. 

Generations of 

GENESIS, 10, 11. 

the sons of Noah. 

20 And No'ah began to be 9 an husbandman, and 
he planted a vineyard : 

21 And he drank of the wine, 'and was drunken ; 
and he was uncovered within his tent. 

22 And Ham, the father of Ca'naan, saw the naked- 
ness of his father, and told his two brethren without. 

23 s And Shem and Ja'pheth took a garment, and 
laid it upon both their shoulders, and went back- 
ward, and covered the nakedness of their father ; 
and their faces were backward, and they saw not 
their father's nakedness. 

24 And No'ah awoke from his wine, and knew 
what his younger son had done unto him. 

25 And he said, * Cursed be Ca'naan ; "a servant 
of servants shall he be unto his brethren. 

26 And he said, v Blessed be the Lord God of 
Shem ; and Ca'naan shall be 2 his servant. 

27 God shall 3 enlarge Ja'pheth, and w he shall dwell 
in the tents of Shem ; and Ca'naan shall be his 

28 If And No'ah lived after the flood three hun- 
dred and fifty years. 

29 And all the days of No'ah were nine hundred 
and fifty years : and he "'died. 


1 Generations of the sons of Noah. 8 Kimrod as the first monarch. 

"VTOW these are the generations of the sons of 
-^ No'ah, Shem, Ham, and Ja'pheth : and unto 
them were sons born after the flood. 

2 "The sons of Ja'pheth ; Go'mer, and Ma'gog, 
and Mad'a-I, and Ja'van, and Tu'bal, and Me'shech, 
and Ti'ras. 

3 And the sons of Go'mer ; Ash'ke-naz, and Rl'- 
phath, and T6-gar'mah. 

4 And the sons of Ja'van ; E-lI'shah, and Tar'shish, 
1 KIt'tim, and 2 Dod'a-mm. 

5 By these were the isles of the Gen 'tiles divided 
in their lands ; every one after his tongue, after 
their families, in their nations. 

6 1 And the sons of Ham ; Gush, and MTz'ra-im, 
and Phut, and Ca'naan. 

7 And the sons of Cush ; Se'ba, and Hav'i-lah, and 
Sab'tah, and Ra'a-mah, and Sab'te-chah : and the 
sons of Ra'a-mah ; She'ba, and De'dan. 

8 And Cush begat Mm 'rod : he began to be a 
mighty one in the earth. 

9 He was a mighty hunter before the Lord : 
wherefore it is said, Even as Nim'rod the mighty 
hunter before 6 the Lord. 

10 And the beginning of his c kingdom was 3 Ba'bel, 
and E'rech, and Ac' cad, and Cal'neh, in the land of 

11 Out of that land 4 went forth As'shur, and 
builded Nm'e-veh, and 5 the city Re-ho'both, and 

12 And Re'sen between Nm'e-veh and Ca'lah : the 
same is a great city. 

13 And Miz'ra-im begat Lu'dhn, and An'a-mim, 
and Le'ha-blm, and Naph'tu-him, 

14 And Path- ru' sim, and Cas'lu-him, ( d out of whom 
came Phi-lis'tim,) and Caph'to-rim. 

B. C. 2347. 

q ch. 3. 19. 

ch. 4. 2. 

Eocl. 5. 9. 
r ch. 19. 32, 3G. 

Prov. 20. 1 . 

Eph. 5. IS. 

s Ex. 20. 12. 
Gal. 6. 1. 

t Deut. 27. 16. 

Matt. 25. 41. 
u Josh. 9. 23. 

1 Ki. 9. 20. 
v Ps. 144. 15. 

Heb. 11. 16. 

2 Or, servant to 

3 Or, persuade. 
w Eph. 2. 13, 14. 

Eph. 3. 6. 

x ch. 3. 19. 
Job 30. 23. 
Job 34. 15. 
Ps. 89. 48. 
Rom. 5. 12. 
1 Cor. 15. 21. 
Heb. 9. 27. 

a 1 Chr. 1. 5-7. 

1 Or, Chittim. 

2 Or, Rodanim. 

b ch. 6. 11. 
c Mic. 5. G. 

3 Or, Babylon. 

4 Or, lie went out 
into Assyria. 

5 Or, the streets 
of the city. 

rfl Chr. 1. 12. 

C Tzidon. 

ech. 13. 12, 14, 


ch. 15. 18-21. 

Num. 34. 2,12. 

Josh. 12. 7. 

7 Azzah. 

/I Chr. 1. 17. 

8 Arpachshad. 

9 Shelah. 

g ch. 11. 12. 
A 1 Chr. 1. 19. 

10 That is, 

i 1 Chr. 1. 4. 
j ch. 9. 19. 

(t Acts 2. 6. 

1 lip. 

2 words. 

3 Or, eastwards, 
as ch. 13. 11. 

J Dan. 1. 2. 

4 a man said to 
his neighbour. 

5 burn them to a 

c Deut. 1. 28. 

6 may be very 
high . 

d John 5. 44. 
e Luke 1. 51. 
/ch. 18. 21. 

Ps. 33. 13. - 

Ps. 53. 2. 
g¥s. 2. 1,4. 

15 Tf And Ca'naan begat 6 Sl'don his firstborn, and 

16 And the Jeb'u-slte, and the Am'or-Ite, and the 

17 And the Hl'vlte, and the Ark'Ite, and the Sm'Ite, 

18 And the Ar'vad-Ite, and the Zem'a-rlte, and the 
Ha'math-Ite : and afterward were the families of 
the Ca'naan-Ites spread abroad. 

19 c And the border of the_ Ca'naan-Ites was from 
Sl'don, as thou comest to Ge'rar, unto 7 Ga'za; as 
thou goest, unto Sod'om, and G6-mor'rah, and Ad'- 
mah, and Ze-bo'im, even unto La'sha. 

20 These are the sons of Ham, after their families, 
after their tongues, in their countries, and in their 

21_H Unto Shem also, the father of all the children 
of E'ber, the brother of Ja'pheth the elder, even to 
him were children born. 

22 The •'children of Shem ; E4am, and As'shur, 
and 8 Ar-phax'ad, and Lud^and A'ram. 

23 And the children of A'ram ; Uz, and Hul, and 
Ge'ther, and Mash. 

24 And Ar-phax'ad begat 9 "Sa'lah; and Sa'lah 
begat E'ber. 

25 fc And unto E'ber were born two sons : the 
name of one was 10 Pe'leg ; for in his days was the 
earth divided ; and his brother's name was Jok'tan. 

26 And Jok'tan begat Al-mo'dad, and She'leph, 
and Ha'zar-ma'veth, and Je'rah, 

27 And Ha-do'ram,jmd U'zal, and Dik'lah, 

28 And O'bal, and A-bim'a-el, and She'ba, 

29 And O'phir, and Hav'i-lah, and Jo'bab : all these 
were the sons of Jok'tan. 

30 And their dwelling was from Me'sha, as thou 
goest unto Se'phar a mount of the east. 

31 These are the sons of Shem, after their fami- 
lies, after their tongues, in their lands, after their 

32 'These are the families of the sons of No'ah, 
after their generations, in their nations : J "and by 
these were the nations divided in the earth after 
the flood. 


1 One language. 3 Babel. 5 Confusion of tongues. 10 ShenV s offspring. 

AND the whole earth was a of one language, and 
- of one 2 speech. 

2 And it came to pass, as they journeyed 3 from 
the east, that they found a plain in the land of 
6 ShI'nar ; and they dwelt there. 

3 And 4 they said one to another, Go to, let us make 
brick, and 5 burn them thoroughly. And they had 
brick for stone, and slime had they for morter. 

4 And they said, Go to, let us build us a city and a 
tower, c whose top 6 may reach unto heaven ; and let 
us make d us a name, lest we be e scattered abroad 
upon the face of the whole earth. 

5 •'And the Lord came down to see the city and 
the tower, which the children of men builded. 

6 And the Lord said, Behold, the people is one, 
and they have all one language ; and this they 
begin to do : and now nothing will be restrained 
from them, which they have ° imagined to do. 


Shem's offspring. 


Abram visits Egypt 

7 Go to, Met us go down, and there confound their 
language, that they may 'not understand one an- 
other's speech. 

8 So the Lord scattered them abroad from thence 
^'upon the face of all the earth : and they left off 
to build the city. 

9 Therefore is the name of it called r Ba'bel ; k be- 
cause the Lord did there confound the language of 
all the earth : and from thence did the Lord scat- 
ter them abroad upon the face of all the earth. 

10 Tf l These are the generations of Shem : Shem 
was an hundred years old, and begat Ar-phax'ad two 
years after the flood : 

11 And Shem lived after he begat Ar-phax'ad five 
hundred years, and begat sons and daughters. 

12 And Ar-phax'ad lived five and thirty years, 
™and begat Sa'lah : 

13 And Ar-phax'ad lived after he begat Sa'lah 
four hundred and three years, and begat sons and 

14 And Sa'lah lived thirty years, and begat E'ber: 

15 And Sa'lah lived after he begat E'ber four hun- 
dred and three years, and begat sons and daughters. 

16 "And E'ber lived four and thirty years, and 
begat 8 Pe4eg: 

17 And E'ber lived after he begat Pe'leg four hun- 
dred and thirty years, and begat sons and daughters. 

18 And Pe'leg lived thirty years, and begat 9 Re'u : 

19 And Pe'leg lived after he begat Re'u two hun- 
dred and nine years, and begat sons and daughters. 

20 And Re'u lived two and thirty years, and begat 
10 Se'rug : 

21 And Re'u lived after he begat Se'rug two hun- 
dred and seven years, and begat sons and daughters. 

22 And Se'rug lived thirty years, and begat Na'hor : 

23 And Se'rug lived after he begat Na'hor two 
hundred years, and begat sons and daughters. 

24 And Na'hor lived nine and twenty years, and 
begat "Te'rah : 

25 And Na'hor lived after he begat Te'rah an 
hundred and nineteen years, and begat sons and 

26 And Te'rah lived seventy years, and ° begat 
A'bram, Na'hor, and Ha'ran. 

27 If Now these are the generations of Te'rah : 
Te'rah begat A'bram, Na'hor, and Ha'ran ; and 
Ha'ran begat p Lot. 

28 And Ha'ran died before his father Te'rah in 
the land of his nativity, in Ur of the Chal'deeg. 

29 And A'bram and Na'h6r took them wives : the 
name of A'bram's wife was "Sa'rai ; and the name 
of Na'hor's wife, r MTl'cah, the daughter of Ha'ran, 
the father of Mil'cah, and the father of Is'cah. 

30 But s Sa'rai was barren ; she had no child. 

31 And Te'rah took A'bram his son, and Lot the 
son of Ha'ran his son's son, and Sa'rai his daughter 
in law, his son A'bram's wife ; and they 'went forth 
with them from tlr of the Chal'deeg, to go into w the 
land of Ca'naan; and they came unto 12 Ha'ran, and 
dwelt there. 

32 And the days of Te'rah were two hundred and 
five years : and Te'rah died in Ha'ran. 


B. C. 2247. 

h ch. 1. 2G. 
i ch. 42. 23. 

Deut. 28. 49. 

Jer. 5. 15. 

Acts 2. 4-11. 

1 Cor. 14. 2, 

j ch. 10. 25-32. 

Ps. 92. 9. 

Prov. 19. 29. 

Lukel. 51. . 
7 That is, 

k 1 Cor. 14. 23. 

/ 1 Chr. 1. 17-27. 

m Luke 3. 35. 

n 1 Chr. 1. 19. 

8 Or, Phalec, 
Luke 3. 35. 

9 Or, Ragau, 
Luke 3. 35. 

10 Or, Saruch, 
Luke 3. 35. 

11 Or, Tliara, 
Luke 3. 34. 

o ch. 12. 1. 
Josh. 24. 2. 

1 Chr. 1. 20. 
p ch. 12. 4. 

ch. 13. 10. 
ch. 14. 12. 
ch. 19. 1, 29. 

2 Pet. 2. 7. 
q ch. 17. 15. 
r ch. 22. 20. 
s ch. 16. 1. 

t Neh. 9. 7. 

Acts 7. 4. 

Heb. 11. 8. 
u ch. 10. 19. 

12 Or, Charan. 

a ch. 15. 7. 

Acts 7. 3. 
b ch. 17. 0. 

ch. 18. 18. 

ch. 46. 3. 

Num. 23. 10. 

Deut. 26. 5. 

1 Ki. 3. 8. 
c ch. 24. 35. 

ch. 27. 29. 

Ex. 23. 22. 

Num. 24. 9. 
d ch. 22. 18. 

ch. 26. 4. 

ch. 28. 14. 

Ps. 72. 17. 

Acts 3. 25. 

Gal. 3. 8. 
(•eh. 11. 31. 
/Heb. 11. 8. 

1 Or, Sychar. 
John 4. 5. 

g Deut. 11. 30. 

Judg. 7. 1. 
h ch. 17. 1. 
i Deut. 34. 4. 

Ps. 105. 9-12. 
j ch. 13. 4. 

2 Or, Ai, or Aija. 

3 in going and 

k ch. 13. 3. 
/ch. 20. 1. 
m Ps. 105. 13. 
n ch. 43. 1. 
o ch. 26. 7. 
p ch. 20. 11. 
q Ps. 25. 21. 

Eph. 4. 25. 
r ch. 20 5, 13. 
x Esth. 2. 16. 
/ cli. 20. 18. 

1 Chr. 16. 21. 

Ps. 105. 14. 

Heb. 13. 4. 


1 The call of Abram. 4 Departure for Canaan. 10 Visit to Egypt. 14 Pharaoh and 

the plagues. 

1VTOW the "Lord had said unto A'bram, Get thee 
-^ out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and 
from thy father's house, unto a land that I will 
shew thee : 

2 6 And I will make of thee a great nation, and I 
will bless thee, and make thy name great ; and thou 
shalt be a blessing : 

3 c And I will bless them that bless thee, and curse 
him that curseth thee : d and in thee shall all fam- 
ilies of jthe earth be blessed. 

4 So A'bram departed, as the Lord had spoken 
unto him ; and Lot went with him : and A'bram was 
seventy and five years old when he departed out of 

5 And A'bram took Sa'rai his wife, and Lot his 
brother's son, and all their substance that they had 
gathered, and the souls that they had gotten e in 
Ha'ran ; and they went forth to go -^into the land 
of Ca'naanj and into the land of Ca'naan they came. 

6 1[ And A'bram passed through the land unto the 
place of ^I'chem, "unto the plain of Mo'reh. And 
the Ca'naan-Ite was then in the land. 

7 ''And the Lord appeared unto A'bram, and said, 
' Unto thy seed will I give this land : and there 
builded he an j altar unto the Lord, who appeared 
unto him. 

8 And he removed from thence unto a mountain 
on the east of Beth' -el, and pitched his tent, having 
Beth'-el on the west, and 2 Ha'I on the east : and 
there he builded an altar unto the Lord, and called 
upon thename of the Lord. 

9 And A'bram journeyed, 3 going on fc still toward 
the south. 

10 TF And there was l a famine in the land : and 
A'bram m went down into E'gypt to sojourn there ; 
for the famine was n grievous in the land. 

11 And itcame to pass, when he was come near to 
enter into E'gypt, that he said unto Sa'rai his wife, 
Behold now, I know that thou art °a fair woman to 
look upon : 

12 Therefore it shall come to pass, when the E-gyp'- 
tiang shall see thee, that they shall say, This is 
his wife : and they p will kill me, but they will save 
thee alive. 

13 Say, " I pray thee, '"thou art my sister : that it 
may be well with me for thy sake ; and my soul 
shall live because of thee. 

14 IF And it came to pass, that, when A'bram was 
come into E'gypt, the E-gyp'tian§ beheld the wo- 
man that she was very fair. 

15 The s princes also of Pha'raoh saw her, and 
commended her before Pha'raoh : and the woman 
was taken into Pha'raofrs house. 

16 And he entreated A'bram well for her sake : 
and he had sheep, and oxen, and he asses, and 
menservants, and maidservants, and she asses, and 

17 And the Lord 'plagued Pha'raohand his house 
with great plagues because of Sa'rai A'bram's wife. 

Abram and Lot part. 

GENESIS, 13, 14. 

Battle of the kings. 

18 And Pha'raoh called A'bram, and said, M What 
is this that thou hast done unto me ? why didst 
thou not tell me that she was thy wife ? 

19 Why saidst thou, She is my sister ? so I might 
have taken her to me to wife : now therefore be- 
hold thy wife, take her, and go thy way. 

20 And Pha'raoh commanded his men concerning 
him : and they sent him away, and his wife, and all 
that he had. 


1 Abram and Lot pari. 

12 Abram dwells in Canaan, 
altar built. 

14 The promise renewed. 18 An 

AND A'bram went up out of E'gypt, he, and his 
- wife, and all that he had, and Lot with him, 
into the south. 

2 And A'bram was a very rich in cattle, in silver, 
and in gold. 

3 And he went on his journeys from the south 
even to Beth '-el, unto the place where his tent had 
been at the beginning, between Beth'-el and Ha'i ; 

4 Unto the place of the 6 altar^ which he had made 
there at the first : and there A'bram called on the 
name of the Lord. 

5 Tf And Lot also, which went with A'bram, had 
flocks, and herds,, and tents. 

6 And the c land was not able to bear them, that 
they might dwell together : for their substance was 
great, so that they could not dwell together. 

7 And there was d a strife between the herdmen 
of A'bram's cattle and the herdmen of Lot's cattle : 
and the Ca'naan-Ite and the Per'iz-zite dwelled then 
in the land. 

8 And A'bram said unto Lot, e Let there' be no 
strife, I pray thee, between me and thee, and be- 
tween my herdmen and thy herdmen ; for we be 

9 Is / not the whole land before thee ? separate 
thyself, I pray thee, from me : a \i thou wilt take the 
left hand, then I will go to the right ; or if thou de- 
part to the right hand, then I will go to the left. 

10 And Lot lifted up his eyes, and h beheld all the 
* plain of Jor'dan, that it was well watered every 
where, before the Lord j destroyed Sod'om and G6- 
mor'rah,_even as the garden of the Lord, like the 
land of E'gypt, as thou comest /c unto Zo'ar. 

11 Then Lot chose him all the plain of Jor'dan ; 
and Lot journeyed east : and they separated them- 
selves the one from the other. 

12 A'bram dwelled in the land of Ca'naan, and Lot 
dwelled in the cities *of the plain, and pitched his 
tent toward Sod'om. 

13 But m the men of Sod'om were wicked and n sin- 
ners before the Lord exceedingly. 

14 \] And the Lord said unto A'bram, after that 
Lot was separated from him, °Lift up now thine 
eyes, and look from the place where thou art p north- 
ward, and southward, and eastward, and westward : 

15 For all the land which thou seest, to thee will 
I give it, and to thy 'seed for ever. 

16 And I will make thy seed as the ''dust of the 
earth : so that if a man can number the dust of the 
earth, then shall thy seed also be numbered. 

B. C. 1921. 

u ch. 20. 9. 
ch. 26. 10. 
Prov. 21. 1. 

a ch. 24. 35. 
Ps. 112. 3. 
Prov. 10. 22. 

b ch. 12. 7, 8. 

c ch. 36. 7. 
Luke 12. 17,18. 

d ch. 26. 20. 

e Phil. 2. 14, 15. 

1 men brethren. 
Ex. 2. 13. 

Ps. 133. 1. 
/ ch. 20. 15. 
ij Rom. 12. 18. 

Heb. 12. 14. 

Jas. 3. 13-18. 
h Num. 32. 1. 
i Deut. 34. 3. 

Ps. 107. 34. 
j ch. 19. 24. 
• Ps. 107. 34. 
k ch. 14. 2. 

ch. 19. 22. 
! ch. 19. 29. 
m ch. 18. 20. 

Ezek. 1G. 49. 

2 Pet. 2. 7. ' 
n ch. 6. 11. 
o Isa. 49. 18. 
p ch. 28. 14. 
n 2 Chr. 20. 7. 
;■ ch. 26. 4. 

Ex. 32. 13. 

Num. 23. 10. 

Deut. 1. 10. 

1 Chr. 27. 23. 

Jer. 33. 22. 

Rom. 4. 1G. 

Heb. 11. 12. 

2 plains. 

a ch. 10. 10. 
6 Isa. 11. 11. 
c Jas. 4. 1. 
d Deut. 29. 23. 
e ch. 19. 22. 
/ Deut. 3. 17. 

Num. 34. 12. 

Josh. 3. 16. 

Ps. 107. 34. 

1 Or, the plain 
of Kiriathaim. 

2 Or, the plain 
of Baran. 

g 2 Chr. 20. 2. 
Ach. 11. 3. 
i ch. 19. 17, 30. 
j ch. 11. 31. 
k ch. 13. 12. 

Jer. 2. 17, 19. 
/ ver. 24. 
m ch. 13. 8. 

3 Or, led forth. 

4 Or, instructed. 
n ch. 17. 27. 

ch. 15. 3. 
Eccl. 2. 7. 
o Deut. 34. 1. 
Judg. 18. 29. 
Isa. 41. 2. 

17 Arise, walk through the land in the length of 
it and in the breadth of it ; for I will give it unto 

18 Then A'bram removed his tent, and came and 
dwelt in the 2 plain of Mam 're, which is in He'bron, 
and built there an altar unto the Lord. 


1 Battle of the kings. 12 Lot is captured. 14 Abram rescues Lot. 20 Abram gives tithes 

to Melchizedek. 

AND it came to pass in the days of Am'ra-phel 
J -^- king of "Shi'nar, A'ri-och king of El'la-sar, 
Ched-or-la'o-mer king of 6 E'lam, and Tl'dal king of 
nations ; 

2 That these c made war with Be'ra king of Sod'om, 
and with Bir'sha king of G6-mor'rah, Shi'nab king 
of d Ad'mah, and Shem'e-ber king of Ze-boi'im, and 
the king of Be 'la, which is c Zo'ar. 

3 All these were joined together in the vale of 
Sid 'dim, / which is the salt sea. 

4 Twelve years they served Ched-or-la'Q-mer, and 
in the thirteenth year they rebelled. 

5 And in the fourteenth year came Ched-or-la'Q- 
mer, and the kings that were with him, and smote 
the Reph'a-Im§ in Ash'te-roth Kar-na'im, and the 
Zu'zimg in Ham, and the E'mimg in ^ha'veh Kir-i- 

6 And the Ho 'rites in their mount Se'ir, unto 
2 El-pa'ran, which is by the wilderness. 

7 And they returned, and came to En-mish'pat, 
which is Ka'desh, and smote all the country of the 
Am'a-lek-Ites, and also the Am'or-Ites, that dwelt °m 
Haz ' e-zon-ta ' mar. 

8 And there went out the king of Sod'om, and the 
king of G6-mor'rah, and the king of Ad'mah, and 
the king of Ze-boi'im, and the king of Be 'la (the 
same is Ta^ox ;) and they joined battle with them 
in the vale of Sid 'dim ; 

9 With Ched-or-la'o-mer the king of E'lam, and 
with Tl'dal king of nations, and Am'ra-phel king of 
Shi'nar, and A'ri-och king of El'la-sar ; four kings 
with five. 

10 And the vale of Sid'dim was full of h slimepits ; 
and the kings of Sod'om and G6-mor'rah fled, and fell 
there ; and they that remained fled to the 'mountain. 

11 And they took all the goods of Sod'om and G6- 
mor'rah, and all their victuals, and went their way. 

12 And they took Lot, j A'bram's brother's son. 
''who dwelt in Sod'om, and his goods, and departed. 

13 Tl^And there came one that had escaped, and 
told A'bram the He'brew ; for he dwelt in the plain 
of Mam'rgthe Am'or-Ite, brother of Esh'col, and 
brother of A'ner : and these l were confederate with 

14 And when A'bram heard that his m brother was 
taken captive, he 3 armed his 4 trained servants, n born 
in his own house, three hundred and eighteen, and 
pursued them "unto Dan. 

15 And he divided himself against them, he and 
his servants, by night, and smote them, and pursued 
them unto Ho 'bah, which is on the left hand of Da- 



Abram's vision. 

GENESIS, 15, 16. 

Sarai and Hagar. 

16 And p he brought back all the goods, and also 
brought again his brother Lot, and his goods, and 
the women also, and the people. 

17 II And the king of Sod'om went out to meet 
him after his return from the slaughter of Ched-or- 
la'o-mer, and of the kings that were with him, at 
the valley of Sha'veh, which is the q king's dale. 

18 And r Mel-chiz'e-dek king of Sa'lem brought 
forth bread and wine : and he was the priest of s the 
most high God. 

19 And he blessed him, and said, Blessed be A'bram 
of the most high God, possessor of heaven and earth : 

20 And blessed be the most high God, which hath 
delivered thine enemies into thy hand. And he gave 
him tithes *of all. 

21 And the king of Sod'om said unto A'bram, Give 
me the 5 persons, and take the goods to thyself. 

22 And A'b? am said to the king of Sod'om, U I have 
lift up mine hand unto the Lord, the most high God, 
"the possessor of heaven and earth, 

23 That I "'will not take from a thread even to a 
shoelatchet, and that I will not take any thing that 
is thine, lest thou shouldest say, I have made A'bram 
rich : 

24 Save only that which the young men have eaten, 
and theportion of the men which went with me, 
A'ner, Esh'col, and Mam're" ; let them take their 


1 Abram's vision. 4 Seed is promised. 7 The covenant renewed. 12 A vision. 

AFTER these things the word of the Lord came 
- unto A'bram in a a vision, saying, 6 Fear not, 
A'bram : I am thy shield, and thy exceeding c great 

2 And A'bram said, Lord God, what wilt thou give 
me, seeing I go childless, and the steward of my 
house is jthis E-li-e'zer of Da-mas 'cus? 

3 And A'bram said, Behold, to me thou hast given 
no seed : and, lo, one born in my house is mine 

4 And, behold, the word of the Lord came unto 
him, saying, This shall not be thine heir ; but he 
that shall d come forth out of thine own bowels shall 
be thine heir. 

5 And he brought him forth abroad, and said, Look 
now toward heaven, and e tell the stars, if thou be 
able to number them : and he said unto him, -^So 
shall thy seed be. 

6 And 9 he believed in the Lord ; and he h counted 
it to him for righteousness. 

7 And he said unto him, I am the Lord that 
brought thee out of "Or of the Chal'deeg, to give 
thee this land to inherit it. 

8 And he said, Lord God, ■'whereby shall I know 
that I shall inherit it ? 

9 And he said unto him, Take me an heifer of 
three years old, and a she goat of three fears old, 
and a ram of three years old, and a turtledove, 
and a young pigeon. 

10 And he took unto him all these, and divided 
them in the midst, and laid each piece one against 
another : but the birds divided he not. 


B. C. 1918. 

p 1 Sam. 30. 8, 
18, 19. 

g 2 Sam. 18. 18. 

J-Heb. 7. 1, 2. 

s Ps. 110. 4. 
Mic. 6. G. 
Acts 10. 17. 
Heb. 7. 10-22. 

t Heb. 7. 4. 

5 souls. 

u Dan. 12. 7. 
Rev. 10. 5. 

v Ps. 24. 1. 

Matt. 11. 25. 
w Estb. 0. 15. 

2 Cor. 11.9-12 

a eh. 46. 2. 
b Isa, 41. 10. 
c Ps. 58. 11. 

Ps. 84. 9, 11. 

Heb. 11. 6. 

deb. 17. 16. 

2 Sam. 7. 12. 
e Ps. 147. 4. 
/Ex. 32. 13. 

Heb. 11. 12. 
g Rom. 4. 3-6, 20- 

h Ps. 105. 31. 

Gal. 3. 6. 
i Acts 7. 2. 
j Judg. 6. 36-40. 

1 Sam. 14. 9, 

2 Ki. 20. 8. 
Luke 1. 18. 

ft ch. 2. 21. 
/Ex. 1. 1. 
m Ex. 1 . 11. 
n Ex. 12. 40. 

Ex. G. G. 
Ex. 7. 14. 

p ch. 25. 8. 

Job 5. 26. 

Heb. 11. 13. 
q Matt. 23. 32. 

1 Thess. 2. 16. 

2 Pet. 3. 8, 9. 

1 a lamp of fire. 
r ch. 17. 8. 

Deut. 1.7. 
Num. 34. 3. 
2 Chr. 9. 2G. 
Neh. 9. 8. 
Ps. 105. 11. 

a Judg. 13. 2. 
Luke 1. 7. 

1 Or, Agar. 
Gal. 4. 24. 

b ch. 30. 2. 

2 be builded by 

Ruth 4. 11. 
e Prov. 30. 23. 
d Ex. 5. 21. 

3 that which is 
good in thine 

4 afflicted her. 
e ch. 25. 18. 

11 And when the fowls came down upon the car- 
cases, A'bram drove them away. 

12 And when J;he sun was going down, a /c deep 
sleep fell upon A'bram ; and, lo, an horror of great 
darkness fell upon him. _ 

13 And he said unto A'bram, Know of a surety 
that 'thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is 
not theirs, and shall serve them ; and they shall 
m afflict them m four hundred years ; 

14 And also "that nation, whom they shall serve, 
will I judge : and afterward shall they come out 
with great substance. 

15 And thou shalt go to thy fathers in peace ; 
thou shalt be buried p in a good old age. 

16 But in the fourth generation they shall come 
hither again : for the iniquity of the Am'or-Ites Q is 
not yet full. 

17 And it came to pass, that, when the sun went 
down, and it was dark, behold a smoking furnace, 
and 2 a burning lamp that passed between those 

18 In the same day the Lord made a covenant with 
A'bram, saying, Unto thy seed r have I given this 
land, from the river of E'gypt unto the great river, 
the river Eu-phra'teg : 

19 The Ken'ites, and the Ken'iz-zltes, and the Kad'- 

20 And the Hit'tltes, and the Per'iz-zites, and the 

21 And the Am'or-Ites, and the Ca'naan-Ites, and 
the Gir'ga-shltes, and the Jeb'u-sltes. 


1 Sarai deals hardly with Hagar. 7 An angel speaks to Hagar. 15 Ishmael is born. 

"IVTOW Sa'rai A'bram's wife "bare him no children : 
-^ and she had an handmaid, an E-gyp'tian, whose 
name was ha'gar. 

2 And Sa'rai said unto A'bram, Behold now, the 
Lord *hath restrained me from bearing : I pray 
thee, go in unto my maid ; itmay be that I may 
2 obtain children by her. And A'bram hearkened to 
the voice of Sa|rai. 

3 And Sa'rai A'brarrVs wife took Ha'gar her maid 
the E-gyp'tian, after A'bram had dwelt ten years 
in the land of Ca'naan, and gave her to her husband 
A'bram to be his wife. 

4 1[ And he went in unto Ha'gar, and she con- 
ceived : and when she saw that she had conceived, 
her mistress was c despised in her eyes. 

5 And Sa'rai said unto A'bram, My wrong be upon 
thee : I have given my maid into thy bosom ; and 
when she saw that she' had conceived, I was de- 
spised in her eyes : d the Lord judge between me 
and thee. 

6 But A'bram said unto Sa'rai, Behold, thy maid 
is in thy hand ; do to her 3 as it pleaseth thee. And 
when Sa'rai 4 dealt hardly with her, she fled from 
her face. 

7 TF And the angel of the Lord found her by a 
fountain of water in the wilderness, by the foun- 
tain in the way to e Shur. 

8 And he said, Ha'gar, Sa'rai's maid, whence 

Renewal of the covenant. 

GENESIS, 17, 18. 

Circumcision instituted. 

earnest thou ? and whither wilt thou go ? And she 
said, I flee from the face of my mistress Sa'rai. 

9 And the angel of the Lord said unto her, Return 
to thy mistress, and •'"submit thyself under her hands. 

10 And "the angel of the Lord said unto her, h I 
will multiply thy seed exceedingly, that it shall not 
be numbered for multitude. 

11 And the angel of the Lord said unto her, Be- 
hold, thou art with child, and shalt bear a son, and 
shalt call his name 5 Ish' ma-el ; because "the Lord 
hath heard thy affliction. 

12 And he will be a wild man ; his hand will be 
against every man, and every man's hand against 
him ; and ^'he shall dwell in the presence of all his 

13 And she called the name of the Lord that 
spake unto her, & Thou God seest me : for she said, 
Have I also here looked after him that seeth me ? 

14 Wherefore the well was called 6 Be'er-la-hai'- 
roi ; behold, it is between Ka'desh and Be'red. 

15 IF And Ha'gar bare A'bram a son : and A'bram 
called his son's name, which Ha'gar bare, Ish'ma-el. 

16 And A'bram was fourscoreand six years old, 
when Ha'gar bare Ish'ma-el to A'bram. 


1 Renewal of the covenant. 5 A brain's name changed. 10 Circumcision instituted. 
15 Sarai's name changed. 

AND when A'bram was ninety years old and 
- nine, the Lord appeared to A'bram, and said 
unto him, I am the Almighty God ; "walk before 
me, and be thou bl perfect. 

2 And I will make my "covenant between me and 
thee, and will multiply thee exceedingly. 

3 And A'bram d fell on his face : and God talked 
with him, saying, 

4 As for me, behold, my covenant is with thee, 
and thou shalt be a father of 2 many nations. 

5 Neither shall thy name anymore be called 
A'bram, but thy name shall be 3 A'bra-ham ; for a 
father of many nations have I made thee. 

6 And I will make thee exceeding fruitful, and I 
will make nations of thee, and kings shall come out 
of thee. 

7 And I will establish my covenant between me 
and thee and thy seed after thee in their genera- 
tions for an everlasting covenant, e to be a God unto 
thee, and to thy seed after thee. 

8 And I will give unto thee, and to thy seed after 
thee, the land 4 wherein thou art a stranger, all the 
land of Ca'naan, for an everlasting possession ; and 
f I will be their God. 

9 1[ And God said unto A 'bra-ham, s Thou shalt 
keep my covenant therefore, thou, 'and thy seed 
after thee in their generations. 

10 This is my covenant, which ye shall keep, be- 
tween me and you and thy seed after thee ; Every 
man child among you shall be circumcised. 

11 And 7l ye shall circumcise the flesh of your fore- 
skin ; and it shall be a token of the covenant be- 
twixt me and you. 

12 And 5 he that is eight days old shall be circum- 



/Eph. 6. 5-9. 

g ch. 22. 15-18. 

Mai. 3. 1. 
h ch. 25. 12. 

5 That is, God 

.shall hear. 
i Ex. 2. 23, 24. 

j ch. 25. 18. 

k Ps. 139. 1-12. 

G That is, The 
well of him 
that liveth and 
seeth me. 

a ch. 5. 22. 
b Job 1. 1. 

1 Or, upright, 
or, sincere. 

c Gal. 3. 17, 18. 
<l Ex. 3. 6. 

2 multitude of 

3 That is, Father 
of a great mul- 

e ch. 2C. 24. 
ch. 28. 13. 
Heb. 11. 16. 
Bom. 9. 7-9. 

4 of thy sojourn- 

eh. 23. 4. 

ch. 28. 4. 
/Ex. 6. 7. 

Ex. 29. 45. 

Lev. 2fi. 12. 

Deut. 4. 37. 

Dent. 14. 2. 

Deut. 2(1. IS. 

Deut. 29. 13. 

Ps. 48. 14. 

Rev. 21. 7. 
g Ps. 25. 10. 
h Acts 7. 8. 

Rom. 4. 11. 

Gal. 6. 15. 

5 a son of eight 

Luke 2. 21. 
John 7. 22. 

i Ex. 4. 24. 
Josh. 5. 2-7. 

fi That is, Prin- 

j ch. 18. 10. 
ch. 21. 1. 

7 she shall be- 
come nations. 

k ch. 18. 12. 
ch. 21. 6. 

I eh. 21.7. 

m ch. 18. 10. 
ch. 21. 2. 
Gal. 4. 28-31. 

n ch. 10. 10. 

o ch. 25. 12-16. 

p ch. 21. 18. 

q ch. 21. 2. 

r ch. 18. 33. 
ch. 35. 9-15. 

s ver. 9. 

t Ps. 119. GO. 

u ch. 18. 19. 

v ch. 14. 14. 

a ch. 13. IS. 

ch. 14. 13. 

Acts 7. 2. 
6 ver. 22. 

ch. 19. 1. 
c Heb. 13. 2. 

1 Pet. 4. 9. 

cised among you, every man child in your genera- 
tions, he that is born in the house, or bought with 
money of any stranger, which is not of thy seed. 

13 He that is born in thy house, and he that is 
bought with thy money, must needs be circumcised : 
and my covenant shall be in your flesh for an ever- 
lasting covenant. 

14 And the uncircumcised man child whose flesh of 
his foreskin is not circumcised, that soul shall be 
4 cut off from his people ; he hath broken my cov- 

15 IF And God said unto A'bra-ham, As for Sa'rai 
thy wife, thou shalt not call her name Sa'rai, but 
6 Sa'rah shall her name be. 

16 And I will bless her, and j give thee a son also 
of her : yea, I will bless her, and 7 she shall be a mo- 
ther of nations ; kings of people shall be of her. 

17 Then A'bra-ham fell upon his face, and k laughed, 
and said in his heart, Shall a child be born unto him 
that is an hundred years old? and shall 'Sa'rah, 
that is ninety years old, bear ? 

18 And A'bra-ham said unto God, O that Ish'ma-el 
might live before thee ! 

19 And God said, ™Sa'rah thy wife shall bear thee 
a son indeed; and thou shalt call his name I'saac : 
and I will establish my covenant with him for an 
everlasting covenant, and with his seed after him. 

20 And as for Ish'ma-el, I have heard thee : Be- 
hold, I have blessed him, and will make him fruitful, 
and will "multiply him exceedingly ; "twelve princes 
shall he beget, and I will make him p a great nation. 

21 But my covenant will I establish with I'saac, 
which 9 Sa'rah shall bear unto thee at this set time 
in the next year. 

22 And he left off r talking with him, and God 
went up from A'bra-ham. 

23 TF And A'bra-ham took Ish'ma-el his son, and 
all that were born in his house, and all that were 
bought with his money, every male among the men 
of A 'bra-ham's house ; and circumcised the flesh of 
their foreskin in the selfsame day, as s God had said 
unto him._ 

24 And A'bra-ham was ninety years old and nine, 
when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin. 

25 And Ish'ma-el his son was thirteen years old, 
when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin. 

26 In 'the selfsame day was A'bra-ham circum- 
cised, and Ish'ma-el his son. 

27 And all the men of "his house, born "in the 
house, and bought with money of the stranger, were 
circumcised with him. 


1 Abraham entertains angels. 10 Sarah promised a son. 23 Intercession for Sodom. 

AND the Lord "appeared unto him in the plains 
- of Mam 're : and he sat in the tent door in the 
heat of the day ; 

2 And he lift up his eyes and looked, and, lo, b three 
men stood by him : and when he saw them, he ran 
c to meet them from the tent door, and bowed him- 
self toward the ground, 

3 And said, My Lord, if now I have found favour 


Sarah promised a son. 


Intercession for Sodom. 

in thy sight, pass not away, I pray thee, from thy 
servant : 

4 Let a little water, I pray you, be fetched, and 
d wash your feet, and rest yourselves under the tree : 

5 And I will fetch a morsel of bread, and Comfort 
ye your hearts ; after that ye shall pass on : for 
therefore 2 are ye come to your servant. And they 
said, So do, as thou hast said. 

6 And A'bra-ham hastened into the tent unto Sa'- 
rah, and said, 3 Make ready quickly three measures of 
fine meal^knead it, and make cakes upon the hearth. 

7 And A'bra-ham ran unto the herd, and fetcht a 
calf tender and good, and gave it unto a young man ; 
and he hasted to dress it. 

8 And he took butter, and milk, and the calf which 
he had dressed, and set it before them ; and he stood 
by them under the tree,, and they did eat. 

9 If And they said unto him, Where is Sa'rah thy 
wife? And he said, Behold, e in the tent. 

10 And he said, I will certainly return unto thee 
according to the time of life ; and, lo, Sa'rah thy 
wife shall have a ■'"son. And Sa'rah heard it in the 
tent door, which tvas behind him. • 

11 Now A'bra-ham and Sa'rah were o'old and well 
stricken in age ; and it ceased to be with Sa'rah 
after the h manner of women. 

12 Therefore Sa'rah laughed within herself, say- 
ing, i After I am waxed old shall I have pleasure, 
my J 'lord being old also? 

13 And the Lord said unto A'bra-ham, Wherefore 
did Sa'rah laugh, saying, Shall I of a surety bear a 
child, which am old ? 

14 Is any thing Hoo hard for the Lord? At the 
time appointed I will return unto thee, according to 
the time of life, and Sa'rah shall have a son. 

15 Then Sa'rah denied, saying, I laughed not ; for 
she was afraid. And he said, Nay ; but thou didst 

16 II And the men rose up from thence, and looked 
toward Sod'om : and A'bra-ham went with them to 
bring them on the way. 

17 And the Lord said, l Shall I hide from A'bra- 
ham that thing which I do ; 

18 Seeing that A'bra-ham shall surely become a 
great and mighty nation, and all the nations of the 
earth shall m be blessed in him ? 

19 For I know him, that he w will command his 
children and his household after him, and they shall 
keep the way of the Lord, to do justice and judg- 
ment ; that the Lord may bring upon A'bra-ham 
that which he hath spoken of him. 

20 And the Lord said, Because the °cry of Sod'om 
and G6-mor'rah is great, and because their sin is 
very grievous ; 

21 I will go down now, p and see whether they 
have done altogether according to the cry of it, 
which is come unto me ; and if not, I will know. 

22 And the men turned their_ faces from thence, 
and went toward Sod'om : but A'bra-ham stood yet 
before the 9 Lord. 

23 U And A'bra-ham drew near, and said, r Wilt 
thou also destroy the righteous with the wicked ? 


B. C. 1898. 

d ch. 24. 32. 
ch. 43. 24. 
1 stay. 

2 you have 

3 Hasten. 

e ch. 24. 67. 
Tit. 2. 5. 

/ch. 21. 2. 
Luke 1. 13. 
Rom. 0. 0. 

g Rom. 4. 19. 

h Heb. 11. 11. 

i ch. 17. 17. 

Luke 1. 18. 
j 1 Pet. 3. 6. 

k Ps. 115. 3. 

Jer. 32. 17. 

Zech. 8. 6. 

Matt. 3. 9. 

Matt. 19. 2G. 

Luke 1. 37. 

Rom. 4. 21. 

Heb. 11. 19. 
1 Ps. 25. 14. 

Amos 3. 7. 

John 15. 15. 
m ch. 12. 3. 

ch. 22. 18. 

Ps. 72. 17. 

Acts 3. 25. 

Gal. 3. 8, 9, 10, 

n Deut. G. G, 7. 

Josh. 24. 15. 

Eph. 6. 4. 
ch. 4. 10. 

ch. 19. 13. 

Jas. 5. 4. 
p ch. 11. 5. 

Ex. 3. 8. 

Ps. 14. 2. 

Heb. 4. 13. 
q verses 1, 2. 
r Num. 1G. 22. 

2 Sam. 24. 17. 

Ps. 11. 4-7. 
s Matt. 7. 13, 14. 
/Isa. 3. 10, 11. 
u Job S. 3, 20. 

Job 34. 17. 

Ps. 58. 11. 

Ps. 94. 2. 

Rom. 3. 5, 6. 
v Jer. 5. 1. 

Ezek. 22. 30. 

Matt. 24. 22. 
w Luke 18. 1. 
x Ps. 8. 4. 
y 1 Thess. 5. 17. 
z Isa. 55. 8, 9. 
a Heb. 4. 16. 
b Judg. G. 39. 
c Ex. 34. G, 7. 

Ps. 34. 15. 

Prov. 15. 29. 

1 John 3. 22. 

Jas. 5. 1G. 

a ch. 18. 2, 22. 
b Heb. 13. 2. 
c Luke 24. 28. 
d ch. 18. 8. 
e Isa. 3. 9. 
/ch. 4.1. 

Judg. 19. 22. 

Rom. 1. 24. 

Jude 7. 
g Judg. 19. 24. 

24 Peradventure there be s fifty righteous within 
the city : wilt thou also destroy and not spare the 
place for the fifty righteous that are therein ? 

25 That be far from thee to do after this manner, 
to slay the righteous with the wicked : and 'that 
the righteous should be as the wicked, that be far 
from thee : Shall "not the Judge of all the earth do 
right ? 

26 And the Lord said, v li I find in Sod'om fifty 
righteous within the city, then I will spare all the 
place for their sakes. 

27 And A'bra-ham answered and said, w Behold 
now, I have taken upon me to speak unto the Lord, 
which am x but dust and ashes : 

28 Peradventure there shall lack five of the fifty 
righteous : wilt thou destroy all the city for lack of 
five ? And he said, If I find there forty and five, 
I will not destroy it. 

29 And he spake unto him ^yet again, and said, 
Peradventure there shall be forty found there. 
And he said, I will not do it for forty's sake. 

30 And he said unto him, z Oh let not the Lord be 
angry, and I will speak : Peradventure there shall 
thirty be found there. And he said, I will not do 
it, if I find thirty there. 

31 And he said, Behold now, a l have taken upon 
me to speak unto the Lord : Peradventure there 
shall be twenty found there. And he said, I will 
not destroy it for twenty's sake. 

32 And he said, 6 Oh let not the Lord be angry, 
and I will speak yet but this once : Peradventure 
ten shall be found there. And he said, C I will not 
destroy it for ten's sake. 

33 And the Lord went his way, as soon as he 
had left communing with A'bra-ham : and A'bra- 
ham returned unto his place. 


1 Lot entertains angels. 18 Lot's escape to Zoar. 24 Cities of the plain destroyed. 
37 Birth of Moab and Amnion. 

AND there came "two angels to Sod'om at even; 
- and Lot sat in the gate of Sod'om : and Lot 
seeing them rose up to meet them ; and he bowed 
himself with his face toward the ground ; 

2 And he said, Behold now, my lords, 6 turn in, I 
pray you, into your servant's house, and tarry all 
night, and wash your feet, and ye shall rise up 
early, and go on your ways. And they said, Nay ; 
c but we will abide in the street all night. 

3 And he pressed upon them greatly ; and they 
turned in unto him, and entered into his house ; 
and d he made them a feast, and did bake unleav- 
ened bread, and they did eat. 

4 H But before they lay down, the men of the city, 
even the men of Sod'om, compassed the house 
round, both old and young, all the people from 
every quarter : 

5 And c they called unto Lot, and said unto him, 
f Where are the men which came in to thee this night ? 
bring them out unto us, that we may know them. 

6 And "Lot went out at the door unto them, and 
shut the door after him, 

Lot's escape to Zoar. 


Birth of Moab and Ammon. 

7 And said, I pray you, brethren, do not so wickedly. 

8 Behold now, I have two daughters which have 
not known man ; let me, I pray you, bring them 
out unto you, and do ye to them as is good in your 
eyes : only unto these men do nothing ; for h there- 
fore came they under the shadow of my roof. 

9 And they said, Stand back. And they said again, 
'This one fellow came in to sojourn, and he will 
needs be a judge : now will we deal worse with thee, 
than with them. And they pressed sore upon the 
man, even Lot, and came near to break the door. 

10 But the men put forth their hand, and pulled 
Lot into the house to them, and shut to the door. 

11 And they smote the men that were at the door 
of the house 3 'with blindness, both small and great : 
so that they wearied themselves to find the door. 

12 If And the men said unto Lot, Hast Hhou here 
any besides? son in law, and thy sons, and thy 
daughters, and whatsoever thou hast in the city, 
'bring them out of this place : 

13 For we will destroy this place, because the cry 
of them is waxen great before the face of the 
Lord ; and the Lord hath m sent us to destroy it. 

14 And Lot went out, and spake unto his sons in 
law, which married "his daughters, and said, Up, 
"get you out of this place ; for the Lord will de- 
stroy this city. But he seemed p as one that mocked 
unto his sons in law. 

15 If And when the morning arose, then the angels 
hastened Lot, saying, Arise, take thy wife, and thy 
two daughters, which J are here ; lest thou be con- 
sumed in the 2 iniquity of the city. 

16 And while he lingered, the men laid hold upon 
his hand, and upon the hand of his wife, and upon 
the hand of his two daughters ; Hhe Lord being 
merciful unto him : and they brought him forth, 
and set him without the city. 

17 1[ And it came to pass, when they had brought 
them forth abroad, that he said, '"Escape for thy 
life ; s look not behind thee, neither stay thou in all 
the plain ; escape to the mountain, lest thou be 

18 And Lot said unto them, Oh, not so, my Lord : 

19 Behold now, thy servant hath found grace 
in thy sight, and thou *hast magnified thy mercy, 
which thou hast shewed unto me in saving my life ; 
and I cannot escape to the mountain, lest some evil 
take me, and I die : 

20 Behold now, this city is near to flee unto, and 
it is a little one : Oh, let me escape thither, (is it 
not a little one ?) and my soul shall live. 

21 And he said unto him, See, I have accepted 
3 thee concerning this thing also, that I will not 
overthrow this city, for the which thou hast spoken. 

22 Haste thee, escape thither ; for I cannot do 
any thing till thou be come thither. Therefore the 
name of the city was "called 4 Zo'ar. 

23 If The sun was 5 risen upon the earth when Lot 
entered into Zo'ar. 

24 Then "the Lord rained upon Sod'om and upon 
Go-mor'rah brimstone and fire from the Lord out 
of heaven ; 

B. C. 1898. 

h ch. 18. 5. 

i Ex. 2. 14. 

Acts 7. 26, 28. 
2 Pet. 2. 7, 8. 

j 2 Ki. 6. 18. 
Acts 13. 11. 

k Josh. 6. 22. 

I ch. 7. 1. 
2 Pet. 2. 9. 

m 1 Chr. 21. 15. 

n Matt. 1. 18. 

Num. 1G. 21, 

Rev. 18. 4. 
p Ex. 9. 21. 
Luke 17. 28-30. 
Luke 24. 11. 

1 are found. 

2 Or, punish- 

q Ex. 34. 7. 

1 Sam. 2. 9. 

1 Chr. 1G. 34. 

Ps. 25. 10. 

Ps. 31. 23. 

Ps. 32. 10. 

Ps. 33. 18. 

Ps. 34. 22. 

Ps. 97. 10. 

Ps. 145. 20. 

Prov. 2. 8. 

Eph. 2. 4, 5. 
r Heb. 2. 3. 
s verse 20. 
t 1 Tim. 1.14-16. 

3 thy face. 
Job 42. 9. 

1 Sam. 25. 35. 
Ps. 145. 19. 

u ch. 13. 10. 
ch. 14. 2. 

4 That is, little. 

5 pone forth. 

v Dent. 29. 23. 
Ps. 11. (>. 
Isa. 13. 19. 
Jer. 20. 10. 
Jer. 50. 40. 
Ezek. 10. 
49, 50. 
Hos. 11. 8. 
Amos 4. 11. 
Zeph. 2. 9. 
Luke 17. 29. 

2 Pet. 2. 6. 
Jude 7. 

10 ch. 14. 3. 

Ps. 107. 34. 
x Luke 17. 31. 
y ch. 18. 22. 
z Rev. 18. 9. 
a ch. 8. 1. 

ch. IS. 23. 
b verses 17, 19. 
c ch. 10. 2,4. 

ch. 38. S. 

Deut. 25. 5. 
</ Luke 21. 34. 

1 Cor. 15. 33. 
e Mark 12. 19. 
/" Deut. 2. 9. 
(j Deut. 2. 19. 

a ch. 18. 1. 
b ch. 2G. 6. 
c ch. 12. 11-13. 

ch. 20. 7. 
d ch. 12. 15. 
e Ps. 105. 14. 
/ Job 4. 12. 

Job 33. 15. 
g verse 7. 
1 married to an 


25 And he overthrew those cities, and all ™the 
plain, and all the inhabitants of the cities, and that 
which grew upon the ground. 

26 If But his wife * looked back from behind him, 
and she became a pillar of salt. 

27 H And A'bra-ham gat up early in the morning 
to the place where he y stood before the Lord: 

28 And he looked toward Sod'om and Go-mor'rah, 
and toward all the land of the plain, and beheld, 
and, lo, z the smoke of the country went up as the 
smoke of a furnace. 

29 1 And it came to pass, when God destroyed the 
cities of the plain, that God "remembered A'bra- 
ham, and sent Lot out of the midst of the overthrow, 
when he overthrew the cities in the which Lot 

30 If And Lot went up out of Zo'ar, and b dwelt in 
the mountain, and his two daughters with him ; 
for he feared to dwell in Zo'ar : and he dwelt in a 
cave, he and his two daughters. 

31 And the firstborn said unto the younger, Our 
father is old, and there is not a man in the earth 
c to come in unto us after the manner of all the 
earth : 

32 Come, d \et us make our father drink wine, and 
we will lie with him, e that we may preserve seed 
of our father. 

33 And they made their father drink wine that 
night : and the firstborn went in, and lay with her 
father ; and he perceived not when she lay down, 
nor when she arose. 

34 And it came to pass on the morrow, that the 
firstborn said unto the younger, Behold, I lay yester- 
night with my father : let us make him drink wine 
this night also ; and go thou in, and lie with him, 
that we may preserve seed of our father. 

35 And they made their father drink wine that 
night also : and the younger arose, and lay with 
him ; and he perceived not when she lay down, nor 
when she arose. 

36 Thus were both the daughters of Lot with child 
by their father. 

37 And the firstborn bare a son, and called his 
name Mo'ab : the same f is the father of the Mo'ab- 
Ites unto this day. 

38 And the younger, she also bare a son, and called 
his name Ben-am 'mi : the ? same is the father of 
the children of Am'mon unto this day. 


\ Abraham denies Ms wife. 1 Abimelech takes her. § Abraham reproved. 17 Abimeleeh 


AND A'bra-ham journeyed from thence "toward 
-^- the south country, and dwelled between Ka'- 
desh and Shur, and sojourned in 6 Ge'rar. 

2 And c A'bra-ham said of Sa'rah his wife, She is 
my sister : and A-bim'e-lech king of Ge'rar sent, 
and took d Sa'rah. 

3 But God e came to A-blm'e-lech in f a dream by 
night, and said to him, Behold, thou art but g a dead 
man, for the woman which thou hast taken ; for she 
is 1 a man's wife. 


Abraham reproved. 


Hagar banished. 

4 But A-bim'e-lech had not come near her : and 
he said, Lord, '"wilt thou slay also a righteous nation? 

5 Said he not unto me, She is my sister ? and she, 
even she herself said, He is my brother : in the 
2 integrity of my heart and innocency of my hands 
have I done this. 

6 And God said unto him in a dream, Yea, I know 
that thou didst this in the integrity of thy heart ; 
for I also i withheld thee from sinning against me : 
therefore suffered I thee not to touch her. 

7 Now therefore restore the man his wife ; for he 
is a prophet, and he j shall pray for thee, and thou 
shalt live : and if thou restore her not, know thou 
that thou shalt surely die, thou, and all that are 

8 Therefore A-bim'e-lech rose early in the morning, 
and called all his servants, and told all these things 
in their ears : and the men were sore afraid. 

9 Then A-blm'e-lech called A 'bra-ham, and said 
unto him, What hast thou done unto us ? and what 
have I offended thee, that thou hast brought on me 
and on my kingdom *a great sin? thou hast done 
deeds unto me that ought not to be done. 

10 And A-bim'e-lech said unto A' bra-ham, What 
sawest thou, that thou hast done this thing ? 

11 And A' bra-ham said, Because I thought, 'Surely 
the fear of God is not in this place ; and they will 
slay me for my wife's sake. 

12 And '"yet indeed she is my sister ; she is the 
daughter of my father, but not the daughter of my 
mother ; and she became my wife. 

13 And it came to pass, when God "caused me to 
wander from my father's house, that I said unto her, 
This is thy kindness which thou shalt shew unto me ; 
at every place whither we shall come, say of me, 
"He is myJ)rother. 

14 And A-bim'e-lech took "sheep, and oxen, and 
menservants, and womenservants, and gave them 
unto A'bra-ham, and restored him Sa'rah his wife. 

15 And A-bim'e-lech said, Q Behold, my land is be- 
fore thee : dwell 3 where it pleaseth thee. 

16 And unto Sa'rah he said, Behold, I have given 
thy r brother a thousand pieces of silver : behold, he 
is to thee a covering of the eyes, unto all that are 
with thee, and with all other : thus she was reproved. 

17 If So A'bra-ham "prayed unto God : and God 
healed A-bim'e-lech, and his wife, and his maidser- 
vants ; and they bare children. 

18 For the Lord had *fast closed up all the wombs 

A-bim'e-lech, because of Sa'rah 

of the house of 
A 'bra-ham's wife. 


1 Birth of Isaac. 9 Hagar is banished. 22 The well of covenant at Beer-sheba. 

AND the Lord a visited Sa'rah as he had said, and 
- the Lord did unto Sa'rah 6 as he had spoken. 

2 For Sa'rah conceived, c and bare A'bra-ham a son 
in his old age, at the set time of which God had 
spoken to him. 

3 And A'bra-ham d called the name of his son that 
was bornunto him, whom Sa'rah bare to him, I'saac. 

4 And A'bra-ham "circumcised his son I'saac being 
eight days old, as God had commanded him. 


B. C. 1898. 

h eh. IS. 23-25. 

2 Or, simplicity, 
or, sincerity. 

;• ch. 35. 5. 
Ex. 34. 4. 
1 Sam. 25. 
26, 34. 

j 1 S;im. 7. 5. 
2 Ki. 5. 11. 
Job 42. 8. 
Jas. 5. 14-16. 
1 John 5. 16. 

k ch. 39. 9. 
Josh. 7. 25. 

I ch. 42. 18. 
Neh. 5. 15. 
Prov. 16. 6. 

m ch. 11. 29. 

n ch. 12. 1, 9, 11. 

ch. 12. 13. 
p ch. 12! 16. 

q ch. 13. 9. . 

ch. 47. 6. 
3 as is good in 

thine eyes. 
r verse 5. 
s Job 42. S. 

Jas. 5. 16. 

1 ch. 12. 17. 

a 1 Sam. 2.21. 
b ch. 17. 19. 

ch. 18. 10, 14. 

Gal. 4. 23. 
c Acts 7. 8. 

Heb. 11. 11. 
d ch. 17. 19. 
e eh. 17. 10-12. 
/ Ps. 126. 2. 

Isa. 54. 1. 
g Luke i. 14, 58. 
h ch. 18. 11. 
i ch. 10. 1, 4, 15. 
/ Gal. 4. 29. 
/.- ch. 25. 6. 

ch. 36. 6, 7. 

Gal. 4. 30, 31. 
I ch. 17. 18. 
m Rom. 9. 7. 

Heb. 11. 18. 
n ch. 16. 10. 

ch. 17. 20. 

ch. 25. 12. 

John 8. 35. 
p Num. 20. 5. 

Ps. 63. 1. 
q ch. 44. 34. 
)' Ex. 3. 7. 

2 Ki. 13. 4, 23. 
s verse 13. 

ch. 25. 12. 

Judg. 8. 24. 
t Num. 22. 31. 

2 Ki. 0. 17. 

Luke 24. 16. 
u ch. 39. 2, 3. 
D ch. 16. 12. 
w ch. 24. 4. 
x ch. 20. 2. 
y ch. 26. 28. 

Isa. 8. 10. 
z Josh. 2. 12. 

1 Sam. 24. 21. 

1 if thou shalt 
lie unto me. 

5 And A'bra-ham was an hundred years old, when 
his son I'saac was born unto him. 

6 If And Sa'rah said, •''God hath made me to laugh, 
so that all that hear will laugh 3 with me. 

7 And she said, Who would have said unto A'bra- 
ham, that Sa'rah should have given children suck ? 
for h l have born him a son in his old age. 

8 And the child grew, and was weaned : and A'bra- 
ham made a great feast the same day that I'saac 
was weaned. 

9 If And Sa'rah saw the ,: son of Ha'gar the E-gyp'- 
tian, which she had born unto A'bra-ham, 'mocking. 

10 Wherefore she .said unto A'bra-ham, *Cast out 
this bondwoman and her son : for the son of this 
bondwoman shall not be heir with my son, even 
with I'saac. 

11 And the thing was very 'grievous in Abra- 
ham's sight because of his json. 

12 If And God said unto A'bra-ham, Let it not be 
grievous in thy sight because of the lad, and be- 
cause of thy bondwoman; in all that Sa'rah hath 
said unto thee, hearken unto her voice ; for m in 
I'gaac shall thy seed be called. 

13 And also "of the son of the bondwoman will I 
make a nation, because he is thy seed. 

14 And A'bra-ham rose up early in the morning, 
and took bread, and a bottle of water, and gave it 
unto Ha'gar, putting it on her shoulder, and the 
child, and ° sent her away : and she departed, and 
wandered in the wilderness of Be'er-she'ba. 

15 And p the water was spent in the bottle, and 
she cast the child under one of the shrubs. 

16 And she went, and sat her down over against him 
a good way off, as it were a bowshot : for she said, 
"Let me not see the death of the child. And she sat 
over against him, and lift up her voice, and wept. 

17 And r God heard the voice of the lad ; and the 
angel of God called to Ha'gar out of heaven, and 
said unto her, What aileth thee, Ha'gar ? fear not ; 
for God hath heard the voice of the lad where he is. 

18 Arise, lift up the lad, and hold him in thine 
hand ; for s I will make him a great nation. 

19 And God 'opened her eyes, and she saw a well 
of water ; and she went, and filled the bottle with 
water, and gave the lad drink. 

20 And w God was with the lad ; and he grew, and 
"dwelt in the wilderness, and became an archer. 

21 And he dwelt in the wilderness of Pa 'ran : and 
his mother took him a wife out of the '"land of 

22 If And it came to pass at that time, that * A-bim'- 
e-lech and Phl'chol the chief captain of his host 
spake unto A'bra-ham, saying, ,J God is with thee in 
all that thou doest : 

23 Now therefore z swear unto me here by God 
Hhat thou wilt not deal falsely with me, nor with 
my son, nor with my son's son : but according to the 
kindness that I have done unto thee, thou shalt do 
unto me, and to the land wherein thou hast so- 

24 And A'bra-ham said, I will swear. 

25 And A'bra-ham reproved A-bim'e-lech because 

God proves Abraham. 

GENESIS, 22, 23. 

Abraham blessed. 

of a well of water, which A-bim'e-lech's servants 
had violently "taken away. 

26 And A-bim'e-lech said, I wot not who hath done 
this thing : neither didst thou tell me, neither yet 
heard I ofit, but to day. 

27 And A'bra-ham took sheep and oxen, and gave 
them unto A-bim'e-lech ; and both of them 6 made 
a covenant 

28 And A'bra-ham set seven ewe lambs of the 
flock by themselves. 

29 And A-bim'e-lech said unto A'bra-ham, c What 
mean these seven ewe lambs which thou hast set 
by themselves ? 

30 And he said, For these seven ewe lambs shalt 
thou take of my hand, that d they may be a witness 
unto me, that I have digged this well. 

31 Wherefore he e called that place 2 Be'er-she'ba; 
because there they sware both of them. 

32 Thus they made a covenant at Be'er-she'ba : 
then A-bim'e-lech rose up, and Phl'chol the chief 
captain of his host, and they returned into the -Hand 
of the Phi-lis_'tme§. 

33 H And A'bra-ham planted a 3 grove in Be'er- 
she'ba, and called there on the name of the Lord, 
the ° everlasting God. 

34 And A'bra-ham sojourned in the PhT-lis'tmeg' 
land many days. 


* Ibraham offers Isaac. 13 A ram substituted. 15 Abraham blessed. 20 Nahor's offspring. 

AND it came tojpass after these things, that a God 
- did tempt A'bra-ham, and said unto him, 
A'bra-ham : and he said, 2 Behold, here I am. 

2 And he said, 6 Take now thy son, thine only son 
I'gaac, whom thou lovest, and get thee into the land 
c of Mo-ri'ah ; and offer him there for a burnt offer- 
ing upon one of the mountains which I will tell 
thee of. 

3 1 And A'bra-ham rf rose up early in the morning, 
and saddled his ass, and took two of his young men 
with him, and I'gaac his son, and clave the wood for 
the burnt offering, and rose up, and went unto the 
place of which God had toldhim. 

4 Then on the third day A'bra-ham lifted up his 
eyes, andsaw the place afar off. 

5 And A'bra-ham said unto his young men, Abide 
ye here with the ass ; and I and the lad will go yon- 
der and worship, and come again to you. 

6 And A'bra-ham took the wood of the burnt offer- 
ing, and e laid it upon I'gaac his son ; and he took the 
fire in his hand, and a knife ; and they went both 
of them together. 

7 And I'gaac spake unto A'bra-ham his father, and 
said, My father: and he said, 2 Here am I, my son. 
And he said, Behold the fire and the wood : but 
where is the 3 lamb for a burnt offering? 

8 And A'bra-ham said, My son, God will provide 
himself f & lamb for a burnt offering : so they went 
both of them together. 

9 And they came to the place which God had told 
him of ; and A'bra-ham built an altar there, and 
laid the wood in order, and a bound I'saac his son, 
and laid him on the altar upon the wood. 

B. C. 1898. 

a ch. 26. 15- 

b cLl 26. 28-31. 

c ch. 33. 8. 

d ch. 31. 48. 

e ch. 26. 33. 

2 That is, the 
well of the 

/ Josh. 13. 2. 

3 Or, tree. 

g Deut. 33. 27. 
Ps. 9. 7. 
Ps. 29. 10. 
Ps. 45. G. 
Ps. 90. 2. 
Ps. 93. 2. 
Isa. 9. 6. 
Isa. 40. 28. 
Isa. 63. 16. 
Jer. 10. 10. 
Lam. 5. 19. 
Mic. 5. 2. 
Hab. 1. 12. 
Rom. 16. 26. 
Heb. 13. 8. 
1 Tim. 1. 17. 
Rev. 10. (>. 
Rev. 15. 7. 

a Jas. 1. 12-14. 
Heb. 11. 17. 

1 Behold me. 
b John 3. 16. 
e2Chr. 3. 1. 

tf Heb. 11. 17-19. 
e John 19. 17. 
1 Pet. 2. 24. 

2 Behold me. 

3 Or, kid. 
/I Pet. 1. 19. 
g John 10. 

17, 18. 

Heb. 11. 17. 
h Isa. 53. 6-12. 
i 1 Sam. 15. 22. 
j ch. 26. 5. 

Rom. 8. 32. 

Jas. 2. 22. 
k 1 Cor. 5. 7, 8. 

4 That is, the 
Lord will see, 
or, provide. 

I Ps. 105. 9. 

Luke 1. 73. 

Heb. 6. 13, 14. 
m ch. 15. 5. 

Jer". 33. 22. 
n ch. 13. 16. 

5 lip. 

Ps. 2. 8. 
ch. 24. 60. 

Mic. 1. 9. 
p ch. 12. 3. 

ch. 18. 18. 

Gal. 3. 8, 9, 

16, 18. 
q verses 3, 10. 

ch. 26. 5. 
r ch. 11. 29. . 
* Job 1. 1. 
t Job 32. 2. 
u ch. 24. 15. 

a John 11. 31, 

b ch. 17. 8. 

1 Chr. 29. 15. 
Ps. 39. 12. 
Ps. 105. 12. 
Ps. 119. 19. 

2 Cor. 5. 6, 7. 
Heb. 11. 9, 13. 
1 Pet. 1. 17. 

1 Pet. 2. 11. 
c ch. 49. 30. 
1 a prince of 

d ch. 13. 2. 

ch. 14. 14. 

ch. 24. 35. 

10 And A'bra-ham h stretched forth his hand, and 
took the knife to slay his son. 

11 And the angel of the Lord called unto him out 
of heaven, and said, A'bra-ham, A'bra-ham : and he 
said, Here am I. 

12 And he said, { Lay not thine hand upon the lad, 
neither do thou any thing unto him: for now J l 
know that thou fearest God, seeing thou hast not 
withheld thy son, thine only son from me. 

13 And A'bra-ham lifted up his eyes, and looked, 
and behold behind him a ram caught in a thicket 
by his horns: and A'bra-ham went and took the 
ram, and offered him. up for a burnt offering /c in 
the stead of his son. 

14 And A'bra-ham called the name of that place 
4 Je-ho'vah-jI'reh : as it is said to this day, In the 
mount of the Lord it shall be seen. 

15 H And the angel of the Lord called unto A'bra- 
ham out of heaven the second time, 

16 And said, 'By myself have I sworn, saith the 
Lord, for because thou hast done this thing, and hast 
not withheld thy son, thine only son : 

17 That in blessing I will bless thee, and in multi- 
plying I will multiply thy seed as the m stars of the 
heaven, and as the "sand which is upon the sea 
5 shore; and thy seed sha.ll ° possess the gate of his 
enemies ; 

18 And p in thy seed shall all the nations of the 
earth be blessed ; because 9 thou hast obeyed my 

19 So A'bra-ham returned unto his young men, 
and they rose up and went together to Be'er-she'ba ; 
and A'bra-ham dwelt at Be'er-she'ba. 

20 "f[ And it came to pass after these things, that 
it was told A'bra-ham, saying, Behold, r Mil'cah, she 
hath also born children unto thy brother Na'hor; 

21 Hiiz s his firstborn, and Buz his brother, and 
Ke-mu'el the father of f A'ram, 

22 And Che'sed, and Ha'zo, and Pil'dash, and 
JTd'laph, and Beth-u'el. 

23 And u Beth-u'el begat Re-bek'ah : these eight 
Mil'cah did bear to Na'hor, A 'bra-ham's brother. 

24 And his concubine, whose name was Reu'mah, 
she bare also Te'bah, and Ga'ham, and Tha'hash, 
and Ma'a-chah. 


1 Sarah's death. 3 Purchase of Machpelah. 19 Sarah's burial. 

AND Sa'rah was an hundred and seven and 
- twenty years old : these were the years of the 
life of Sa'rah. 

2 And Sa'rah died in Kir'jath-ar'ba ; the same is 
He'bron in the land of Ca'naan : and A'bra-ham 
came "to mourn for Sa'rah, and to weep for her. 

3 1 And A'bra-ham stood up from before his dead, 
and spake unto the sons of Heth, saying, 

4 I am 6 a stranger and a sojourner with you : give 
me a possession of a c buryingplace with you, that I 
may bury my dead out of my sight. 

5 And the children of Heth answered A'bra-ham, 
saying unto him, 

6 Hear us, my lord : thou art 1 a mighty d prince 
among us : in the choice of our sepulchres bury thy 


Purchase of Machpelah. 


Servant's visit to the east. 

dead ; none of us shall withhold from thee his sep- 
ulchre, but that thou mayest bury thy dead. 

7 And A' bra-ham stood up, and bowed e himself to 
the people of the land, even to the children of Heth. 

8. And he communed with them, saying, If it be 
your mind that I should bury my dead_out of my 
sight ; hear me, and intreat for me to E'phron the 
son of Zo'har, 

9 That he may give me the cave of Mach-pe'lah, 
which he hath, which is in the end of his field ; for 
2 as much money as it is worth he shall give it me 
for a possession of a buryingplace amongst you. 

10 And E'phron dwelt among the children of 
Heth : and E'phron the Hit'tite answered A 'bra- 
ham in the 3 audience of the children of Heth, even 
of all that went in at the •'"gate of his city, saying, 

11 Nay, ^my lord, hear me : the field give I thee, 
and the cave that is therein, I give it thee ; in the 
presence of the sons of my people give I it thee : 
bury thy dead. 

12 And A 'bra-ham bowed down himself before the 
people of the land. 

13 And he spake unto E'phron in the audience of 
the people of the land, saying, But if thou wilt give 
it, I pray thee, hear me : h I will give thee money 
for the field ; take it of me, and I will bury my dead 

14 And E'phron answered A' bra-ham, saying unto 

15 My lord, hearken unto me : the land is ivorth 
four hundred shekels ?: of silver; what -is that be- 
twixt me and thee? bury therefore thy dead. 

16 And A'bra-ham hearkened unto E'phron ; and 
A 'bra-ham •'weighed to E'phron the silver, which he 
had named in the audience of the sons of Heth, 
four hundred shekels of silver, current money with 
the merchant. 

17 H And Hhe field of E'phron, which was in Mach- 
pe'lah, which was before Mam 're, the field, and the 
cave which loas therein, and all the trees that were- 
in the field, that were in all the borders round about, 
were made_sure 

18 Unto A'bra-ham for a possession in the presence 
of the children of Heth, before all that went in at 
the gate of his city, 

19 And after this, ? A'bra-ham buried Sa'rah his 
wife in the cave of the field of Mach-pe'lah before 
Marn're : the same is He'bron in the land of Ca'- 

20 And the field, and the cave that is therein, were 
m made sure unto A'bra-ham for a possession of a 
buryingplace by the sons of Heth. 


1 Abraham seeks a wife for Isaac. 10 Servant's visit to the east. 50 Rebekah chosen. 

02 Isaac meets tier. 

AND A'bra-ham "was old, and 1 we\\_ stricken in 
- age : and the Lord had b blessed A'bra-ham in 
all things. 

2 And A'bra-ham said c unto his eldest servant of 
his house, that ruled d over all that he had, e Put, I 
pray thee, thy hand under my thigh : 


B. C. 1860. 

e Rom. 13. 7. 

2 full money. 

3 ears. 

/ ch. 34. 20, 24. 

Ruth 4. 4. 
(j 2 Sam. 24. 


h Phil. 4. 5-8. 

i Ex. 30. 13. 
Ezek. 45. 12. 

j Jer. 32. 9-12. 

k ch. 25. 9. 

ch. 40. 30-32. 

ch. 50. 13. 

Acts 7. 16. 
I ch. 35. 29. 
m Rutli 4. 7-10. 

Jer. 32. 10, 11. 

a ch. 18. 11. 

1 gone into days. 

6 ch. 13. 2. 

Gal. 3. 9. 
c ch. 15. 2. 
d verse 10. 

ch. 39. 4-6. 
ecu. 47. 29.. 

Lam. 5. 6. 
/Ex.34. 16. 

Deut. 7. 3. 

2 Cor. 6. 14-17. 
g ch. 28. 2. 
h 2 Pet. 2. 20-22. 
i ch. 12. 1, 7. 
j ch. 13. 15. 

Ex. 32. 13. 
k Ex. 23. 20. 

Ps. 34. 7. 

Isa. 63. 9. 

1 Josh. 2. 17-20. 

2 Or, and. 

m ch. 27. 43. 

3 women which 
draw water go 

n Ex. 2. 16. 

1 Sam. 9. 11. 
o verse 27. 

ch. 26. 24. 

Ex. 3. 6, 15. 
p Phil. 4. 6. 
q Prov. 19. 14. 
r Judg. 6. 17-37. 

1 Sam. 6. 7. 
5 Ps. 34. 15. 
tch. 11.29. 
u ch. 26. 7. 

4 good of coun- 

v John 4. 7. 

w 1 Pet. 3. 8. 

1 Pet. 4. 9. 

3 And I will make thee swear by the Lord, the 
God of heaven, and the God of the earth, that thou 
shalt / not take a wife unto my son of the daughters 
of the Ca'naan-ites, among whom I dwell : 

4 But thou shalt go ff unto my country, and to my 
kindred, and take a wife unto my son I'saac. 

5 And the servant said unto him, Peradventure 
the woman will not be willing to follow me unto 
this land : must I needs bring thy son again unto 
the land from whence thou earnest ? 

6 And A'bra-ham said unto him, Beware Hhou 
that thou bring not my son thither again. 

7 II The Lord God of heaven, which took 'me from 
my father's house, and from the land of my kindred,, 
and which spake unto me, and that sware unto me, 
saying, J 'Unto thy seed will I give this land ; he 
shall send /c his angel before thee, and thou shalt take 
a wife unto my son from thence. 

8 And if the woman will not be willing to follow 
thee, then thou shalt *be clear from this my oath : 
only bring not my son thither again. 

9 And the servant put his hand under the thigh 
of A'bra-ham his master, and sware to him concern- 
ing that matter. 

10H And the servant took ten camels of the camels 
of his master, and departed ; 2 for all the goods of 
his master were in his hand : and he arose, and went 
to Mes-o-po-ta'mi-a, unto the m city of Na'hor. 

11 And he made his camels to kneel down without 
the city by a well of water at the time of the evening, 
even the time that 3 women n go out to draw water. 

12 And he said, °0 Lord God of my master A'bra- 
ham, p I pray thee, send me goodspeed this day, and 
shew kindness unto my master A'bra-ham. 

13 Behold, I stand here by the well of water ; and 
the daughters of the men of the city come out to 
draw water : 

14 And let it come to pass, that the damsel to 
whom I shall say, Let down thy pitcher, I pray thee, 
that I may drink ; and she shall say, Drink, and I 
will give thy camels drink also : let the same, be she 
q that thou hast appointed for thy servant I'saac ; 
and r thereby shall I know that thou hast shewed 
kindness unto my master. 

15 II And it came to pass, s before he had done 
speaking, that, behold, Re-bek'ah came out, who 
was bornto Beth-u'el, son of *Mil'cah, the wife of 
Na'hor, A'bra-ham's brother, with her pitcher upon 
her shoulder. 

16 And the damsel was "very 4 fair to look upon, 
a virgin, neither had any man known her : and she 
went down to the well, and filled her pitcher, and 
came up. 

17 And the servant ran to meet her, and said, 
"Let me, I pray thee, drink a little water of thy 

18 And she said, w Drink, my lord : and she hasted, 
and let down her pitcher upon her hand, and gave 
him drink. 

19 And when she had done giving him drink, she 
said, I will draw water for thy camels also, until 
they have done drinking. 

Report of Abraham's servant. 


Rebekah chosen. 

20 And she hasted, and emptied her pitcher into 
the trough, and ran again unto the well to draw 
water, and drew for all his camels. 

21 And the man x wondering at her held his peace, 
to wit whether the Lord had made his journey pros- 
perous or not. 

22 And it came to pass, as the camels had done 
drinking, that the man took a golden 5 earring of 
^half a shekel weight, and two bracelets for her 
hands of ten shekels weight of gold ; 

23 And said, Whose daughter art thou ? tell me, I 
pray thee : is there room in thy father's house for 
us to lodge in ? 

24 And she said unto him, I am the daughter of 
Beth-u'el the son of Mil'cah, which she bare unto 

25 She said moreover unto him, We z have both 
straw and provender enough, and room to lodge in. 

26 And the man "bowed down his head, and wor- 
shipped the Lord. 

27 And he said, b Blessed be the Lord God of my 
master A'bra-ham, who hath not left destitute my 
master of c his mercy and his truth : I being in the 
way, d the Lord led me to the house of my master's 

28 And the damsel ran, and told them of her mo- 
ther's house these things. 

29 1 And Re-bek'ah had a brother, and his name 
was "La'ban: and La'ban ran out unto the man, 
unto the well. 

30 And it came to pass, when he saw the earring 
and bracelets upon his sister's hands, and when he 
heard the words of Re-bek'ah his sister, saying, 
Thus spake the man unto me ; that he came unto 
the man ; and, behold, he stood by the camels at 
the well. 

31 And he said, Come in, -^thou blessed of the 
Lord ; wherefore standest thou without ? for I 
have prepared the house, and room for the camels. 

32 TI And the man came into the house : and he 
ungirded his camels, and ^gave straw and provender 
for the camels, and water to wash his feet, and the 
men's feet that were with him. 

33 And there was set meat before him to eat : 
but he said, h l will not eat, until I have told mine 
errand. And he said, Speak on. 

34 And he said, I am A'bra-ham's servant. 

35 And the Lord hath * blessed my master greatly ; 
and he is become great : and he hath given him 
'flocks, and herds, and silver, and gold, and menser- 
vants, and maidservants, and camels, and asses. 

36 And Sa'rah my master's wife bare k a son to my 
master when she was old : and 'unto him hath he 
given all that he hath. 

37 And my master m made me swear, saying, Thou 
shalt not take a wife to my son of the daughters of 
the Ca'naan-ites, in whose land I dwell : 

38 But thou shalt go unto my father's house, and 
to my kindred, and take a wife unto my son. 

39 And I said unto my master, Peradventure the 
woman will not follow me. 

40 And " he said unto me, The Lord, before whom 

B. C. 1857. 

x Luke 2. 19, 51. 

5 Or, jewel for 
the forehead. 

y Ex. 32. 2, 3. 
Isa. 3. 19, 20. 
1 Pet. 3. 3. 

1 Pet. 4. 9. 

a verse 52. 
Ex. 4. 31. 

b Ex. 18. 10. 
Ruth 4. 14. 

1 Sam. 25. 32. 

2 Sam. 18. 28." 
Luke 1. G8. 

c eh. 32. 10. 

Ps. 98. 3. 
d verse 48. 

Prov. 3. 6. 

e ch. 29. 5. 


/ch. 26.29. 

Judg. 17. 2. 

Ruth 3. 10. 

Ps. 115. 15. 
g ch. 43. 24. 

Judg. 19. 21. 
h Job 23. 12. 

John 4. 34. 

Epli. 6. 5-7. 
i verse 1. 

ch. 13. 2. 
j Jobl. 3. 
k ch. 21. 2. 

1 ch. 21. 10. 

ch. 25. 5. 
m verse 3. 
n verse 7. 
o ch. 5. 22-24. 

ch. 17. 1. 
p Ex. 23. 20. 
q verse 8. 
r 1 Ki. 1. 3G, 

Acts 10. 7, 

sNeh. 1. 11. 

Ps. 90. 17. 

Rom. 1. 10. 
t verse 13. 
u Heb. 13. 2. 
v verse 15. 
w 1 Sam. 1. 13, 

Isi. C5. 24. 
x Ezek. 16. 

y verse 26. 

2 Ps. 32. 8. 
Ps. 48. 14. 
Ps. 107. 7. 
Isa. 48. 17. 

a ch. 47. 29. 

Josh. 2. 14. 
b Ps. 118. 23. 

Matt. 21.42. 

Mark 12. 11. 
c ch. 20. 15. 
d Ex. 3. 22. 

Ex. 11. 2. 

Ex. 12. 35. 

6 vessels. 

el Chr. 21. 3. 

Ezra 1 . 6. 
f verses 56, 59 

7 Or, a full 
year, or, ten 

<7 verse 40. 

1 walk, will send his p angel with thee, and prosper 
thy way ; and thou shalt take a wife for my son of 
my kindred, and of my father's house : 

41 Then " shalt thou be clear from this my oath, 
when thou comest to my kindred ; and if they give 
not thee one, thou shalt be clear from my oath. 

42 And I came this day unto the well, and said, 
r O Lord God of my master A'bra-ham, if now thou 
s do prosper my way which I go : 

43 Behold, * I stand by the well of water ; and it 
shall come to pass, that when the virgin cometh 
forth to draw water, and I say to her, Give me, I 
pray thee, a little water of thy pitcher to drink ; 

44 And she say to me, "Both drink thou, and I 
will also draw for thy camels : let the same be the 
woman whom the Lord hath appointed out for my 
master's son. 

45 And v before I had "done speaking in mine 
heart, behold, Re-bek'ah came forth with her pitcher 
on her shoulder ; and she went down unto the well, 
and drew water : and I said unto her, Let me drink, 
I pray thee. 

46 And she made haste, and let down her pitcher 
from her shoulder, and said, Drink, and I will give 
thy camels drink also : so I drank, and she made 
the camels drink also. 

47 And I asked her, and said, Whose daughter art 
thou? And she said, The daughter of Beth-u'el, 
Na'hor's son, whom Mil'cah bare unto him : and I 
put the x earring upon her face, and the bracelets 
upon her hands. 

48 And I y bowed down my head, and worshipped 
the Lord, and blessed the LORD God of my master 
A'bra-ham, which had *led me in the right way 
to take my master's brother's daughter unto his 

49 And now a if ye will deal kindly and truly with 
my master, tell me : and if not, tell me ; that I 
may turn to the right hand, or to the left. 

50 Then La'ban and Beth-u'el answered and said, 
b The thing proceedeth from the Lord : we cannot 
speak unto thee bad or good. 

51 Behold, Re-bek'ah is c before thee, take her, 
and go, and let her be thy master's son's wife, as 
the Lord hath spoken. 

52 And it came to pass, that, when A'bra-ham's 
servant heard their words, he worshipped the Lord, 
bowing himself to the earth. 

53 And the servant brought forth jewels d of sil- 
ver, and 6 jewels of gold, and raiment, and gave 
them to Re-bek'ah : he gave also to her brother and 
to her mother e precious things. 

54 And they did eat and drink, he and the men 
that were with him, and tarried all night ; and they 
rose up in the morning, and he said, •'Send me away 
unto my master. 

55 And her brother and her mother said, Let the 
damsel abide with us 7 afeiv days, at the least ten ■ 
after that she shall go. 

56 And he said unto them, Hinder me not, seeing 
the ^Lord hath prospered my way ; send me away 
that I may go to my master. 

Meeting of Isaac and Rehekah. 


Birth of Esau and Jacob, 


her h 

57 And they said, We will call the damsel, and 
enquire at her mouth. 

58 And they called Re-bek'ah, and said unto her, 
Wilt thou go with this man ? And she said, I will go. 

59 And they sent away Re-bek'ah their sister, and 
nurse, and A 'bra-ham's servant, and his men. 

60 And they blessed Re-bek'ah, and said unto her, 
Thou art our sister, be thou Hhe mother of thou- 
sands of millions, and let thy j seed possess the gate 
of those which hate them. 

61 If And Re-bek'ah arose, and her damsels, and 
they rode upon the camels, and followed the man : 
and the servant took Re-bek'ah, and went his way. 

62 And I'gaac came from the way of the well /c La- 
Mi '-roi ; for he dwelt in the south country. 

63 And I'saac went out 8 'to meditate in the field 
at the eventide : and he lifted up his eyes, and 
saw, and, behold, the camels were coming. 

64 And Re-bek'ah lifted up her eyes, and when 
she saw I'gaac, she lighted "'off the camel. 

65 For she had said unto the servant, What man 
is this that walketh in the field to meet us ? And 
the servant had said, It is my master : therefore 
she took a n veil, and covered herself. 

66 And the servant told I'gaac all things that he 
had done. 

67 And I'gaac brought her' into his mother Sa'rah's 
tent, and took Re-bek'ah L and she became his wife ; 
and he loved her : and "I'gaac was comforted after 
his mother's death. 


1 Abraham's sons by Keturah. 7 Death of Abraham. 24 Birth of Esau and Jacob. 
29 Sale of Esau's birthright. 

THEN again A'bra-ham took a wife, and her 
name was Ke-tu'rah. 

2 And she bare him "Zim'ran, and Jok'shan, and 
Me'dan, and Mid'i-an, and Ish'bak, and Shu'ah. 

3 And Jok'shan begat She'ba, and De'dan. And 
the sons of De'dan were As-shu'rim, and Le-tu'shim, 
and Le-um'mim. 

4 And the sons of Mid'i-an ; E'phah, and E'pher, 
and Ha'noch, and A-bi'dah, and El'da-ah. All these 
were the children of Ke-tu'rah. 

5 H And A'bra-ham 6 gave all that he had unto 

6 But unto the sons of the concubines, which 
A'bra-ham had, A'bra-ham gave gifts, and c sent 
them away from I'gaac his son, while he yet lived, 
eastward, unto the rf east country. 

7 And these are the days of the years of Abra- 
ham's life which he lived, an hundred threescore 
and fifteen years. 

8 Then A'bra-ham gave up the ghost, and died in 
c a good old age, an old man, and full of years ; and 
was fathered to his people. 

9 And his sons 9 I'gaac and Ish'ma-el buried him 
/J in the cave of Mach-pe'lah, in the field of E'phron 
the son of Zo'har the Hit'tlte, which is before 
Mam' re ; 

10 The afield which A'bra-ham purchased of the 
sons of Heth : there was A'bra-ham buried, and Sa'- 
rah his wife. 


B. C. 1857. 

h ch. 35. 8. 

i ch. 17. 1G. 

Ruth 4. 11. 
j eh. 22. 17. 

k ch. 16. 14. 
ch. 25. 11. 

8 Or, to pray. 
/Josh. 1. 8. 

Pa. 1. 2. 

Ps. 35. 17. 

Ps. 77. 12. 

Fs. 119. 15. 

Ps. 143. 5. 

Dan. 6. 10. 

Matt. 0. 5, G. 

Matt. 14. 23. 

Markl. 35. 

Mark 6. 40. 

Luke 5. Hi. 
• Luke G. 12. 

Acts 10. 9. 
in Josh. 15. 18. 

1 Sam. 25. 23. 
n 1 Cor. 11. 3, 6, 

7, 10. 

o 1 Thess. 4. 13. 

a 1 Chr. 1. 32. 

b ch. 24. 36. 
-• ch. 21. 14. 
d Judg. 6. 3. 
e ch. 15. 15. 

ch. 47. 8, 9. 
fell. 35. 29. 

ch. 49. 33. 

Acts 13. 3C. 
q ch. 50. 13. 
A ch. 49. 29, 30. 
i ch. 23. 1G. 
j ch. 10. 14. 

ch. 24. G2. 
* 1 Chr. 1.29. 
1 Or, Hadad. 

1 Chr. 1. 30. 

1 ch. 17. 20. 
m verse 8. 

eh. 49. 33. 
Mark 15. 37. 
n 1 Sam. 15. 7. 

2 fell. 

eh. 16. 12. 
p Matt. 1. 2. 
a ch. 24. 67. 

/ eh. 22. 23. 
s ch. 24. 29. 

1 1 Sam. 1. 11. 
u 1 Chr. 5. 20. 

2 Chr. 33. 13. 
Ezra 8. 23. 

v Rom. 9. 10. 
w 1 Sam. 9. 9. 

1 Sam. 10. 22. 
x eh. 24. 60. 
y ch. 27. 11. 

3 Hos. 12. 3. 
a ch. 27. 36. 
b ch. 27. 3, 5. 
c Jobl. 1,8. 

Job 2. 3. 
d Heb. 11. 9. 

3 venison was 
in his mouth. 

e ch. 27. 19. 
/ch. 27.6. 

4 with that red, 
with that red 

5 That is, Red. 

6 going to die. 

11 If And it came to pass after the death of A'bra- 
ham, that God blessed his son I'gaac ; and I'gaac 
dwelt by the well J Xa-hai'-roi. 

12 Tf Now these are the k generations of Ish'ma-el, 
A'bra-ham's son, whom Hangar the E-gyp'tian, Sa'- 
rah's handmaid, bare unto A'bra-ham : 

13 And these are the names of the sons of Ish'- 
ma-el, by their names, according to their genera- 
tions : the firstborn of Ish'ma-el, Ne-ba'joth ; and 
Ke'dar, and Ad'be-el, and Mib'sam, 

14 And Mish'ma, and Du'mah, and Mas'sa, 

15 a Ha'dar, and Te'ma, Je'tiir, Na'phish, and Ked'- 
e-mah : 

16 These are the sons of Ish'ma-el, and these are 
their names, by their towns, and by their castles ; 
'twelve princes according to their nations. 

17 And these are the years of the life of Ish'- 
ma-el, an hundred and thirty and seven years : and 
he gave '"up the ghost and died ; and was gathered 
unto his people. 

18 And they dwelt from "Hav'i-lah unto Shur, 
that is before E'gypt, as thou goest toward As- 
syr'i-a : and he 2 died in the "presence of all his 

_19 If And theseare the generations of I'gaac, 
A'bra-ham's son : A'bra-ham p begat I'gaac : 

20 And I'gaac was forty years old when he took 
"Re-bek'ah to wife, the 'daughter of Beth-u'el the 
Syr'T-an of Pa'dan-a'ram, the s sister to La'ban the 

21 And I'gaac Untreated the Lord for his wife, 
because she ivas barren : and the Lord was "in- 
treated of him, and Re-bek'ah his wife "conceived. 

22 And the children struggled together within 
her ; and she said, If it be so, why am I thus ? 
And she went to w enquire of the Lord. 

23 And the Lord said unto her, Two nations are 
in thy womb, and two "manner of people shall 
be separated from thy bowels : and the one people 
shall be stronger than the other people ; and the 
elder shall serve the younger. 

24 If And when her days to be delivered were ful- 
filled, behold, there were twins in her womb. 

25 And the first came out red, all ,J over_ like an 
hairy garment ; and they called his name E.'sau. 

26 And after that^came his brother out, and 2 his 
hand took hold on E^sau's heel ; and "his name was 
called Ja'cob : and I'gaac was threescore years old 
when she bare them. 

27 And the boys grew : and E'sau was a b cunning 
hunter, a man of the field ; and Ja'cob was c a plain 
man, d dwelling in tents^ 

28 And I'gaac loved E'sau, because 3 he did e eat 
of his venison : y but Re-bek'ah loved Ja'cob. 

29 Tf And Ja'cob sod pottage : and E'sau came 
from the field, and he was faint : 

30 And E'sau said to Ja'cob, Feed me, I pray thee, 
4 with that same red pottage^; for I am faint : there- 
fore was his name called 5 E'dom. 

31 And Ja'cob said, Sell me this day thy birthright. 

32 And E'sau said, Behold, I am 6 at the point to 
die : and what profit shall this birthright do to me? 

Dispute with Abimelech. 


Covenant with Abimelech. 

33 And Ja'cob said, Swear to me this day ; and 
he sware unto him : and he "sold his birthright 
unto Ja'cob. 

34 Then Ja'cob gave E'sau bread and pottage of 
lentiles ; and h he did eatand drink, and rose up, 
and went his way : thus E'sau despised his birth- 


1 God's promise lo Isaac. G Dispute with Abimelech. 23 God appears to Isaac at Beer- 

sheba. 26 A covenant. 

AND there was a famine in the land, beside 
- "the first famine that was in the days of A' bra- 
ham. And I'gaac went unto 6 A-bim'e-lech king of 
the Phi-lls'tme§ unto Ge'rar. 

2 And the Lord appeared unto him, and said, Go 
not down into E'gypt ; dwell in the c land which I 
shall tell thee of : 

3 Sojourn d 'm this land, and e I will be with thee, 
and •'"will bless thee ; for unto thee, and unto thy 
seed, ° I will give all these countries, and I will per- 
form Hhe oath which I sware unto A 'bra-ham thy 
father ; 

4 And 'I will make thy seed to multiply as the 
stars of heaven, and will give unto thy seed all 
these countries ; and '"in thy seed shall all the na- 
tions of the earth be blessed ; 

5 Because Hhat A 'bra-ham obeyed my voice, and 
kept my charge, my commandments, my statutes, 
and my laws. 

6 If And I'saac dwelt in Ge'rar : 

7 And the men of the place asked him of his wife ; 
and he said, 'She is my sister : for m he feared to 
say, She is my wife ; lest, said he, the men of the 
place should kill me for Re-bek'ah ; because she 
was K fair to look upon. 

8 And it came Jo pass, when he had been there a 
long time, that A-bim'e-lech king of the Phi-lis|tine§ 
looked out at a window, and saw, and, behold, I'saac 
was sporting with Re-bek'ah. his wife. 

9 And A-bim'e-lech called I'saac, and said, Be- 
hold, of a surety she is thy wife : and how saidst 
thou, She is my sister? And I'gaac said unto him, 
Because Ijsaid, Lest I die for her. 

10 And A-bim'e-lech said, What is this thou hast 
done unto us ? one of the people might lightly have 
lien with thy wife, and °thou shouldest have brought 
guiltinessjipon us. 

11 And A-bim'e-lech charged all his people, saying, 
He that p toucheth this man or his wife shall surely 
be put to death. 

12 Then I'gaac sowed in that land, and deceived 
in the same year an q hundredfold : and the Lord 
blessed r him. 

13 And the man s waxed great, and 2 went forward, 
and grew until he became very great : 

14 For he had possession of flocks, and possession 
of herds, and great store of 3 servants : and the 
Phi-lis'tme§ 'envied him. 

15 For all the wells M which_ his father's servants 
had digged in the days of A'bra-ham his father, 
the Phi-lis'tme§ had stopped them, and filled them 
with earth. 

B. C. 1853. 

g Heb. 12. 1G. 

h 1 Cor. 15. 32. 

a ch. 12. 10. 
6 ch. 20. 2. 

c ch. 12. 1. 
Ps. 37. 3. 

dch.20. 1. 

Ps. 39. 12. 

Heb. 11.9. 
e ch. 28. 15. 
/•ch. 12. 2. 
g ch. 13. 15. 
h Ps. 105. 9. 

i ch. 15. 5. 

Jell. 22. IS. 
Ps. 72. 17. 

k eh. 22. 16. 

I eh. 12. 13. 
m Prov. 29. 25. 
n ch. 24. 16. 

ch. 20. 9. 

p Ps. 105. 15. 

1 found. 

q Matt. 13. S. 

Mark 4. 8. 
rch. 24. 1. 

Job 42. 12. 

Ps. 112. 3. 

Prov. 3. 16. 

Prov. 10. 22. 

Matt. 6. 33. 

Mark 10. 30. 
s Prov. 10. 22. 

2 went going. 

3 Or, husbandry. 

I ch. 37. 11. 

Eccl. 4. 4. 
v ch. 21. 30. 
v Ex. 1. 9. 
w ch. 21. 31. 

4 living. 

x ch. 21. 25. 

5 That is, 

6 That is, 


7 That is. Room. 
y ch. 17. G. 

Ex. 1. 7. 
z ch. 24. 12. 

Ex. 3. 6. 

Acts 7. 32. 
a ch. 15. 1. 
b verses 3. 4. 

Rom. 8. 31. 
c ch. 12. 7. 

ch. 13. 18. 
tf Ps. 116.17. 
e Judg. 11. 7. 
S Seeing we saw. 
/'ch. 21. 22,22. 

9 If thou 
shalt, etc. 

jch. 24. 31. 

Ps. 115. 15. 
h ch. 19. 3. 
ich. 21.31. 

10 That is, 
An oath. 

j ch. 21. 31. 

II That is, The 
well of the 

k- ch. 36. 2. 
I ch. 27. 4G. 

ch. 28. 1, 8. 
12 bitterness 

of spirit. 

16 And A-bim'e-lech said unto I'§aac, Go from us ; 
for "thou art much mightier than we. 

17 If And I'saac departed thence, and pitched his 
tent in the valley of Ge'rar, and dwelt there. 

18 And I'gaac digged again the wells j}f water, 
which they .had digged in the days of A'bra-ham 
his father ; for the_Phi-lis'tme§ had stopped them 
after the death of A'bra-ham : "'and he called their 
names after the names by which his father had 
called them. 

19 And I'saac's servants digged in the valley, and 
found there a well of 4 springing water. 

20 And the herdmen of Ge'rar did 'strive with 
I'gaac's herdmen, saying, The water is ours : and 
he called the name of the well 5 E'sek ; because they 
strove with him. 

21 And they digged another well, and strove for 
that also : and he called the name of it 6 Sit'nah. 

22 And he removed from thence, and digged an- 
other well ; and for that they strove not : and he 
called the name of it 7 Re-ho'both ; and he said, For 
now the Lord hath made room for us, and we shall 
be v fruitful in the land. 

23 And he went up from thence to Be'er-she'ba. 

24 And the Lord appeared* unto him the same 
night, and said, 2 I am the God of A'bra-ham thy 
father: a fear not, for h I am with thee, and will 
bless thee, and multiply thy seed for my servant 
A 'bra-ham's sake. 

25 And he c builded an altar there, and d called 
upon the name of the Lord, and pitched his tent 
there : and there I'saac's servants digged a well. 

26 I Then A-bim'e-lech went to him from Ge'rar, 
and A-huz'zath one of his friends, and Phi'chol the 
chief captain of his army. 

27 And I'saac said unto them, Wherefore come ye 
to me, seeing ye e hate me, and have sent me away 
from you ? 

28 And they said, 8 We saw certainly that the Lord 
Avas with thee : and we said, Let there be now an 
oath betwixt us, even betwixt us and thee, and let 
us make a covenant with thee ; 

29 9 That thou wilt do us no hurt, as we have not 
touched thee, and as we have done unto thee nothing 
but good, and have sent thee away in peace : Hhou 
art now the blessed of the Lord. 

30 And /J he made them a feast, and they did eat 
and drink. 

31 And they rose up betimes in the morning, and 
'sware one to another : and I'gaac sent them away, 
and they departed from him in peace. 

32 And it came to pass the same day, that I'saac's 
servants came, and t told him concerning the well 
which they had digged, and said unto him, We have 
found water. 

33 And he called it 10 She'bah : therefore Hhe 
name of thejeity is u Be'er-she'ba unto this day. 

34 If And k E'sau was forty years old when he took 
to wife Ju'dith the daughter of Bg-e'ri the Hit'tite, 
and Bash'e-math the daughter of E'lon the Hit'tite : 

35 Which 'were 12 a grief of mind unto I'saac and 
to Re-bek'ah. 


Jacob deceives Isaac. 


He obtains the blessing. 


1 Isaac sends for venison. G Jacob deceives Isaac. 23 He obtains (he blessing. 41 Esau 

threatens Jacob. 

AND it came to pass, that when I'saac was old, 
- and "his eyes were dim, so that he could not 
see, he called E'sau his eldest son, and said unto 
him, My son : and he said unto him, Behold, here am I. 

2 And he said, Behold now, I am old, b l know not 
the day of my death : 

3 Now therefore take, I pray thee, thy weapons, 
thy quiver and thy bow, and go out to the field, and 
2 take me some venison ; 

4 And make me savoury meat, such as I love, and 
bring it to me, that I may eat ; that my soul d may 
bless thee before I die. 

5 And Re-bek'ah heard when I'gaac spake to E'sau 
his son. And E'sau went to the field to hunt for 
venison, and to bring it. 

6 If And Re-bek'ah spake unto Ja'cob her son^ say- 
ing, Behold, I heard thy father speak unto E'sau 
thy brother, saying, 

7 Bring me venison, and make me savoury meat, 
that I may eat, and bless thee before the Lord be- 
fore my death. 

8 Now therefore, my son, c obey my voice accord- 
ing to that which I command thee. 

9 Go now to the flock, and fetch me from thence 
two good kids of the goats ; and I will make them 
savoury -^meat for thy father, such as he loveth : 

10 And thou shalt bring it to thy father, that he 
may eat, and that he "may bless thee before his 

11 And Ja'cob said to Re-bek'ah his mother, Behold, 
h E'sau my brother is a hairy man, and I am a 
smooth man : 

12 My father peradventure 'will feel me, and I 
shall seem to him as a deceiver ; and I shall bring 
j a curse upon me, and not a blessing. 

13 And his mother said unto him, Upon k me be 
thy curse, my son : only obey my voice, and go fetch 
me them. 

14 And he went, and fetched, and brought them 
to his mother : and his mother 'made savoury meat, 
such as his father loved. 

15 And Rji-bek'ah took 2 goodly raiment m of her 
eldest son E'sau, which were with her in the house, 
and put them upon Ja'cob her younger son : 

16 And she put the skins of the kids of the goats 
upon his hands, and upon the smooth of his neck : 

17 And she gave the savoury meat and the bread, 
which she had prepared, into the hand of her son 

18 If And he came unto his father, and said, My 
father : and he said, Here am I ; who art thou, my 

19 And Ja'cob said unto his father, I am E'sau thy 
firstborn ; n I have done according as thou badest 
me : arise, I pray thee, sit and eat of my venison, 
"that thy soul may bless me. 

20 And I'saac said unto his son, How is it that 
thou hast found it so quickly, my son? p And he 
said, Because the Lord thy God brought it 3 to me. 


B. C. 1760. 

a ch. 48. 10. 
I Sara. 3. 2. 
Eccl. 12. 3. 

b Prov. 27. 1. 
Jas. 4. 14. 

c ch. 25. 27, 28. 

1 hunt. 

d verse 27. 
ch. 48. 9, 15. 
ch. 49. 28. 
Deut. 33. 1. 
Heb. 11. 20. 

e verse 13. 

/ verse 4. 

g ch. 48. 15. 

h ch. 25. 25. 
i verse 22. 
j ch. 9. 25. 

Deut. 27. 18. 
k ch. 43. 9. 

1 Sam. 25. 24. 

2 Sam. 14. 9. 
Matt. 27. 25. 

1 verses 4, 9. 

2 desirable. 
m verse 27. 

n 1 Ki. 13. 18. 

1 Ki. 14. 2. 
Isa. 28. 15. 
Zech. 13. 4. 

o verse 4. 
p Ex. 20. 7. 

3 before me. 
q verse 12. 

r verse 16. 
s Rom. 3. 7, 8. 

Eph. 4. 25. 
t verse 4. 
u Hos. 14. fi. 

Song 2. 13. 

Heb. fi. 7. 
t'Heb. 11. 20. 
w Deut. 33. 13. 

2 Sam. 1. 21. 
x Num. 18. 12. 
y Deut. 33. 28. 

Ps. 05. 9. 

Zech. 9. 17. 
s ch. 9. 25. 

ch. 25. 23. 
a ch. 49. 8. 
* eh. 12. 3. 

Num. 24. 9. 
c verse 4. 

4 trembled with 
a great trem- 
bling greatly. 

5 hunted. 

d ch. 28. 3, 4. 

Num. 23. 20. 

Eph. 1. 3. 

Rom. 11. 29. 
e Heb. 12. 17. 
f 1 Tliess. 4. 6. 
ff ch. 25. 2G. 
That is, a 

h ch. 25. 33. 
i Fulfilled, 

2 Sam. 8. 14. 
/ verse 28. 
7 Or, supported. 

21 And I'saac said unto Ja'cob, Come near, I pray 
thee, that q l may feel thee, my son, whether thou 
be my very son E'sau or not. 

22 And Ja'cob went near unto I'saac his father ; 
and he felt him, and said, The voice is Ja'cob's 
voice, but the hands are the hands of E'sau. 

23 And he discerned him not, because r his hands 
were hairy, as his brother E'sau's hands : so he 
blessed him. 

24 And he said, Art thou my very son E'sau ? And 
he said, S I am. 

25 And he said, Bring it near to me, and I will eat 
of my son's venison, Hhat my soul may bless thee. 
And he brought it near to him, and he did eat : and 
he brought him wine, and he drank. 

26 And his father I'saac said unto him, Come near 
now, and kiss me, my son. 

27 And he came near, and kissed him : and he 
smelled the smell of his raiment, and blessed him, 
and said, See, * the smell of my son is as the smell 
of a field which the Lord hath blessed : 

28 Therefore "God give thee of the w dew of hea- 
ven, and x the fatness of the earth, and Aplenty of 
corn and wine : 

29 Let z people serve thee, and nations bow down 
to thee : be lord over thy brethren, and *let thy 
mother's sons bow down to thee : cursed b be every 
one that curseth thee, and blessed be he that bless- 
eth thee. 

30 TI And it came to pass, as soon as I'saac had 
made an end of blessing Ja'cob, and Ja'cob was yet 
scarce gone out from the presence of I'saac his fa- 
ther, that E'sau his brother came in from his hunting. 

31 And he also had made savoury meat, and 
brought it unto his father, and said unto his father, 
Let my father arise, and c eat of his son's venison, 
that thy soul may bless me. 

32 And I'saac his father said unto him, Who art 
thou? And he said, I am thy son, thy firstborn 

33 And I'saac 4 trembled very exceedingly, and said, 
Who? where is he that hath 5 taken venison, and 
brought it me, and I have eaten of all before thou 
earnest, and have blessed him? yea, d and he shall 
be blessed. 

34 And when E'sau heard the words of his father, 
e he cried with a great and exceeding bitter cry, and 
said unto his father, Bless me, even me also, O my 

35 And he said, Thy brother came with / subtilty, 
and hath taken away thy blessing. 

36 And he said, ff Is not he rightly named 6 Ja'cob? 
for he hath supplanted me these two times : ''he 
took away my birthright ; and, behold, now he hath 
taken away my blessing. And he said, Hast thou 
not reserved a blessing for me ? 

37 And I'saac answered and said unto E'sau, 'Be- 
hold, I have made him thy lord, and all his brethren 
have I given to him for servants ; and J 'with corn 
and wine have I Sustained him : and what shall I 
do now unto thee, my son ? 

38 And E'sau said unto his father, Hast thou but 

Esau threatens Jacob. 

GENESIS, 28, 29. 

Vision of Jacob's ladder. 

one blessing, my father ? bless me, even me also, my 
father. And E'sau lifted up his voice, ''and wept. 

39 And I'gaac his father answered and said unto 
him, Behold, 'thy dwelling shall be 8 the fatness of 
the earth, and of the dew of heaven from above ; 

40 And by thy sword shalt thou live, and '"shalt 
serve thy brother ; and ?l it shall come to pass when 
thou shalt have the dominion, that thou shalt break 
his yoke from off thy neck. 

41 If And E'sau "hated Ja'cob because of the bless- 
ing wherewith his father blessed him : and E'sau 
said in his heart, p The days of mourning for my 
father are at hand ; q then will I slay my brother 

42 And these words of E'sau her elder son were 
told to Re-bek'ah : and she sent and called Ja'cob 
her younger son, and said unto him, Behold, thy 
brother E'sau, as touching thee, doth 'comfort him- 
self, purposing to kill thee. 

43 Now therefore, my son, obey my voice ; and 
arise, flee thou to La'ban my brother to s Ha'ran ; 

44 And tarry with him a few days, until thy bro- 
ther's fury turn away ; 

45 Until thy brother's anger turn away from thee, 
and he forget that which thou hast done to him : 
then I will send, and fetch thee from thence : why 
should I be deprived also of you both in one day ? 

46 And Re-bek'ah said to I'gaac, *I am weary of 
my life because of the daughters of Heth : u if 
Ja'cob take a wife of the daughters of Heth, such 
as these which are of the daughters of the land, 
what good shall my life do me ? 


1 Jacob goes to Padan-aram. 10 Vision of a ladder. 20 Jacob's vow. 

AND I'gaac called Ja'cob, and blessed "him, and 
- charged him, and said unto him, Thou shalt 
not take a wife of the daughters of Ca'naan. 

2 Arise, go to Pa'dan-a'ram, to the house of Beth- 
u'el thy mother's father ; and take thee a wife 
from thence of the daughters of La'ban thy mo- 
ther's brother. 

3 And 6 God Almighty bless thee, and make thee 
fruitful, and multiply thee, that thou may est be a a 
multitude of people ; 

4 And give thee c the blessing of A 'bra-ham, to 
thee, and to thy seed with thee ; that thou mayest 
inherit the land 2 wherein thou art a d stranger, 
which God gave unto A 'bra-ham. 

5 And I'gaac sent away Ja'cob : and he went to 
Pa'dan-a'ram unto La'ban, son of Beth-u'el the 
Syr'i-an, the brother of Re-bek'ah, Ja'cob's and 
E'sau's mother. 

6 1 When E'sau saw that I'gaac had blessed Ja'- 
cob, and sent him away to Pa'dan-a'ram, to take 
him a wife from thence ; and that as he blessed 
him he gave him a charge, saying, Thou shalt not 
[ take a wife of the daughters of Ca'naan ; 

7 And that Ja'cob obeyed his father and his mo- 
ther, and was gone to Pa'dan-a'ram ; 

8 And E'sau seeing Hhat the daughters of Ca'naan 
3 pleased not I'gaac his father ; 

B. C. 1760. 

k Heb. 12. 17. 

I Heb. 11. 20. 

8 Or, of the 


m ch. 25. 23. 

2 Sam. 8. 14. 

Obad. 18-20. 
» Fulfilled, 

2 Ki. 8. 20. 

o cli. 37. 4, 8. 

ji ch. 50. 3, 4, 

? Obad. 10. 

1 John 3. 12. 

T Ps. 64. 5. 

:ch. 11. 31. 

I ch. 26. 35. 

ch. 28. 8. 

a ch. 24. 3. 

a ch. 27. 33. 
b ch. 17. 1, 6. 

1 an assembly of 

c ch. 12. 2. 
ch. 22. 17. 

2 of thy sojourn- 

d ch. 17. 8. 

1 Chr. 29. 15. 
Ps. 39. 12. 
Ps. 105. 12. 
Ps. 119. 19. 

2 Cor. 5. 6, 7. 
Heb. 11. 9. 13. 
1 Pet. 1. 17. 

1 Pet. 2. 11. 
e ch. 24. 3. 

3 were evil in 
the eyes, etc. 

/ ch. 36. 3, 

she is called 

g ch. 25. 13. 
// Called, 

Acts 7. 2, 

i ch. 41. 1. 

Job 33. 15. 
j John 1. 51. 

Heb. 1. 14. 
ich. 35. 1. 

ch. 48. 3. 
I ch. 26. 24. 
m ch. 13. 15. 
v ch. 13. 16. 

4 break forth. 

ch. 13. 14. 
Dent. 12. 20. 

p ch. 12. 3. 
q ch. 26. 24. 

ch. 31. 3. 
r ch. 48. 16. 

Ps. 121. 5. 
.s ch. 35. 6. 

1 Deut. 31. 6. 

u Num. 23. 19. 
r Ex. 3. 5. 

Josh. 5. 15. 
w Judg. 1 . 23. 

Hos. 4. 15. 

5 That is, The 
house of God. 

.r ch. 31. 13. 
Judg. 11. 30. 

2 Sam. 15. 8. 
V verse 15. 

z 1 Tim. 6. 8. 
a Judg. 11. 31. 

2 Sam. 19. 24. 
b Deut. 26. 17. 

2 Sara. 15. 8. 

2 Ki. 5. 17. 
r ch. 35. 7. 
d Lev. 27. 30 

1 lift up his feet. 
a Num. 23. 7. 

Hos. 12. 12. 

2 children. 

9 Then went E'sau unto Ish 'ma-el, and took unto 
the wives which he had -'"Ma'ha-lath the daughter 
of Ish 'ma-el A 'bra-ham's son, the a sister of Ne-ba'- 
joth, to be his wife. 

10 \ And Ja'cob went out from Be'er-she'ba, and 
went h toward Ha'ran. 

11 And he lighted upon a certain place, and tarried 
there all night, because the sun was set ; and he 
took of the stones of that place, and put them for 
his pillows, and lay down in that place to sleep. 

12 And he 'dreamed, and behold a ladder set up 
on the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven : 
and behold J the angels of God ascending and de- 
scending on it. 

13 And/' behold, the Lord stood above it, and said, 
'I am the Lord God of A'bra-ham thy father, and 
the God of I'gaac : TO the land whereon thou liest, 
to thee will I give it, and to thy seed ; 

14 And n thy seed shall be as the dust of the earth, 
and thou shalt 4 spread abroad to the "west, and to 
the east, and to the north, and to the south : and 
in thee and p in thy seed shall all the families of the 
earth be blessed. 

15 And, behold, Q I am with thee, and will r keep 
thee in all places whither thou goest, and will s bring 
thee again into this land ; for * I will not leave thee, 
"until I have done that which I have spoken to thee 

16 II And Ja'cob awaked out of his sleep, and he 
said, Surely the Lord is in "this place ; and. I knew 
it not. 

17 And he was afraid, and said, How dreadful is 
this place ! this is none other but the house of God, 
and this is the gate of heaven. 

18 And Ja'cob rose up early in the morning, and 
took the stone that he had put for his pillows, and 
set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top of it. 

19 And he called the name of that w place 5 Beth'- 
el : but the name of that city was called Luz at the 

20 And x Ja'cob vowed a vow, saying, If y God will 
be with me, and will keep me in this way that I go, 
and will give me z bread to eat, and raiment to put on, 

21 So that "I come again to my father's house in 
peace ; Hhen shall the Lord be my God : 

22 And this stone, which I have set for a pillar, 
'shall be God's house : rf and of all that thou shalt 
give me I will surely give the tenth unto thee. 


1 Jacob meets Rachel. 15 Jacob serves Laban. 21 Marries Leah and Rachel. 31 Leah's 


rt^HEN Ja'cob J went on his journey, a and came 
J- into the land of the 2 people of the east. 

2 And he looked, and behold a well in the field, 
and, lo, there were three flocks of sheep lying by it ; 
for out of that well they watered the flocks : and a 
great stone was upon the well's mouth. 

3 And thither were all the flocks gathered : and 
they rolled the stone from the well's mouth, and 
watered the sheep, and put the stone again upon 
the well's mouth in his place. 


Jacob serves Laban. 


Leah and Rachel. 

4 And Ja'cob said unto them, My brethren, whence 
he ye ? And they said, Of Ha'ran are we. 

5 And he said unto them, Know ye La'ban the 
son of Na'hSr ? And they said, We know him. 

6 And he said unto them, ib Is he well ? And they 
said, He is well : and, behold, Ra'chel his daughter 
cometh with the sheep. 

7 And he said, Lo, i it is yet high day, neither is it 
time that the cattle should be gathered together : 
water ye the sheep, and go and feed them. 

8 And they said, We cannot, until all the flocks 
be gathered together, and till they roll the stone 
from the well's mouth ; then we water the sheep. 

9 If And while he yet spake with them, Ra'chel 
came with her father's sheep : c for she kept them. 

10 And it came to pass, when Ja'cob saw Ra'chel 
the daughter of La'ban his mother's brother, and 
the sheep of La'ban his mother's brother, that Ja'- 
cob went near, and d rolled the stone from the well's 
mouth, and watered the flock of La'ban his mother's 

11 And Ja'cob e kissed Ra'chel, and lifted up his 
voice, and wept. 

12 And Ja'cob told Ra'chel that he ivas -^her fa- 
ther's brother, and that he was Rg-bek'ah's son : 
p and she ran and told her father. 

13 And it came to pass, when La'ban heard the 
5 tidings of Ja'cob his sister's son, that h b.e ran to 
meet him, and embraced him, and kissed him, and 
brought him to his house. And he told La'ban all 
these things. 

14 And La'ban said to him, Surely 4 thou art rny 
bone and my flesh. And he abode with him 6 the 
space of a month. 

15 If And La'ban said unto Ja'cob, Because thou 
art my brother, shouldest thou therefore serve me 
for nought ? tell me, what shall thy wages be ? 

16 And La'ban had two daughters : the name of 
the elder was Le'ah, and the name of the younger 
was Ra'chel. 

17 Le'ah was tender eyed ; but Ra'chel was beau- 
tiful and well favoured. 

18 And Ja'cob loved Ra'chel ; and said, j l will 
serve thee seven years for Ra'chel thy younger 

19 And La'ban said, It is better that I give her to 
thee, than that I should give her to another man : 
abide with me. 

20 And Ja'cob ''"served seven years for Ra'chel ; 
and they seemed unto him but a few days, for Hhe 
love he had to her. 

21 IT And Ja'cob said unto La'ban, Give me my 
wife, for my days are fulfilled, that I may m go in 
unto her. 

22 And La'ban gathered together all the men of 
the place, and made a "feast. 

23 And it came to pass in the evening, that he 
took Le'ah his daughter, and brought her to him ; 
and he went in unto her. 

24 And La'ban gave unto his daughter Le'ah Zil'- 
pah his maid for an handmaid. 

25 And it came to pass, that in the morning, be- 


B. C. 1760. 

3 Is there peace 

to him ? 
b ch. 43. 27. 

4 }'et the day is 

c Ex. 2. 16. 

d Ex. 2. 17. 

e ch. 33. 4. 
ch. 45. 14. 
Rom. 16. 16. 

1 Cor. 16. 20. 

2 Cor. 13. 12. 
1 Pet. 5. 4. 

/ch. 13.8. 

ch. 14. 14. 
g ch. 24. 28. 

5 hearing. 

h ch. 24. 29. 
i ch. 2. 23. 

Judg. 9. 2. 

2 Sam. 5. 1. 

2 Sam. 19. 

12, 13. 

6 a month of 

j ch. 31. 41. 

2 Sam. 3. 14. 
k ch. 30. 26. 
/ Song 8. 7. 
m Judg. 15. 1. 
n Judg. 14. 10. 

John 2. 1. 

7 place. 

o Judg. 14. 12. 
p ch. 30. 26. 

ch. 31. 41. 

Hos. 12. 12. 
q Ps. 127. 3. 
rch. 30. 1. 

8 That is, 
See a son. 

s Ex. 3. 7. 
Ex. 4. 31. 
Dent. 26. 7. 
Ps. 25. 18. 
Ps. 106. 44. 

9 That is, 

10 That is, 
Num. 18. 2, 

11 That is, 

12 stood from 


a ch. 29. 31. 
ich. 37. 11. 
c Job 5. 2. 
cl ch. 16. 2. 

1 Sam. 1. 5. 
e ch. 16. 2. 
/ch. 50.23. 

Job 3. 12. 
g ch. 16. 2. 

1 be built by her. 
h ch. 35. 22. 

i Ps. 35. 24. 
Ps. 43. 1. 
Lam. 3. 59. 

2 That is, 

3 wrestlings 
of God. 

j Called, 
Matt. 4. 13. 

4 That is, My 

5 That is, A 
troop, or, 
Isa. 65. 11. 

hold, it was Le'ah : and he said to La'ban, What is 
this thou hast done unto me ? did not I serve with 
thee for Ra'chel ? wherefore then hast thou beguiled 

26 And La'ban said, It must not be so done in our 
' country, to give the younger before the firstborn. 

27 ° Fulfil her week, and we will give thee this also 
for the service which thou shalt serve with me yet 
seven other years. 

28 And Ja'cob did so, and fulfilled her week : and 
he gave him Ra'chel his daughter to wife also. 

29 And La'ban gave to Ra'chel his daughter Bil'- 
hah his handmaid to be her maid. 

30 And he went in also unto Ra'chel, and he loved 
also Ra'chel more than Le'ah, and served with him 
yet p seven other years. 

31 Tf And when the Lord ? saw that Le'ah was 
hated, he '"opened her womb : but Ra'chel was barren. 

32 And Le'ah conceived, and bare a son, and she 
called his name 8 Reu'ben : for she said, Surely the 
Lord hath s looked upon my affliction ; now there- 
fore my husband will love me. 

33 And she conceived again, and bare a son ; and 
said, Because the Lord hath heard that I was hated, 
he hath therefore given me this son also : and she 
called his name 9 Sim'e-on. 

34 And she conceived again, and bare a son ; and 
said, Now this time will my husband be joined unto 
me, because I have born him three sons : therefore 
was his name called 10 Le'vi. 

35 And she conceived again, and bare a son : and 
she said, Now will I praise the Lord : therefore she 
called his name " Ju'dah ; and 12 left bearing. 


1 Rachel's envy. 5 Jacob's children. 22 Rachel has a son. 25 Jacob's dealings with 
Laban. 37 Jacob's policy to enrich himself. 

AND when Ra'chel saw that a she bare Ja'cob no 
- children, Ra'chel b envied her sister ; and said 
unto Ja'cob, Give me children, c or else I die. 

2 And Ja'cob's anger was kindled against Ra'chel : 
and he said, d Am I in God's stead, who hath with- 
held from thee the fruit of the womb ? 

3 And she said, Behold ''my maid Bil'hah, go in 
unto her ; y and she shall bear upon my knees, "that 
I may also a have children by her. 

4 And she gave him BTl'hah her handmaid Ho 
wife : and Ja'cob went in unto her. 

5 And Bil'hah conceived, and bare Ja'cob a son. 

6 And Ra'chel said, God hath ^judged me, and 
hath also heard my voice, and hath given me a son : 
therefore called she his name 2 Dan. 

7 And BTl'hah Ra'chel's maid conceived again, and 
bare Ja'cob a second son. 

8 And Ra'chel said, With 3 great wrestlings have I 
wrestled with my sister, and I have prevailed : and 
she called his name • 74 Naph'ta-li. 

9 When Le'ah saw that she had left bearing, she 
took Zil'pah her maid, and gave her Ja'cob to wife. 

10 And Zil'pah Le'ah's maid bare Ja'cob a son. 

11 And Le'ah said, A troop cometh : and she called 
his name 5 Gad. 

Birth of Joseph. 


ol . 

Jacob's dealings with Laban. 

12 And Zil'pah Le'ah's maid bare Ja'cob a second 

13 And Le'ah said, 6 Happy am I, for the daughters 
^will call me blessed : and she called his name 
; Ash'er. 

14 If And Reu'ben went in the days of wheat har- 
vest, and found mandrakes 'in the field, and brought 
them unto his mother Le'ah. Then Ra'chel said to 
Le'ah, m Give me, I pray thee, of thy son's man- 

15 And she said unto her, n Is it a small matter 
that thou hast taken my husband? and wouldest 
thou take away my son's mandrakes also? And 
Ra'chel said, Therefore he shall lie with thee to 
night for thy son's mandrakes. 

16 And Ja'cob came out of the field in the even- 
ing, and Le'ah went out to meet him, and said, Thou 
must come in unto me ; for surely I have hired thee 
with my son's mandrakes. And he lay with her 
that night. 

17 And God hearkened unto Le'ah, and she con- 
ceived, and bare Ja'cob the fifth son. 

18 And Le'ah said, God hath given me my hire, 
because I have given my maiden to my husband : 
and she called his name 8 Is'sa-char. 

19 And Le'ah conceived again, and bare Ja'cob 
the sixth son. 

20 And Le'ah said, God hath endued me with a 
good dowry ; now will my husband dwell with me, 
because I have born him six sons : and she called 
his name 9 Zeb'u-lun. 

21 And afterwards she bare a daughter, and called 
her name 10 Di'nah. 

22 II And God "remembered Ra'chel, and God 
hearkened to her, and p opened her womb. 

23 And she conceived, and bare a son ; and said, 
God hath taken away 9 my reproach : 

24 And she called his name n Jo'seph ; and said, 
r The Lord shall add to me another son. 

25 If And it came to pass, when Ra'chel had born 
Jo'seph, that Ja'cob said unto La'ban, s Send me 
away, that I may go unto 'mine own place, and to 
my country. 

26 Give me my wives and my children, u for whom 
I have served thee, and let me go : for thou know- 
est my service which I have done thee. 

27 And La'ban said unto him, I pray thee, if I 
have found favour in thine eyes, tarry : for v I have 
learned by experience that the Lord hath blessed 
me ™for thy sake. 

28 And he said, x Appoint me thy wages, and I will 
give it. 

29 And he said unto him, ^Thou knowest how I 
have served thee, and how thy cattle was with me. 

30 For it was little which thou hadst before I 
came, and it is noiv 12 increased unto a multitude ; and 
the Lord hath blessed thee 13 since my coming : and 
now when shall I z provide for mine own house also? 

31 And he said, What shall I give thee? And 
Ja'cob said, Thou shalt not give me any thing : if 
thou wilt do this thing for me, I will again feed 
and keep thy flock. 

B. C. 1749. 

G In my hap- 

/iProv. 31. 28. 
Luke 1. 48. 

7 That is, 

I Song 7. 13. 


fruits, or 

sweet flowers 
in cli. 25. 30. 

« Num. 1G. 0. 

8 That is, 
An hire. 

9 That is, 

10 That is, 

o ch. 8. 1. 

1 Sam. 1. 19. 
/) eh. 29. 31. 
q 1 Sam. 1. 6. 

Isa. 4. 1. 

Luke 1 . 25. 

11 That is, 

r ch. 35. 17. 
« ch. 24. 55. 
t ch. 18. 33. 

eh. 31. 55. 
u ch. 29. 20. 
V ch. 39. 3, 5. 

Ps. 1. 3. 

Isa. 61. 9. 
w ch. 26. 24. 
x ch. 29. 15. 
y ch. 31. I!. 

Matt. 24. 45. 

Tit. 2. 10. 

12 broken forth. 

13 at my foot. 
- 1 Tim. 5. 8. 
a ch. 31. 8. 

b Ps. 37. 6. 

14 to morrow, 
e ch. 31. 9. 

(1 verse 30. 

ch. 28. 15. 

Job 1. 3. 

Eccl. 2. 7. 

Ezek. 39. 10. 
e ch. 13. 2. 

ch. 24. 35. 

ch. 2G. 13. 

a Job 5. 2. 

Job 31. 31. 

Ps. 57. 4. 

Prov. 14. 30. 

Eccl. 4. 4. 

Rom. 13. 13. 

Tit. 3. 3. 

Jas. 3. 8. 
b Ps. 49. 16. 
c ch. 4. 5. 
d Deut. 28. 45. 
1 as yesterday 

and the day 


1 Sam. 19. 7. 
e ch. 28. 15. 

ch. 32. 9. 
f verse 2. 
g ch. 21. 22. 

Isa. 41. 10. 

Heb. 13. 5. 

32 I will pass through all thy flock to day, remov- 
ing from thence all the speckled and spotted cattle, 
and all the brown cattle among the sheep, and the 
spotted and speckled among the goats : and a of 
such shall be my hire. 

33 So shall my 6 righteousness answer for me 14 in 
time to come, when it shall come for my hire be- 
fore thy face : every one that is not speckled and 
spotted among the goats, and brown among the 
sheep, that shall be counted stolen with me. 

34 And La'ban said, Behold, I would it might be 
according to thy word. 

35 And he removed that day the he goats that 
were ringstraked and spotted, and all the she goats 
that were speckled and spotted, and every one that 
had some white in it, and all the brown among the 
sheep, and gave them into the hand of his sons. 

36 And he set three days' journey betwixt himself 
and Ja'cob : and Ja'cob fed the rest of La'ban's flocks. 

37 If And c Ja'cob took him rods of green poplar, 
and of the hazel and chesnut tree ; and pilled white 
strakes in them, and made the white appear which 
was in the rods. 

38 And he set the rods which he had pilled before 
the flocks in the gutters in the watering troughs 
when the flocks came to drink, that they should 
conceive when they came to drink. 

39 And the flocks conceived before the rods, and 
brought forth cattle ringstraked, speckled, and 

40 And Ja'cob did separate the lambs, and set the 
faces of the flocks toward the ringstraked, and all 
the brown in the flock of La'ban ; and he put his 
own flocks by themselves, and put them not unto 
La'ban's cattle. 

41 And it came to pass, whensoever the stronger 
cattle did conceive, that Ja'cob laid the rods before 
the eyes of the cattle in the gutters, that they 
might conceive among the rods. 

42 But when the cattle were feeble, he put them 
not in : so the feebler were La'ban's, and the 
stronger Ja'cob's. 

43 And the man d increased exceedingly, and e had 
much cattle, and maidservants, and menservants, 
and camels, and asses. 

CHAPTER 31. . 

1 Jacob leaves Laban. 22 Laban pursues. 43 Their covenant. 

AND he "heard the words of La'ban's sons, say- 
- ing, Ja'cob hath taken away all that was our 
father's ; and of that which was our father's hath 
he gotten all this 6 glory. 

2 And Ja'cob beheld c the countenance of La'ban, 
and, behold, it was not d toward him 2 as before. 

3 And the Lord said unto Ja'cob, e Return unto 
the land of thy fathers, and to thy kindred ; and I 
will be with thee. 

4 And Ja'cob sent and called Ra'chel and Le'ah to 
the field unto his flock, 

5 And said unto them, f I see your father's coun- 
tenance, that it is not toward me as before ; but 
the God of my father "hath been with me. 


Jacob leaves Laban. 


Jacob vindicates himself. 

6 And ''ye know that with all my power I have 
served your father. 

7 And your father hath deceived me, and 'changed 
my wages y ten times ; but God ''suffered him not 
to hurt me. 

8 If he said thus, 'The speckled shall be thy 
wages ; then all the cattle bare speckled : and if 
he said thus, The ringstraked shall be thy hire ; 
then bare all the cattle ringstraked. 

9 Thus God hath '"taken away the cattle of your 
father, and given them to me. 

10 And it came to pass at the time that the cattle 
conceived, that I lifted up mine eyes, and saw in a. 
dream, and, behold, the 2 rams which leaped upon 
the cattle were ringstraked, speckled, and grisled. 

11 And "the angel of God spake unto me in a 
dream, saying, Ja'cob : And I said, Here am I. 

12 And he said, Lift up now thine eyes, and see, 
all the rams which leap upon the cattle are ring- 
straked, speckled, and grisled : for ° I have seen all 
that La' ban doeth unto thee. 

13 I am the God of Beth'-el, p where thou anoint- 
edst the pillar, and where thou vowedst a vow unto 
me : now 'arise, get thee out from this land, and 
return unto the land of thy kindred. 

14 And Ra'chel and Le'ah answered and said unto 
him, r Is there yet any portion or inheritance for us 
in our father's house ? 

15 Are we not counted of him strangers ? for s he 
hath sold us, and hath quite devoured also our 

16 For all the riches which God hath taken from 
our father, that is ours, and our children's : now 
then, whatsoever God hath said unto thee, do. 

17 If Then Ja'cob rose up, and set his sons and his 
wives upon camels ; 

18 And he carried away all his cattle, and all his 
goods which he had gotten, the cattle of his getting, 
which he had gotten in Pa'dan-a'ram, for to go to 
I'§aac his father in the land of Ca'naan. 

19 And La'ban went to shear his sheep : and Ra'- 
chel had stolen the 3 1 images that were her father's. 

20 And Ja'cob stole away i unawares to La'ban the 
Syr'i-an, in that he told him not that he fled. 

21 So he fled with all that he had ; and he rose 
up, and passed oyer the river, and M set his face to- 
ward the mount. Gil 'e-ad. 

22 And it was told La'ban on the third day that 
Ja'cob was fled. 

23 And he took his "brethren with him, and pur- 
sued after him seven days' journey ; and they over- 
took him in the mount Gil'e-ad. 

24 And God w came to La'ban the Syr'i-an in a 
dream by night, and said unto him, Take heed that 
thou x speak not to Ja'cob 5 either good or bad. 

25 If Then La'ban overtook Ja'cob. Now Ja'cob 
had pitched his tent in the mount : and La'ban with 
his brethren pitched in the mount of Gil'e-ad. 

26 And La'ban said to Ja'cob, What hast thou done, 
that thou hast stolen away unawares to me, and 
^carried away my daughters, as captives taken with 
the sword ? 


B. C. 1739. 

h ch. 30. 29. 
( verse 41 . 

j Num. 14. 22. 

Neh. 4. 12. 

Job 19. 3. 

Zech. 8. 23. 
fcch. 15. 1. 

ch. 20. 6. 

Job 22. 25. 

Ps. 5. 11. 

Ps. 7. 10. 

Ps. 20. 1. 

Ps. 62. 2. 

Ps. 84. 11. 

Ps. 105. 14. 

Ps. 115. 9. 

Prov. 30. 5. 
I ch. 30. 32. 
m verses 1,16. 

2 Or, he goats. 

n ch. 48. 10. 

o Ex. 3. 7. 

Deut. 24. 15. 

Ps. 12. 5. 

Eph. 6. 9. 
p ch. 28. 18. 

q verse 3. 
ch. 32. 9. 

r ch. 2. 24. 

.1 ch. 29. 15. 

3 teraphim. 
Judg. 17. 5. 

1 Sam. 19. 13. 
Ezek. 21. 21. 
Hos. 3. 4. 

t ch. 35. 2. 

4 the heart of 

« ch. 46. 28. 

2 Ki. 12. 17. 
Luke 9. 51. 

v ch. 13. 8. 
w ch. 20. 3. 

Job 33. 15. 

Matt. 1. 20. 
x ch. 24. 50. 

5 from good 
to bad. 

;/ 1 Sam. 30. 2. 
hast stolen me. 
2 Ruth 1. 9. 

1 Ki. 19. 20. 
Acts 20. 37. 

a 1 Sam. 13. 13. 

2 Chr. 1G. 9. 
b ch. 28. 13. 

Ps. 5. 11, 12. 

Ps. 84. 11. 

Ps. 115. 9. 
c verse 24. 
d verse 19. 

Josh. 24. 2. 

Judg. 18. 24. 

Ps. 115. 4-9. 

Isa. 44. 10-20. 

Jer. 10. 3-5. 

Acts 19. 26. 
e ch. 44. 9. 

7 felt. 
/Ex. 20. 12. 

Lev. 19. 32. 

Eph. 6. 1. 
g verse 19. 
/( Eph. 4. 26. 

8 felt. 

i 1 Sam. 12. 3. 

1 Cor. 6. 5. 
j Ex. 22. 10. 
k Ex. 22. 12. 
/ ch. 29. 27. 
m verse 7. 
n Ps. 124. 1. 
verse 53. 

Isa. 8. 13. 
p ch. 29. 32. 

Ex. 3. 7. 
o 1 Chr. 12. 17. 

Jude 9. 

27 Wherefore didst thou flee away secretly, and 
6 steal away from me ; and didst not tell me, that I 
might have sent thee away with mirth, and with 
songs, with tabret, and with harp ? 

28 And hast not suffered me z to kiss my sons and 
my daughters? "thou hast now done foolishly in so 

29 It is in the power of my hand to do you hurt : 
but the 6 God of your father spake unto me c yester- 
night, saying, Take thou heed that thou speak not 
to Ja'cob either good or bad. 

30 And now, though thou wouldest needs be gone, 
because thou sore longedst after thy father's house, 
yet wherefore hast thou d stolen my gods? 

31 And Ja'cob answered and said to La'ban, Be- 
cause I was afraid : for I said, Peradventure thou 
wouldest take by force thy daughters from me. 

32 With whomsoever thou findest thy gods, e let 
him not live : before our brethren discern thou what 
is thine with me, and take it to thee. For Ja'cob 
knew not that Ra'chel had stolen them. 

33 And La'ban went into Ja' cob's tent, and into 
Le'ah's tent, and into the two maidservants' tents ; 
but he found them not. Then went he out of Le'ah's 
tent, and entered into Ra'chel's tent. 

34 Now Ra'chel had taken the images, and put them 
in the camel's furniture, and sat upon them. And 
La'ban 7 searched all the tent, but found them not. 

35 And she said to her father, Let it not displease 
my lord that I cannot -'rise up before thee ; for the 
custom of women is upon me. And he searched, 
but found not the 9 images. 

36 Tf And Ja'cob ''was wroth, and chode with La'- 
ban : and Ja'cob answered and said to La'ban, What 
is my trespass ? what is my sin, that thou hast so 
hotly pursued after me ? 

37 Whereas thou hast 8 searched all my stuff, what 
hast thou found of all thy household stuff? 'set it 
here before my brethren and thy brethren, that they 
may judge betwixt us both. 

38 This twenty years have I been with thee ; thy 
ewes and thy she goats have not cast their young, 
and the rams of thy flock have I not eaten. 

39 That j which was torn of beasts I brought not 
unto thee ; I bare the loss of it ; of fc my hand didst 
thou require it, whether stolen by day, or stolen by 

40 Thus I was ; in the day the drought consumed 
me, and the frost by night ; and my sleep departed 
from mine eyes. 

41 Thus have I been twenty years in thy house ; 
I 'served thee fourteen years for thy two daughters, 
and six years for thy cattle : and m thou hast changed 
my wages ten times. 

42 Except "the God of my father, the God of A'bra- 
ham, and °the fear of I'saac, had been with me, 
surely thou hadst sent me away now empty. p God 
hath seen mine affliction and the labour of my 
hands, and " rebuked thee yesternight. 

43 If And La'ban answered and said unto Ja'cob, 
These daughters are my daughters, and these chil- 
dren are my children, and these cattle are my cattle, 

Covenant of Jacob and Laban. 

and all that thou seest is mine : and what can I 
do this day unto these my daughters, or unto their 
children which they have born ? 

44 Now therefore come thou, ""let us make a cove- 
nant, I and thou ; and s let it be for a witness be- 
tween me and thee. 

45 And Ja'cob Hook a stone, and set it up for a 

46 And Ja'cob said unto his brethren, Gather 
stones ; and they took stones, and made an heap : 
and they did eat there upon the heap. 

47 And La'ban called it 9 Je'gar-sa-ha-du'tha: but 
Ja'cob called it 10 Gal'e-ed. 

48 And La'ban said, "This heap is a witness be- 
tween me and thee this day. Therefore was the 
name of it called Gal'e-ed ; 

49 And ull MTz'pah ; for he said, The Lord watch 
between me and thee, when we are absent one from 

50 If thou shalt afflict my daughters, or if thou 
shalt take other wives beside my daughters, no man 
is with us ; see, God is witness betwixt me and 

51 And La'ban said to Ja'cob, Behold this heap, 
and behold this pillar, which I have cast betwixt 
me and thee ; 

52 This heap be witness, and this pillar be witness, 
that I will not pass over this heap to thee, and that 
thou shalt not pass over this heap and this pillar 
unto me, for harm. 

53 The God of A'bra-ham, and the God of Na'hor, 
the God of their father, w judge betwixt us. And 
Ja'cob *sware by the fear of his father I'saac. 

54 Then Ja'cob 12 offered sacrifice upon the mount, 
and called his brethren to eat bread : and they did 
eat bread, and tarried all night in the mount. 

55 And early in the morning La'ban rose up, and 
kissed his sons and his daughters, and v blessed 
them : and La'ban departed, and returned unto his 


1 Jacob's vision. 13 He sends a present to Esau. 24 Wrestles with an angel. 

AND Ja'cob went on his way, and "the angels of 
- God met him. 

2 And when Ja'cob saw them, he said, This is 
God's 6 host : and he called the name of that place 

3 And Ja'cob sent messengers before him to E'sau 
hisJ)rother unto 
of E'dom. 

4 And he commanded _them, saying, e Thus shall 
ye speak unto my lord E'sau ; Thy servant Ja'cob 
saith thus, I have sojourned with La'ban, and 
stayed there until now : 

5 And f I have oxen, and asses, flocks, and men- 
servants, and womenservants : and I have sent to 
tell my lord, that "I may find grace in thy sight. 

6 H And the messengers returned to Ja'cob, say- 
ing, We came to thy brother E'sau, and also fe he 
cometh to meet thee, and four hundred men with 

7 Then Ja'cob was greatly afraid and distressed : 


Jacob's present to Esau. 

the land of Se'ir, d the 2 country 

B. C. 1739. 

r ch. 26. 28. 
s Josh. 24. 27. 

t ch. 28. 18. 

9 That is, The 
heap of 

10 That is, 
The heap of 
witness. Heb. 

u Josh. 24. 27. 

v Judg. 11. 2!). 
1 Sam. 7. 5. 

11 That is, A 
beacon, or, 

w ch. 16. 5. 

x ch. 21. 23. 

12 Or, killed 

>j ch. 28. 1. 
2 Sam. 6. 20. 

a Ps. 91. 11. 

Heb. 1. 14. 
b Josh. 5. 14. 

2 Ki. 6. 16. 

Ps. 103. 21. 

Ps. 148. 2. 

Luke 2. 13. 

1 That is, 
Two hosts, 
or camps. 

c ch. 33. 14. 
d ch. 36. 6-8. 

Deut. 2. 5. 

Josh. 24. 4. 

2 field. 

e Prov. 15. 1. 
/ ch. 30. 43. 
g ch. 33. 8. 
h ch. 33. 1. 
i ch. 35. 3. 
j Prov. 2. 11. 
Epli. 5. 15. 
k Ps. 50. 15. 
I ch. 28. 13. 
m ch. 31. 3. 

3 I am less 
than all, etc. 

n 2 Sam. 9. 8. 
ch. 24. 27. ■ 
p Job 8. 7. 
q Ps. 59. 1, 2. 
r Hos. 10. 14. 

4 upon. 

s ch. 2S. 13-15. 
tch. 43. 11. 
u Prov. 21. 14. 

5 my face. 

i' Deut. 3. 16. 

6 caused to pass. 

7 ascending of 
the morning. 

uiMatt. 26. 41. 
2 Cor. 12. 7. 
x Luke 24. 28. 

and he j divided the people that was with him, and 
the flocks, and herds, and the camels, into two bands ; 

8 And said, If E'sau come to the one company, 
and smite it, then the other company which is left 
shall escape. 

9 If And k Ja'cob said, l O God of my father A'bra- 
ham, and God of my father I'saac, the Lord m which 
saidst unto me, Return unto thy country, and to 
thy kindred, and I will deal well with thee : 

10 3 I am not "worthy of the least of all the 
"mercies, and of all the truth, which thou hast 
shewed unto thy servant ; for with v my staff I 
passed over this Jor'dan ; and now I am become 
two bands. 

11 q Deliver me, I pray thee, from the hand of my 
brother, from the hand of E'sau : for I fear him, 
lest he will come and smite me, and the r mother 
4 with the children. 

12 And s thou saidst, I will surely do thee good, 
and make thy seed as the sand of the sea, which 
cannot be numbered for multitude. 

13 If And he lodged there that same night ; and 
took of that which came to his hand a ' present for 
E'sau his brother ; 

14 Two hundred she goats, and twenty he goats, 
two hundred ewes, and twenty rams, 

15 Thirty milch camels with their colts, forty kine, 
and ten bulls, twenty she asses, and ten foals. 

16 And he delivered them into the hand of his 
servants, every drove by themselves ; and said unto 
his servants, Pass over before me, and put a space 
betwixt drove and drove. 

17 And he commanded the foremost, saying, 
When E'sau my brother meeteth thee, and asketh 
thee, saying, Whose art thou ? and whither goest 
thou ? and whose are these before thee ? 

18 Then thou shalt say, They be thy servant Ja- 
cob's ; it is a present sent unto my lord E'sau : 
and, behold, also he is behind us. 

19 And so commanded he the second, and the 
third, and all that followed the droves, saying, On 
this manner shall ye speak unto E'sau, when ye 
find him. 

20 And say ye moreover, Behold, thy servant Ja'- 
cob is behind us. For he said, I will w appease him 
with the present that goeth before me, and after- 
ward I will see his face ; peradventure he will ac- 
cept 5 of me. 

21 So went the present over before him : and 
himself lodged that night in the company. 

22 And he rose up that night, and took his tv/o 
wives, and his two womenservants, and his eleven 
sores, and " passed over the ford Jab'bok. 

23 And he took them, and 6 sent them over the 
brook, and sent over that he had. 

24 If And Ja'cob was left alone ; and there wres- 
tled a man with him until the 7 breaking of the day. 

25 And when he saw that he prevailed not against 
him, he touched the hollow of his thigh ; and w the 
hollow of Ja'cob's thigh was out of joint, as he wres- 
tled with him. 

26 And *he said, Let me go, for the day breaketh. 


Jacob meets Esau. 

GENESIS, 33, 34. 

Dinah is defiled. 

And he said, V I will not let thee go, except thou 
bless me. 

27 And he said unto him, What is thy name? 
And he said, Ja'cob. 

28 And he said, Thy name shall be called no more 
Ja'cob, but 8 I§'ra-el: for as a prince hast thou 
power *with God and "with men, and hast prevailed. 

29 And Ja'cob asked him, and said, Tell me, I pray 
thee, thy name. And he said, b Wherefore is it that 
thou dost ask after my name ? And he blessed him 

30 And Ja'cob called the name of the place 9 Pe- 
ni'el : for C I have seen God face to face, and my 
life is preserved. 

31 And as he passed over Ps-nu'el the sun rose 
upon him, and he halted upon his thigh. 

32 Therefore the children of I§'ra-el eat not of the 
sinew which shrank, which is upon the hollow of 
the thigh, unto this day : because he touched the 
hollow of Ja'cob's thigh in the sinew that shrank. 


1 Meeting oj Jacob and Esau. 17 Jacob settles at Succoth. 20 Erects an altar. 

AND Ja'cobjifted up his eyes, and looked, and, 
- behold, a E'sau came, and with him four hun- 
dred men. And he divided the children unto Le'ah, 
and unto Ra'chel, and unto the two handmaids. 

2 And he put the handmaids and their children 
foremost, and Le'ah and her children after, and 
Ra'chel and Jo'geph hindermost. 

3 And he passed over before them, and 6 bowed 
himself to the ground seven times, until he came 
near to his brother. 

4 And c E'sau ran to meet him, and embraced him, 
d and fell on his neck, and kissed him : and they 

5 And he lifted up his eyes, and saw the women 
and the children ; and said, Who are those a with 
thee? And he said, The children which e God hath 
graciously given thy servant. 

6 Then the handmaidens came near, they and their 
children, and they bowed themselves. 

7 And Le'ah also with her children came near, and 
bowed themselves : and after came Jo'seph near 
and Ra'chel, and they bowed themselves. 

8 And he said, 2 What meanest thou by ■'"all this 
drove which I met? And he said, These are ff to 
find grace in the sight of my lord. 

9 And E'sau said, I have enough, my brother ; 
3 keep that thou hast unto thyself. 

10 And Ja'cob said, Nay, I pray thee, if now I 
have found grace in thy sight, then receive my 
present at my hand : for therefore I ''have seen thy 
face, as though I had seen the face of God, and 
thou wast pleased with me. 

11 Take, I pray thee, *my blessing that is brought 
to thee ; because God hath dealt graciously with me, 
and because I have 4 enough. j And he urged him, 
and he took it. 

12 And he said, Let us take our journey, and let 
us go, and I will go before thee. 

13 And he said unto him, My lord knoweth that 


B. C. 1739. 

y Hos. 12. 4. 

8 That is, A 

prince of God. 

2 Ki. 17. 34. 
z Hos. 12. 3, 4. 
a ch. 25. 31. 

ch. 27. 33. 
b Judg. 13. 18. 

9 Tiiat is, The 

face of God. 
c ch. 16. 13. 

Ex. 24. 11. 

Ex. 33. 20. 

Deut. 5. 24. 

Judg. 6. 22. 

Judg. 13. 22. 

Isa. 6. 5. 

a ch. 32. 6. 
b ch. 18. 2. 

ch. 42. 6. 

ch. 43. 26. 
c ch. 32. 28. 

Prov. 16. 1. 

Prov. 21. 1. 

Jer. 10. 23. 
d ch. 45. 14. 

1 to thee. 
e ch. 48. 9. 

Ps. 127. 3. 
Isa. 8. 18. 

2 What is all 
this band to 

/ ch. 32. 16. 
g ch. 32. 5. 

3 be that to thee 
that is thine. 

ft ch. 43. 3. 

2 Sam. 3. 13. 

2 Sara. 14. 24, 

28, 32. 

Matt. 18. 10. 
i Judg. 1. 15. 

1 Sara. 25. 27. 

2 Ki. 5. 15. 

4 all things. 
Phil. 4. 18. 

j 2 Ki. 5. 23. 

5 according to 
the foot of the 
work, etc., 
and according 
to the foot of 
the children. 

ft ch. 32. 3. 

6 set, or, place. 

7 Wherefore is 

I Ruth 2. 13. 
m Josh. 13. 27. 
Judg. 8. 5. 

8 That is, 

n John 3. 23. 

9 Called, 
Acts 7. 16. 
Josh. 24. 1. 

o Josh. 24. 32. 
John 4. 5. 

10 Acts 7. 16, 

3 1 Or, lambs. 
p ch. 35. 7. 
12 That is, 

God the God 

of Israel. 

a ch. 30. 21. 
b Tit. 2. 5. 
c ch. 6. 2. 

Judg. 14. 1. 
d ch. 20. 2. 

1 humbled her. 
Deut. 22. 29. 

2 to the heart of 
the damsel. 
Isa. 40. 2. 
Hos. 2. 14. 

e Judg. 14. 2. 
/ch. 49. 7. 

2 Sara. 13. 21. 
g Josh. 7. 15. 

Judg. 20. 6. 
h Deut. 23. 17. 

2 Sam. 13. 12. 
i Ex. 23. 32. 
j ch. 13. 9. 

ch. 20. 15. 
ft ch. 42. 34. 
I ch. 47. 27. 
m Ex. 22. 16. 

Deut. 22. 29. 

1 Sam. 18. 25. 

the children are tender, and the flocks and herds 
with young are with me : and if men should over- 
drive them one day, all the flock will die. 

14 Let my lord, I pray thee, pass over before his 
servant : and I will lead on softly, 5 according as the 
cattle that goeth before me and the children be able 
to endure,_until I come unto my lord fc unto Se'ir. 

15 And E'sau said, Let me now 6 leave with thee 
some of the folk that are with me. And he said, 
7 What needeth it? z let me find grace in the sight 
of my lord 

16 Tf So E'sau returned that day on his way unto 

17 And Ja'cob journeyed to '"Suc'coth, and built 
him an house, and made booths for his cattle : 
therefore the name of the place is called 8 Suc'coth. 

18 U And Ja'cob came to "Sha'lem, a city of 9 She'- 
chem, which is in the land of Ca'naan, when he 
came from Pa'dan-a'ram ; and pitched his tent before 
the city. 

19 And °he bought a parcel of a field, where he 
had spread his tent, at the hand of the children of 
10 Ha'mor, She'chem's father, for an hundred n pieces 
of money. 

20 And he erected there an altar, and "called it 
12 El-e-lo'he-I§'ra-el. 


1 Shechem ravishes Dinah. 24 ShechemUes are circumcised. 25 Slain by Jacob's sons. 

AND a Dl'nah the daughter of Le'ah, which she 
- bare unto Ja'cob, 'went out to see the daugh- 
ters of the land. 

2 And when She'chem the son of Ha'mor the Hi'- 
vlte, prince of the country, c saw her, he d took her, 
and lay with her, and ] denied her. 

3 And his soul clave unto Dl'nah the daughter of 
Ja'cob, and he loved the damsel, and spake 2 kindly 
unto the damsel. 

4 And She'chem e spake unto his father Ha'mor, 
saying, Get me this damsel to wife. 

5 And Ja'cob heard that he had defiled Dl'nah his 
daughter : now his sons were with his cattle in the 
field : and Ja'cob held his peace until they were come. 

6 If And Ha'mor the father of She'chem went out 
unto Ja'cob to commune with him. 

7 And the sons of Ja'cob came out of the field when 
they heard it : and the men were grieved, and they 
f were very wroth, because he 9 had wrought folly 
in Ig'ra-el in lying with Ja'cob's daughter ; h which 
thing ought not to be done. 

8 And Ha'mor communed with them, saying, The 
soul of my son She'chem longeth for your daughter : 
I pray you give her him to wife. 

9 And l make ye marriages with us, and give your 
daughters unto us, and take our daughters unto you. 

10 And ye shall dwell with us: and y the land shall 
be before you; dwell and k trade ye therein, and get 
1 you possessions therein. 

11 And She'chem said unto her father and unto 
her brethren, Let me find grace in your eyes, and 
what ye shall say unto me I will give. 

12 Ask me never so much '"dowry and gift, and I 

The Shechemites slain. 


Jacob moves to Beth-el. 

will give according as ye shall say unto me : but give 
me the damsel to wife. 

13 And the sons of Ja'cob answered She'chem and 
Ha'mor his father n deceitfully, and said, because he 
had defiled Di'nah their sister : 

14 And they said unto them, We cannot do this 
thing, to give our sister to one that is uncircum- 
cised ; for ° that were a reproach unto us : 

15 But in this will we consent unto you : If ye will 
be as we be, that every male of you be circumcised ; 

16 Then will we give our daughters unto you, and 
we will take your daughters to us, and we will dwell 
with you, and we will become one people. 

17 But if ye will not hearken unto us, to be cir- 
cumcised ; then will we take our daughter, and we 
will be gone. 

18 And their words pleased Ha'mor, and She'chem 
Ha'mor's son. 

19 And the young man deferred not to do the thing, 
because he had delight in Ja'cob's daughter : and 
he was p more honourable than all the house of his 

20 H And Ha'mor and She'chem his son came unto 
the "'gate of their city, and communed with the men 
of their city, saying, 

21 These men are peaceable with us; therefore let 
them dwell in the land, and trade therein ; for the 
land, behold, it is large enough for them ; let us take 
their daughters to us for wives, and let us give them 
our daughters. 

22 Only herein will the men consent unto us for to 
dwell with us, to be one people, if every male among 
us be circumcised, as they are circumcised. 

23 Shall not their cattle and their substance and 
every beast of theirs be ours? only let us consent 
unto them, and they will dwell with us. 

24 And unto Ha'mor and unto She'chem his son 
hearkened all that '"went out of the gate of his city ; 
and every male was circumcised, all that went out 
of the gate of his city. 

25 H And it came to pass on the third day, when 
they were sore, that two of the sons of Ja'cob, s Sim'- 
e-on and Le'vi, Dl'nah's brethren, took each man his 
sword, and came upon the city boldly, and slew all 
the males. 

26 And they slew Ha'mor and She'chem his son 
with the 3 edge of the sword, and took Di'nah out of 
She'chem's house, and went out. 

27 The sons of Ja'cob came upon the slain, and 
spoiled the city, because they had defiled their sister. 

28 They took their sheep, and their oxen, and 
their asses, and that which was in the city, and that 
which was in the field, 

29 And all their wealth, and all their little ones, 
and their wives took they captive, and spoiled even 
all that was in the house. 

30 And Ja'cob said to Sim'e-on and Le'vl, 'Ye 
have "troubled me ''to make me to stink among the 
inhabitants of the land, among the Ca'naan-ites and 
the Per'iz-zltes : and w I being few in number, they 
shall gather themselves together against me, and 
slay me ; and I shall be destroyed, I and my house. 

B. C. 1732. 

n 2 Sam. 13. 24. 

o Josh. 5. 9. 

p 1 Chr. 4. 9. 

q 2 Sam. 15. 2. 
Ruth 4. 1. 

r ch. 23. 10. 
* ch. 49. 5-7. 
3 mouth. 
/ ch. 49. 6. 
u Josh. 7. 25. 
i)Ex. 5. 21. 

1 Sam. 13. 4. 
w Deut. 4. 27. 

Ps. 105. 12. 
x Prov. G. 34. 

a ch. 28. 19. 
b ch. 28. 13. 
c ch. 27. 43. 
d ch. 18. 19. 

Josh. 24. 15. 
e ch. 31. 19, 34. 

1 Sam. 7. 3. 
/Ex. 19. 10. 
g ch. 32. 7, 24. 

Ps. 107. 6. 
h ch. 28. 20. 

ch. 31. 3, 42. 
i Hos. 2. 13. 
j Josh. 24. 26. 
k Ex. 15. 16. 

Ex. 23. 27. 

Ex. 34. 24. 

Deut. 11. 25. 

Josh. 2. 9. 

Josh. 5. 1. 

1 Sam. 14. 15. 

2 Chr. 14. 14. 
I ch. 28. 22. 

m Eccl. 5. 4. 

1 That is, The 
God of 

n ch. 28. 13. 
ch. 24. 59. 

2 That is, The 
oak of 

p Hos. 12. 4. 
y ch. 17. 5. 
r ch. 32. 28. 
s ch. 17. 1. 

ch. 48. 3, 4. 

Ex. 6. 3. 
( ch. 17. 5. G. 

ch. 48. 4. 
u ch. 12. 7. 

ch. 13. 15. 

ch. 2G. 3, 4. 

ch. 28. 13. 

Ex. 32. 13. 
v ch. 17. 22. 
w ch. 28. 18. 
x ch. 28. 19. 

3 a little piece 
of ground. 

y ch. 30. 24. 

31 And they said, 
as with an harlot ? 

: Should he deal with our sister 


1 Jacob moves to Beth-el. 6 Builds an attar. 1G Benjamin is born. 19 Rachel dies. 
28 Death and burial of Isaac. 

\ ND God said unto Ja'cob, Arise, go up to 
J -^- "Beth'-el, and dwell there: and make there an 
altar unto God, Hhat appeared unto thee c when 
thou fleddest from the face of E'sau thy brother. 

2 Then Ja'cob said unto his d household, and to all 
that were with him, Put away € the strange gods 
that are among you, and •'"be clean, and change your 
garments : 

3 And let us arise, and go up to Beth '-el ; and I 
will make there an altar unto God, s who answered 
me in the day of my distress, fe and was with me in 
the way which I went. 

4 And they gave unto Ja'cob all the strange gods 
which were in their hand, and all their { earrings 
which were in their ears ; and Ja'cob hid them 
under J 'the oak which was by She'chem. 

5 And they journeyed : and Hhe terror of God 
was upon the cities that were round about them, 
and they did not pursue after the sons of Ja'cob. 

6 Tf So Ja'cob came to 'Luz, which is in the land 
of Ca'naan, that is, Beth'-el, he and all the people 
that were with him. 

7 And he m built there an altar, and called the 
place ^l-beth'-el : because "there God appeared 
unto him, when he fled from the face of his bro- 

8 But °Deb'o-rah Rg-bek'ah's nurse died, and she 
was buried beneath Beth'-el under an oak : and the 
name of it was called 2 A1' Ion-bach 'uth. 

9 TI And p God appeared unto Ja'cob again, when 
he came out of Pa'dan-a'ram, and blessed him. 

10 And God said unto him, Thy name is Ja'cob : 
5 thy name shall not be called any more Ja'cob, r but 
Ig'ra-el shall be thy name : and he called his name 

11 And God said unto him, S I am God Almighty r 
be fruitful and multiply ; a 'nation and a company 
of nations shall be of thee, and kings shall come out 
of thy loins ; 

12 And the land "which I gave A'bra-ham and 
I'saac, to thee I will give it, and to thy seed after 
thee will I give the land. 

13 And God " went up from him in the place where 
he talked with him. 

14 And Ja'cob '"set up a pillar in the place where 
he talked with him, even a pillar of stone : and he 
poured a drink offering thereon, and he poured oil 

15 And Ja'cob called the name of the place where 
God spake with him, x Beth'-el. 

16 If And they journeyed from Beth'-el ; and 
there was but 3 a little way to come to Eph'rath : 
and Ra'chel travailed, and she had hard labour. 

17 And it came to pass, when she was in hard 
labour, that the midwife said unto her, Fear not ; 
y thou shalt have this son also. 

18 And it came to pass, as her soul was in depart- 


Death of Isaac. 


Esau's generations. 

ing, (for she died) that she called his name 4 Ben- 
o'ni : but his father called him 5 Ben'ja-min. 

19 And *Ra'chel died, and was buried in the way 
to "Eph'rath, which is Beth'-le-hem. 

20 And Ja'cob set a pillar upon her grave : that 
is the pillar of Ra'chel's grave b unto this day. 

21 Tf And Ig'ra-el journeyed, and spread his tent 
beyond c the tower of E'dar. 

22 And it came to pass, when Ig'ra-el dwelt in 
that land, that Reu'ben went and d lay with Bil'hah 
his father's concubine : and I§'ra-el heard it. Now 
the sons of Ja'cob were twelve : 

23 The sons of Le'ah ; e Reu'ben, Ja'cob's firstborn, 
and Sim'e-on, and Le'vi, and Ju'dah, and Is'sa-char, 
and Zeb'u-lun : 

24 The sons of Ra'chel ; Jo'geph, and Ben'ja-min : 

25 And the sons of Bil'hah, Ra'chel's handmaid ; 
Dan, and Naph'ta-H : 

26 And the sons of Zil'pah, Le'ah's handmaid ; 
Gad, and Ash'er : these are the sons of Ja'cob, 
which were born to him in Pa/dan-a'ram. 

27 11 And Ja'cob came unto I'saac his father unto 
/ Mam'rg, unto the °city ofAr'bah, which is He'- 
bron, where A'bra-hamand I'gaac sojourned. 

28 And the days of I'saac were an hundred and 
fourscore years. 

29 And I'saac /s gave up the ghost, and died, and 
i was gathered unto his people, being old and full of 
days : and J 'his sons E'sau and Ja'cob buried him. 


1 Wives and generations of Esau. 24 Anah finds mules. 


31 The dukes and kings of 

1VTOW these are the generations of E'sau, a who is 
-^ E'dom. 

2 6 E'sa/u took his wives of the_daughters of Ca'- 
naan ; A'dah the daughter of E'lon the Hit'tite, 
and c A-ho-lib'a-mah the daughter of A'nah the 
daughter of Zib'e-on the Hi'vite ; 

3 And d Bash'e-math Ish' ma-el's daughter, sister 
of Ne-ba'joth. 

4 And e A'dah bare to E'sau El'i-phaz ; and Bash'- 
e-math bare Reu'el ; 

5 And A-ho-lib'a-mah bare Je'iish, and Ja-a'lam, 
and Ko'rah : these are the sons of E'sau, which 
were born unto him in the land of Ca'naan. 

6 And E'sau took his wives, and his sons, and his 
daughters, and all the persons of his house, and his 
cattle, and all his beasts, and all his substance, 
which he had got in the land of Ca'naan ; and went 
into the country from the face of his ■''brother Ja'cob. 

7 For a their riches were more than that they 
might dwell together ; and the land h wherein they 
were strangers could not bear them because of their 

_8 Thus dwelt E'sau in 'mount Se'ir: J 'E'sau is 

9 If And these are the generations of E'sau the fa- 
ther of 2 the E'dom-ites in mount Se'ir : 

10 These are the names of E'sau's sons; * El'i-phaz 
the son of A'dah the wife of E'sau, Reu'el the son 
of Bash'e-math the wife of E'sau. 


B. C. 1796. 

4 That is, The 
son of my 

5 That is, The 
son of the 
right hand. 

z ch. 48. 7. 
a Ruth 1. 2. 

Ruth 4. 11. 

Mic. 5. 2. 

Matt. 2. 6. 
b 1 Sara. 10. 2. 
c Mic. 4. 8. 

<7 ch. 49. 4. 
1 Chr. 5. 1. 

ech. 40. 8. 
Ex. 1. 2. 

/ch. 13. 18. 
g Josh. 14. 15. 

h Ecel. 12. 7. 

i ch. 15. 15. 

ch. 25. 8. 

ch. 49. 33. 
j ch. 25. 9. 

ch. 49. 31. 

a ch. 25. 30. 

b ch. 26. 34. 

c verse 25. 

d ch. 28. 9. 

e 1 Chr. 1. 35. 

1 souls. 

/ Deut. 23. 7. 
g ch. 13. 6, 11. 
'h ch. 17. 8. 

1 Chr. 29. 15. 
Ps. 39. 12. 
Ps. 105. 12. 
Ps. 119. 19. 

2 Cor. 5. 6, 7. 
Heb. 11. 9. 

1 Pet. 1. 17. 

1 Pet. 2. 11. 
i ch. 32. 3. 
/verse 1. 

2 Edom. 

k 1 Chr. 1. 35, 

3 Or, Zephi. 
/ Ex. 17. 8. 

Num. 24. 20. 

Deut. 25. 


1 Sam. 15. 

m 1 Chr. 1. 38. 
n ch. 14. G. 

Deut. 2. 12, 22. 

4 Or, Horaam, 
1 Chr. 1. 39.. 

5 Or. Alian, 

1 Chr 1. 40. 

6 Or, Shephi, 
1 Chr. 1. 40. 

o Lev. 19. 19. 

7 Or, Amram, 
1 Chr. 1. 41. 

8 Or, Jakan, 

1 Chr. 1. 42. 
p 1 Chr. 1. 43. 
q 1 Sam. 10. 24. 

11 And the sons of El'i-phaz were Te'man, O'mar, 
3 Ze'ph6, and Ga'tam, and Ke'naz. 

12 And Tim'na was concubine to El'i-phaz E'sau's 
son ; and she bare to El'i-phaz 'Am'a-lek : these 
were the sons of A'dah E'sau's wife. 

13 And these are the sons of Reu'el ; Na'hath, and 
Ze'rah, Sham'mah, and Miz'zah : these were the 
sons of Bash'e-math E'sau's wife. 

14 If And these were the sons of A-ho-lib'a-mah, 
the daughter of A'nah the daughter of Zib'e-on, 
E'sau's wife : and she bare to E'sau Je'iish, and Ja- 
a'lam., and Ko'rah. 

15 If These loere dukes of the sons of_ E'sau : the 
sons of El'i-phaz the firstborn son of E'sau ; duke 
Te'man, duke O'mar, duke Ze'pho, duke Ke'naz, 

16 Duke Ko'rah, duke Ga'tam, and duke Am'a- 
lek : these are the dukes that came of El'i-phaz in 
the land of E'dom ; these were the sons_of A'dah. 

17 Tf And these are the sons of Reu'el E'sau's son ; 
duke Na'hath, duke Ze'rah, duke Sham'mah, duke 
Miz'zah : these are the dukes that came of Reu'el in 
the land of E'dom ; these are the sons of Bash'e- 
math E'sau's wife. 

18 If And these are the sons of A-ho-lib'a-mah 
E'sau's wife ; duke Je'iish, duke Ja-a'lam, duke 
Ko'rah : these were the dukes that came of A-ho- 
lib'a-mah the daughter of A'nah, E'sau'swife. 

19 These are the sons of E'sau, who is E'dom, and 
these are their dukes. 

20 If m These are the sons of Se'ir the "Ho'rite, 
who inhabited_ the land ; Lo'tan, and Sho'bal, and 
Zib'e-on, and A'nah, 

21 And Di'shon, and E'zer, and Dl'shan : these are 
the dukes of the Ho'rites, the children of Se'ir in 
the land of E'dom. 

22 And the children of Lo'tan were Ho'rl and 
4 He 'mam ; and Lo' tan's sister was Tim'na. 

23 And the children of Sho'bal were these ^ 5 Al'van, 
and Man'a-hath, and E'bal, 6 She'pho, and O'nam. 

24 And these are the children of Zib'e-on ; both 
A'jah, and A'nah : this was that A'nah that found 
the mules in the wilderness, as he fed the asses of 
Zib'e-on his father. 

25 And the children of A'nah were these ; Di'- 
shon, and A-ho-lib'a-mah the daughter of A'nah. 

26 And these are the children of Di'shon ; 7 Hem'- 
dan, and Esh'ban, and Ith'ran, and Che 'ran. 

27 The children of E'zer are these ; Bil'han, and 
Za'a-van, and 8 A'kan. 

28 The children of Di'shan are these ; Uz, and 

29 These are the dukes that came of the Ho'rites ; 
duke Lo'tan, duke Sho'bal, duke Zib'e-on, duke 

30 Duke Di'shon, duke E'zer, duke Di'shan : these 
are the dukes that came of Ho'ri, among their dukes 
in the land of Se'ir. 

31 Tf And p these are the kings that reigned in the 
land of E'dom, before there reigned any 9 king over 
the children of Ig'ra-el. 

32 And Be'la the son of Be'or reigned in E'dom : 
and the name of his city was Din'ha-bah. 

Joseph's two dreams. 


Conspiracy of his brethren. 

33 And Be'la died, and Jo'bab the son of Ze'rah 
of Boz'rah reigned in his stead. 

34 And Jo'bab died, and Hu'sham of the land of 
Tem'a-ni reigned in his stead. 

35 And Hu'sham died, and Ha'dad the son of Be'- 
dad, who smote Mid'i-an in the field of Mo'ab, 
reigned in his stead : and the name of his city was 

36 And Ha'dad died, and Sam'lah of Mas're-kah 
reigned in his stead. 

37 And Sam'lah died, and Saul of Re-ho'both by 
the river reigned in his stead. 

38 And Saul died, and Ba'al-ha'nan the son of 
Ach'bor reigned in his stead. 

39 And Ba'al-ha'nan the son of Ach'bor died, and 
r Ha'dar reigned in his stead : and the name of his 
city was Pa'u ; and his wife's name ivas Me-het'a- 
bel, the daughter of Ma'tred, the daughter of Mez'a- 

40 And these are the names of the s dukes that 
came of E'sau, according to their families, after 
their places, by their names ; duke Tim'nah, duke 
9 Al'vah, duke Je'theth, 

41 Duke A-ho-lib'a-mah, duke E'lah, duke Pl'non, 

42 Duke Ke'naz, duke Te'man, duke Mib'zar, 

43 Duke Mag'di-el, duke I'ram : these be the dukes 
of E'dom, according to their habitations in the land 
of their possession : he is E'sau the father of 10 the 


1 Joseph's dreams. 18 Conspiracy of his brethren. 26 He is sold to the Ishmeelites. 
36 Sold into Egypt. 

AND Ja'cob dwelt in the land x wherein his father 
- was a stranger, in the land of Ca'naan. 

2 These are the generations of Ja'cob. Jo'geph, 
being seventeen years old, was feeding the flock 
with his brethren ; and the lad was with the sons 
of Bil'hah, and with the sons of Zil'pah, his father's 
wives : and Jo'seph brought unto his father a their 
evil report. 

3 Now Ig'ra-el loved Jo'geph more than all his 
children, because he was Hhe son of his old age : 
and he made him a coat of many 2 colours. 

4 And when his brethren saw that their father 
loved him more than all his brethren, they c hated 
him, and could not speak peaceably unto him. 

5 11 And Jo'geph dreamed a dream, and he told it 
his brethren : and they hated him yet the more. 

6 And he said unto them, Hear, I pray you, this 
dream which I have dreamed : 

7 For, d behold, we were binding sheaves in the 
field, and, lo, my sheaf arose, and also stood upright ; 
and, behold, your sheaves stood round about, and 
made obeisance to my sheaf. 

8 And his brethren said to him, Shalt thou indeed 
reign over us ? or shalt thou indeed have dominion 
over us ? And they hated him yet the more for 
his dreams, and for his words. 

9 H And he dreamed yet another dream, and told 
it his brethren, and said, Behold, I have dreamed a 
dream more ; and, behold, e the sun and the moon 
and the eleven stars made obeisance to me. 

B. C. 1796. 

r 1 Chr. 1. 50, 
Hadad Pai. 
After his 
death was an 
Ex. 15. 15. 

.s 1 Chr. 1. 51. 

Or, Aliah. 

10 Edom. 

1 of his father's 
ch. 17. 8. 

ch. 23. 4. 
ch. 28. 4. 
ch. 36. 7. 
ch. 47. 9. 

1 Chr. 29. 15. 
Ps. 39. 12. 
Ps. 105. 12. 
Ps. 119. 19. 

2 Cor. 5. 6, 7. 
Heb. 11. 9. 

1 Pet. 1. 17. 

1 Pet. 2. 11. 
a 1 Sam. 2. 

b ch. 44. 20. 

2 Or, pieces. 
Judg. 5. 30. 

2 Sam. 13. 18. 
Ps. 45. 14. 
Ezek. 1G. 16. 

e ch. 27. 41. 

ch. 49. 23. 

1 Sam. 17. 28. 

John 7. 3, 5. 

1 John 2. 11. 

1 John 3. 

10, 12. 
d ch. 42. 6, 9. 

ch. 43. 26. 

ch. 44. 14. 
e ch. 46. 29. 
/ch. 27. 29. 
g Acts 7. 9. 
h Dan. 7. 28. 

Luke 2. 19, 51. 

3 see the peace 
of thy breth- 
ren, etc. 

ch. 29. 6. 

1 Sam. 17. 17. 
i ch. 13. 18. 

ch. 23. 2, 19. 

ch. 35. 27. 

Josh. 14. 

14, 15. 

Judg. 1. 10. 
iSone 1. 7. 
k 2 Ki. 6. 13. 
1 1 Sam. 19. 1. 

Ps. 31. 13. 

Ps. 37. 12, 32. 

Ps. 94. 21. 

Matt. 27. 1. 

Mark 14. 1. 

John 11. 53. 

Acts 23. 12. 

4 master of 

?«Prov. 1. 11. 

Prov. 6. 17. 

1 John 3. 

12, 13. 
n ch. 42. 22. 

5 Or, pieces. 

Prov. 30. 20. 
Amos 6. 6. 

p verses 28, 36. 
g Jer. 8. 22. 
r ch. 4. 10. 

Job 16. 18. 
s 1 Sam. 18. 17. 

1 ch. 42. 21. 
u ch. 29. 14. 

6 hearkened. 
11 ch. 39. 1. 

Judg. 6. 3. 

w ch. 45. 4, 5. 

Ps. 105. 17. 

Acts 7. 9. 

10 And he told it to his father, and to his breth- 
ren : and his father rebuked him, and said unto 
him, What is this dream that thou hast dreamed ? 
Shall I and thy mother and •'"thy brethren indeed 
come to bow down ourselves to thee to the earth ? 

11 And "his brethren envied him : but his father 
''observed the saying. 

12 If And his brethren went to feed their father's 
flock in She'chem. 

13 And Ig'ra-el said unto Jo'geph, Do not thy breth- 
ren feed the flock in She'chem ? come, and I will 
send thee unto them. And he said to him, Here 
am I. 

14 And he said to him, Go, I pray thee, 3 see whether 
it be well with thy brethren, and well with the 
flocks ; and bring me word again. So he sent him 
out of the vale *of He'bron, and he came to She'- 

15 IF And a certain man found him, and, behold, 
he was wandering in the field : and the man asked 
him, saying, What seekest thou ? 

16 And he said, I seek my brethren : •'tell me, I 
pray thee, where they feed their flocks. 

17 And the man said, They are departed hence ; 
for I heard them say, Let us go to Do'than. And 
Jo'seph went after his brethren, and found them in 
fc D5'than. 

18 And when they saw him afar off, even before 
he came near unto them, they l conspired against 
him to slay him. 

19 And they said one to another, Behold, this 
4 dreamer cometh. 

20 Come m now therefore, and let us slay him, and 
cast him into some pit, and we will say, Some evil 
beast hath devoured him : and we shall see what 
will become of his dreams. 

21 And "Reu'ben heard it, and he delivered him 
out of their hands ; and said, Let us not kill him. 

22 And Reu'ben said unto them, Shed no blood, 
but cast him into this pit that is in the wilderness, 
and lay no hand upon him ; that he might rid him 
out of their hands, to deliver him to his father 

23 IF And it came to pass, when Jo'geph was come 
unto his brethren, that they stript Jo'geph out of his 
coat, his coat of many 5 colours that was on him ; 

24 And they took him, and cast him into a pit : 
and the pit was empty, there was no water in it. 

25 And °they sat down to eat bread : and they 
lifted up their eyes and looked, and, behold, a com- 
pany of p Ish'me-el-Ites came from GH'e-ad with 
their camels bearing spicery and ff balm and myrrh, 
going to carry it down to E'gypt. 

26 And Ju'dah said unto his brethren, What profit 
is it if we slay our brother, and r conceal his blood? 

27 Come, and let us sell him to the Ish'me-el-Ites 
and s let not our hand be upon him ; for he is *our 
brother and "our flesh. And his brethren 6 were 

28 Then there passed by ^Mid'I-an-Ites merchant- 
men ; and they drew and lifted up Jo'geph out of 
the pit, w and sold Jo'geph to the Ish'me-el-Ites for 


Sons of Judah. 


Tamar deceives Judah. 

x twenty pieces of silver : and they brought Jo'seph 
into E'gypt. 

29 H And Reu'ben returned unto the pit ; and, be- 
hold, Jo'seph was not in the pit ; and he ^rent his 

30 And he returned unto his brethren, and said, 
The child z is not ; and I, whither shall I go? 

31 And they took "Joseph's coat, and killed a kid 
of the goats, and dipped the coat in the blood ; 

32 And they sent the coat of many colours, and 
they brought it to their father ; and said, This have 
we found : know now whether it be thy son's coat 
or no. 

33 And he knew it, and said, It is my son's coat ; 
an 6 evil beast hath devoured him ; Jo'seph is with- 
out doubt rent in pieces. 

34 And Ja'cob c rent his clothes, and put sackcloth 
upon his loins, and mourned for his son many 

35 And all his sons and all his daughters d rose up 
to comfort him ; but he refused to be comforted ; 
a,nd he said, e For I will go down into the grave unto 
my son mourning. Thus his father wept for^him. 

36 And y the Mid'I-an-Ites sold him into E'gypt 
unto Pot'i-phar, an 7 officer of Pha'raoh's, and Cap- 
tain of the guard. 


1 Sons of Judah. 13 Tamar deceives Judah. 27 She brings forth twins. 

A ND it came to pass at that time, that Ju'dah 
^-^- wentdown from his brethren, and "turned in to 
a certain A-dul'lam-Ite, whose name was Hl'rah. 

2 And Ju'dah 6 saw there a daughter of a certain 
Ca'naan-Ite, whose name was c Shu'ah ; and he took 
her, and went in unto her. 

3 And shej;onceived, and bare a son ; and he called 
his name d Er. 

4 And she conceived again, and bare a son ; and 
she called his name e O'nan. 

5 And she yet again conceived, and bare a son ; 
and called his name •''She'lah : and he was at Che'- 
zib, when she bare him. 

6 And Ju'dah Hook a wife for Er his firstborn, 
whose name was Ta'mar. 

7 And ^Er, Jti'dah's firstborn, was wicked in the 
sight of the Lord ; *and the Lord slew him. 

8 And Ju'dah said unto O'nan, Go in unto •'thy 
brother's wife, and marry her, and raise up seed to 
thy brother. 

9 And O'nan knew that the seed should not be 
fe his ; and it came to pass, when he went in unto 
his brother's wife, that he spilled it on the ground, 
lest that he should give seed to his brother. 

10 And the thing which he did 1 displeased the 
Lord : wherefore he slew 'him also. 

11 Then said Ju'dah to Ta'mar his daughter in 
law, m Remain a widow at thy father's house, till 
She'lah my son be grown : for he said, Lest perad- 
venture he die also, as his brethren did. And Ta'- 
mar went m and dwelt in her father's house. 

12 TT And 2 in process of time the daughter of 
Shu'ah Ju'dah's wife died ; and Ju'dah was °com- 


B. C. 1729. 

.c Matt. 27. 9. 
y Job 1. 20. 

z ch. 42. 13, 36. 

Jer. 31. 15. 
a verBe 23. 

b verse 20. 
ch. 44. 28. 

c verse 29. 

d 2 Sam. 12. 17 

e ch. 42. 38. 

/ch. 39. 1. 

7 eunuch : But 
the word doth 
signify not 
only eunuchs, 
but also cham- 
courtiers, and 

S chief of the 
or, execution- 

Or, chief mar- 

a 2 Ki. 4. 8. 
b ch. 34. 2. 

c 1 Clir. 2. 3. 

d Num 2C. 19. 

e ch. 40. 12. 

/ Num. 20. 20. 

a ch. 24. 4. 
h ch. 46. 12. 
i 1 Chr. 2. 3. 
j Matt. 22. 24. 
k Dent. 25. 6. 
1 was evil in the 

eyes of the 

Lord. . 

1 Num. 26. 19. 
m Ruth 1. 13. 
n Lev. 22. 13. 

2 the days were 

o 2 Sam. 13. 39. 
p Josh. 15. 10, 


Judg. 14. 1. 
q Prov. 7. 12. 

3 the door of 
eyes, or, of 

r verses 11, 26. 
.f Ezek. 16. 33. 

4 a kid of the 

t verse 20. 
u verse 25. 
v verse 14. 

5 Or, in 

6 become a 

u'Judg. 19.2. 
.rLev. 21. 9. 

Deut. 22. 21. 
V ch. 37. 32. 
z ch. 37. 33. 
a 1 Sam. 24. 17. 
b verse 14. 
<■ Job 34. 31. 

forted, and went up unto his sheepshearers to Tim'- 
nath, he and his friend Hl'rah the A-dul'lam-Ite. 

13 And it was told Ta'mar, saying, Behold thy fa- 
ther in law goeth up p to Tim'nath to shear his 

14 And she put her widow's garments off from 
her, and covered her with a veil, and wrapped her- 
self, and 9 sat in 3 an open place, which is by the 
way to Tim'nath ; for she saw r that She'lah was 
grown, and she was not given unto him to wife. 

15 When Ju'dah saw her, he thought her to be an 
harlot ; because she had covered her face. 

16 And he turned unto her by the way, and said, 
Go to, I pray thee, let me come in unto thee ; (for 
he knew not that she was his daughter in law.) 
And she said, What wilt thou give me, that thou 
mayest come in unto me ? 

17 And he said, S I will send thee 4 a kid from the 
flock. And she said, Wilt 'thou give me a pledge, 
till thou send it ? 

18 And he said, What pledge shall I give thee ? 
And she said, Thy w signet, and thy bracelets, and 
thy staff that is in thine hand. And he gave it 
her, and came in unto her, and she conceived by him. 

19 And she arose, and went away, and ''laid by 
her veil from her, and put on the garments of her 

20 And Ju'dah sent the kid by the hand of his 
friend the A-dul'lam-Ite, to receive his pledge from 
the woman's hand : but he found her not. 

21 Then he asked the men of that place, saying, 
Where is the harlot, that was 5 openly by the way 
side ? And they said, There was no harlot in this 

22 And he returned to Ju'dah, and said, I cannot 
find her ; and also the men of the place said, that 
there was no harlot in this place. 

23 And Ju'dah said, Let her take it to her, lest we 
6 be shamed : behold, I sent this kid, and thou hast 
not found her. 

24 1f And it came to pass about three months 
after, that it was told Ju'dah, saying, Ta'mar thy 
daughter in law hath w played the harlot ; and also, 
behold, she is with child by whoredom. And Ju'dah 
said, Bring her forth, a 'and let her be burnt. 

25 When she was brought forth, she sent to her 
father in law, saying, By the man, whose these are, 
am I with child: and she said, '-'Discern, I pray 
thee, whose are these, the signet, and bracelets, 
and staff. 

26 And Ju'dah z acknowledged them, and said, 
a She hath been more righteous than I ; because 
that 6 I gave her not to She'lah my son. And he 
knew her again c no more. 

27 IF And it came to pass in the time of her tra- 
vail, that, behold, twins vjere in her womb. 

28 And it came to pass, when she travailed, that 
the one put out his hand : and the midwife took 
and bound upon his hand a scarlet thread, saying, 
This came out first. 

29 And it came to pass, as he drew back his hand, 
that, behold, his brother came out : and she said, 

Joseph's advancement. 

GENESIS, 39, 40. 

The butler's dream. 

7 How hast thou broken forth ? this breach be upon 
thee : therefore his name was called 8 Pha'rez. 

30 And afterward came out his brother, that had 
the scarlet thread upon his hand : and his name 
was called 9 Za'rah. 


1 Joseph's advancement. 7 He resists temptation. 20 Is cast into prison. 

AND Jo'geph was brought down to E'gypt ; and 
- a Pot'i-phar, an officer of Pha'raoh, captain of 
the guard, an E-gyp'tian, 'bought him of the hands 
of the Ish'me-el-Ites, which had brought him down 

2 And c the Lord was with Jo'seph, and he was a 
prosperous man ; and he was in the house of his 
master the E-gyp'tian. 

3 And his master saw that the Lord was with 
him, and that the Lord d made all that he did to 
prosper in his hand. 

4 And Jo'geph c found grace in his sight, and he 
served him : and he made him -^overseer over his 
house, and all that he had he put into his hand. 

5 And it came to pass from the time that he had 
made him overseer in his house, and over all that 
he had, that "the Lord blessed the E-gyp'tian's 
house for Joseph's sake ; and the blessing of the 
Lord was upon all that he had in the house, and in 
the field. 

6 And he left all that he had in Jo'geph's hand ; and 
he knew not ought he had, save the bread which he 
did eat. And Jo'geph was h a goodly person, and 
well favoured. 

7 If And it came to pass after these things, that 
his master's wife cast her eyes upon Jo'geph ; and 
she said, 'Lie with me. 

8 But he refused, and said unto his master's wife, 
Behold, my master wotteth not what is with me in 
the house, and he hath committed all that he hath 
to my hand ; 

9 There is none greater in this house than I ; 
neither hath he kept back any thing from me but 
thee, because thou art his wife : J 'how then can I 
do this great wickedness, and fc sin against God? 

10 And it came to pass, as she spake to Jo'geph 
day by day, that he hearkened not unto her, to lie 
by her, or to be with her. 

11 And it came to pass about this time, that Jo'- 
seph went into the house to do his business ; and 
there ivas none of the men of the house there within. 

12 And 'she caught him by his garment, saying, 
Lie with me : and he left his garment in her hand, 
and fled, and got him out. 

13 And it came to pass, when she saw that he had 
left his garment in her hand, and was fled forth, 

14 That she called unto the men of her house, and 
spake unto them, saying, See, he hath brought in 
an He'brew unto us to mock us ; he came in unto 
me to lie with me, and I cried with a Moud voice : 

15 And it came to pass, when he heard that I 
lifted up my voice and cried, that he left his gar- 
ment with me, and fled, and got him out. 

16 And she laid up his garment by her, until his 
lord came home. 

B. C. 1729. 

7 Or, where- 
fore hast 
thou made 
this breach 
against thee ? 

8 That is, A 
cli. 4G. 12. 
Num. 20. 20. 
1 Chr. 2. 4. 
Matt. 1. 3. 

9 That is, 
East, or, 

a ell. 37. 30. 

Ps. 105. 17. 
b ch. 37. 28. 

c ch. 21. 22. 

ch. 20. 24, 28. 

ch. 28. 15. 

1 Sam. 10. 18. 

1 Sam. 18. 

14, 28. 

Job 17. 9. 

Ps. 5. 12. 

Prov. 3. 7-10, 


Prov. 30. 5. 

Acts 7. 9. 
d Ps. 1. 3. 

Prov. 10. 6, 22. 

Prov. 28. 20. 
e ch. 18. 3. 

ch. 19. 19. 
/ ch. 24. 2. 

g ch. 30. 27. 

h 1 Sam. 16. 12. 

i 2 Sam. 13. 11. 

j Prov. 0. 29, 32. 
k ch. 20. 6. 

Lev. 6. 2. 

2 Sam. 12. 13. 

Ps. 51. 4. 
I Prov. 7. 13, etc. 

1 great. 

m Ex.23. 1. 

Ps. 120. 3. 

Prov. 6. 25. 

Prov. 23. 27. 

Prov. 20. 28. 

Prov. 30. 23. 
n Prov. 0. 34. 
Ps. 105. 18. 

1 Pet. 2. 19. 
p eh. 40. 3. 

ch. 41. 14. 

2 extended 
unto him. 

q Ex. 3. 21. 

Ex. 11. 3. 

Ex. 12. 30. 

Ps. 106. 46. 

Prov. 10. 7. 

Dan. 1. 9. 

Acts 7. 9. 
r ch. 40. 3, 4. 
s verses 2, 3. 

Prov. 11. 11. 

rc Neb.. 1. 11. 
b Prov. 16. 14. 
c ch. 39. 20. 
1 are your 

faces evil ? 

Neh. 2. 2. 
d ch. 41. 15. 
ech. 41. 10. 

Dan. 2. 11. 

17 And she '"spake unto him according to these 
words, saying, The He'brew servant, which thou hast 
brought unto us, came in unto me to mock me : 

18 And it came to pass, as I lifted up my voice and 
cried, that he left his garment with me, and fled out. 

19 And it came to pass, when his master heard the 
words of his wife, which she spake unto him, say- 
ing, After this manner did thy servant to me ; that 
his n wrath was kindled. 

20 And Joseph's master took him, and "put him 
into the v prison, a place where the king's prisoners 
were bound : and he was there in the prison. 

21 If But the Lord was with Jo'geph, and 2 shewed 
him mercy, and 9 gave him favour in the sight of 
the keeper of the prison. 

22 And the keeper of the prison '"committed to 
Jo'geph's hand all the prisoners that were in the 
prison ; and whatsoever they did there, he was the 
doer of it. 

23 The keeper of the prison looked not to any thing 
that was under his hand; because s the Lord was 
with him, and that which he did, the Lord made it 
to prosper. 


1 Pharaoh's butler and baker imprisoned. 5 Joseph interprets dreams. 20 His word 

comes to pass. 

AND it came to pass after these things, that the 
- "butler of the king of E'gypt and his baker had 
offended their lord the king of E'gypt. 

2 And Pha'raoh was 6 wroth against two of his of- 
ficers, against the chief of the butlers, and against 
the chief of the bakers. 

3 And c he put them in ward in the house of the 
captain of the guard, into the prison, the place where 
Jo'geph was bound. 

4 And the captain of the guard charged Jo'geph 
with them, and he served them : and they continued 
a season in ward. 

5 1 And they dreamed a dream both of them, each 
man his dream in one night, each man according to 
the interpretation of his dream, the butler and the 
baker of the king of E'gypt, which were bound in 
the prison. 

6 And Jo'geph came in unto them in the morning, 
and looked upon them, and, behold, they were sad. 

7 And he asked Pha'raoh's officers that were with 
him in the ward of his lord's house, saying, Where- 
fore 1 look ye so sadly to day ? 

8 And they said unto him, d We have dreamed a 
dream, and there is no interpreter of it. And Jo'- 
geph said unto them, e Do not interpretations belong 
to God ? tell me them, I pray you. 

9 And the chief butler told his dream to Jo'geph, 
and said to him, In my dream, behold, a vine was 
before me ; 

10 And in the vine were three branches : and it 
ivas as though it budded, and her blossoms shot 
forth ; and the clusters thereof brought forth ripe 
grapes : 

11 And Pha'raoh's cup ivas in my hand : and I took 
the grapes, and pressed them into Pha'raoh's cup, 
and I gave the cup into Pha'raoh's hand. 


Joseph interprets dreams. 


Pharaoh's dreams. 

12 And J5'geph said unto him, ■'This is the inter- 
pretation of it : The three branches are three days : 

13 Yet within three days shall Pha'raoh 2 9 lift up 
thine head, and restore thee unto thy place : and 
thou shalt deliver Pha'raoh's cup into his hand, 
after the former manner when thou wast his butler. 

14 But 3 h think on me when it shall be well with 
thee, and i shew kindness, I pray thee, unto me, and 
make mention of me unto Pha'raoh, and bring me 
out of this house : 

15 For indeed I was stolen away out of the land 
of the He'brewg : and •'here also have I done nothing 
that they should put me into the dungeon. 

16 When the chief baker saw that the interpreta- 
tion was good, he said unto Jo'geph, I also was in 
my dream, and, behold, I had three 4 white baskets 
on my head : 

17 And in the uppermost basket there was of all 
manner of 5 bakemeats for Pha'raoh; and the birds 
did eat them out of the basket upon my head. 

18 And Jo'seph answered and said, This is the in- 
terpretation thereof: The three baskets are three 

19 Yet within three days shall Pha'raoh G lift up 
thy head from off thee, and shall hang thee on a 
tree ; and the birds shall eat thy flesh from off thee. 

20 If And it came to pass the third day, which was 
fc Pha'raoh's birthday, that he 'made a feast unto all 
his servants : and he 7 "' lifted up the head of the 
chief butler and of the chief baker among his ser- 

21 And he "restored the chief butler unto his but- 
lership again ; and he "gave the cup into Pha'raoh's 

22 But he p hanged the chief baker: as Jo'seph 
had interpreted to them. 

23 Yet did not the chief butler remember Jo'geph, 
but 'forgat him. 


1 Pharaoh's dreams. 25 Joseph interprets them. 37 Is made ruler. 54 The famine. 

AND it came to pass at the end of two full years, 
- that Pha'raoh dreamed : and, behold, he stood 
by the river. 

2 And, behold, there came up out of the river seven 
well favoured kine and fatfleshed ; and they fed in 
a meadow. 

3 And, behold, seven other kine came up after 
them out of the river, ill favoured and leanfleshed ; 
and stood by the other kine upon the brink of the 

4 And the ill favoured and leanfleshed kine did 
eat up the seven well favoured and fat kine. So 
Pha'raoh awoke. 

5 And he slept and dreamed the second time : and, 
behold, seven ears of corn came up upon one stalk, 
*rank and good. 

6 And, behold, seven thin ears and blasted with 
the east wind sprung up after them. 

7 And the seven thin ears devoured the seven 
rank and full ears. And Pha'raoh awoke, and, be- 
hold, it was a dream. 

8 And it came to pass in the morning a that his 


B. C. 1720. 

/Judg.7. 14. 

Dan. 2. 36. 

Dan. 4. 19. 
2 Or, reckon. 
g Ps. 3. 3. 

Jer. 52. 31. 

3 remember me 
with thee. 

h Luke 23. 42. 

i Josh. 2. 12. 
1 Sam. 20. 14. 
1 Ki. 2. 7. 

j ch. 39. 20. 

4 Or, full of 

5 meat of 
the work of 
a baker, or, 

6 Or, reckon 
thee, and 
take thy 
office from 

h Matt. 14. G. 
/Mark 6. 21. 
7 Or, reckoned. 
hi Matt. 25. 19. 

n verse 13. 
o Neh. 2. 1. 
p Ksth. 7. 10. 
q Job 19. 14. 

Ps. 31. 12. 

Prov. 3. 27. 

Eccl. 9. 15. 

Amos 6. G. 

Heb. 13. 16. 

1 fat. 

a Dan. 4. 5. 
&Ex. 7. 11. 

Isa. 29. 14. 

Dan. 1. 20. 

Dan. 2. 2. 
c Matt. 2. 1. 
d ch. 40. 2, 3. 
e eh. 39. 20. 
/ ch. 40. 5. 
g 2 Ki. 5. 4. 
A ch. 37. 36. 
i ch. 40. 12. 
j ch. 40. 22. 
k Ps. 105. 20. 
/ Dan. 2. 25. 

2 made him run. 
m 1 Sam. 2. 8. 

Ps. 113. 7, 8. 
n Ps. 25. 14. 
Dan. 5. 16. 

3 Or, when 
thou hearest a 
dream thou 
canst inter- 
pret it. 

o Ps. 25. 14. 

Prov. 3. 32. 

Dan. 2. 30. 

Amos 3. 7. 

John 15. 15. 

Acts 3. 12. 

2 Cor. 3. 5. 
p ch. 40. 8. 

Deut. 29. 29. 

Dan. 2. 22, 28. 


Dan. 4. 2. 

4 come to the 
inward parts 
of them , 

5 Or, small. 
5 Ps. 60. 11. 

Ps. 118. 8. 

Ps. 146. 3. 

Isa. 8. 19. 

Dan. 4. 7. 
r Dan. 2. 28, 

29, 45. 

Kev. 4. 1. 
s 2 Ki. 8. 1. 

spirit was troubled ;_and he sent and called for all 
b the magicians of E'gypt, and all the c wise men 
thereof : and Pha'raoh told them his dream ; but 
there was none that could interpret them unto 

9 H Then spake the chief butler unto Pha'raoh, 
saying, I do remember my faults this day : 

10 Pha'raoh was d wroth with his servants, e and 
put me in ward in the captain of the guard's house, 
both me and the chief baker : 

11 And / we dreamed a dream in one night, I and 
he ; we dreamed each man according to the inter- 
pretation of his dream. 

12 And ° there was there with us a young man, an 
He'brew, h servant to the captain of the guard; and 
we told him, and he ^interpreted to us our dreams ; 
to each man according to his dream he did interpret. 

13 And it came to pass, J 'as he interpreted to us, 
so it was ; me he restored unto mine office, and him 
he hanged. 

14 H Then k Pha'raoh sent and called Jo'geph, and 
they l2 brought him hastily m out of the dungeon : 
and he shaved himself, and changed his raiment, 
and came in unto Pha'raoh. 

15 And Pha'raoh said unto Jo'geph, I have dreamed 
a dream, and there is none that can interpret it : 
"and I have heard say of thee, that 3 thou canst un- 
derstand a dream to interpret it. 

16 And Jo'geph answered Pha'raoh, saying, °It is 
not in me : p God shall give Pha'raoh an answer of 

17 And Pha'raoh said unto Jo'geph, In my dream, 
behold, I stood upon the bank of the river : 

18 And, behold, there came up out of the river 
seven kine, fatfleshed and well favoured ; and they 
fed in a meadow : 

19 And, behold, seven other kine came up after 
them, poor and very ill favoured and leanfleshed, 
such as I never saw in all the land of E'gypt for 
badness : 

20 And the lean and the ill favoured kine did eat 
up the first seven fat kine : 

21 And when they had 4 eaten them up, it could 
not be known that they had eaten them ; but they 
were still ill favoured, as at the beginning. So I 

22 And I saw in my dream, and, behold, seven 
ears came up in one stalk, full and good : 

23 And, behold, seven ears, 5 withered, thin, and 
blasted with the east wind, sprung up after them : 

24 And the thin ears devoured the seven good 
ears : and Q l told this unto the magicians ; but there 
was none that could declare it to me. 

25 H And Jo'geph said unto Pha'raoh, The dream 
of Pha'raoh is one : r God hath shewed Pha'raoh 
what he is about to do. 

26 The seven good kine are seven years ; and the 
seven good ears are seven years : the dream is one. 

27 And the seven thin and ill favoured kine that 
came up after them are seven years ; and the seven 
empty ears blasted with the east wind shall be 
s seven years of famine. 

Joseph made ruler. 


The famine begins. 

28 This is the thing which I have spoken unto 
Pha'raoh : What God is about to do he sheweth unto 

29 Behold, there come seven years of great plenty 
throughout all the land of E'gypt : 

30 And there shall arise after them seven years 
of famine ; and all the plenty shall be forgotten in 
the land of E'gypt ; and the famine shall * consume 
the land ; 

31 And the plenty shall not be known in the land 
by reason of that famine following ; for it shall be 
very 6 grievous. 

32 And for that the dream was doubled unto 
Pha'raoh twice ; it is because the thing is Estab- 
lished by God, and God will shortly bring it to pass. 

33 Now therefore let Pha'raoh look out a man dis- 
creet and wise, and set him over the land of E'gypt. 

34 Let Pha'raoh do this, and let him appoint Offi- 
cers over the land, and take up the fifth part of 
the land of E'gypt in the seven plenteous years. 

35 And let them gather all the food of those good 
years that come, and lay up corn under the hand of 
Pha'raoh, and let them keep food in the cities. 

36 And that food shall be for store to the land 
against the seven years of famine, which shall be 
in the land of E'gypt ; that the land 9 perish not 
through the famine. 

37 H And the thing was good in the eyes of Pha'- 
raoh, and in the eyes of all his servants. 

38 And Pha'raoh said unto his servants, Can we 
find such a one as this is, a man M in whom the 
Spirit of God is ? 

39 And Pha'raoh said unto Jo'geph, Forasmuch as 
God hath shewed thee all this, there is none so dis- 
creet and wise as thou art : 

40 Thou shalt be over my house, and according 
unto thy word shall all my people 10 be ruled : only 
in the throne will I be greater than thou. 

41 And Pha'raoh said untoJo'geph, See, I v have 
set thee over all the land of E'gypt. 

42 And Pha'raoh w took off his ring from his hand, 
and put it upon Joseph's hand, and arrayed him in 
vestures of "fine linen, and •'-'put a gold chain about 
his neck ; 

43 And he made him to ride in the second chariot 
which he had ; and they cried before him, 12 Bow 
theknee : and he made him ruler over all the land 
of E'gypt. 

44 And Pha'raoh said unto Jo'geph, I am Pha'raoh, 
and without thee shallno man lift up his hand or 
foot in all the land of E'gypt. 

45 And Pha'raoh called Joseph's name 13 Zaph'- 
nath-pa-a-ne'ah ; and he gave him to wife As'e-nath 
the daughter of P6-ti'-phe-rah u priest_of On. And 
Jo'geph went out over all the land of E'gypt. 

46 1" And Jo'geph was thirty years old when he 
y stood before Pha'raoh king of E'gypt. And Jo'- 
geph went out from the presence of Pha'raoh, and 
went throughout all the land of E'gypt. 

47 And in the seven plenteous years the earth 
brought forth by handfuls. 

48 And he gathered up all the food of the seven 


B. C. 1715. 

t ch. +7. 13. 
1 Ki. 17. 1. 
Ps. 105. 10. 

G heavy. 

Or. prepared 
of God. 

8 Or, overseers. 

9 be not cut off. 
u Num. '27. 18. 

Job 32. 8. 
Prov. 2. 6. 
Dan. 4. 8. 
Dan. 5. 11. 

10 be armed, 
or, kiss. 

«Ps. 105. 21. 

Prov. 14. 35. 

Eccl. 4. 

13, 14. 

Dan. 6. 3. 

Acts 7. 10. 
w Esth. 3. 10. 

Esth. 8. 2. 

11 Or, silk. 

x Dan. 5. 20. 

12 Abrech, or, 
Tender father. 

13 Which in the 
Coptic sig- 
nifies, A re- 
vealer of se- 
crets, or, 
The man to 
whom secrets 
are revealed. 

14 Or, prince. 
Ex. 2. 10. 

2 Sam. 20. 2G. 
y\ Sam. 10. 21. 

1 Ki. 12. G, 8. 

Dan. 1. 10. 
2 ch. 22. 17. 

Judg. 7. 12. 

1 Sam. IS. 5. 
Ps. 78. 27. 

a ch. 4G. 20. 
oil. 48. 5. 

15 Or, prince. 
Hi That is, 

Forgett ing. 

17 That is, 

b Ps. 105. 16. 
Acts 7. 11. 

18 all wherein 

c ch. 42. G. 

ch. 47. 14, 24. 

Prov. 11. 26. 
d Deut. 0. 28. 
ech. 12. 10. 

ch. 2G. 1. 

ch. 43. 1 . 

2 Ki. 8. 1. 

a Acts 7. 12. 
b ch. 43. 8. 

Ps. 33. 18, 10. 

Ps. 118. 17. 

Isa. 38. 1. 
c verse 38. 
d ch. 12. 10. 

ch. 2G. 1. 

Acts 7. 11. 
e ch. 41. 41. 
/'ch. 27. 20. 

ch. 33: G. 

ch. 37. 7. 

Ruth 2. 10. 

1 Ki. 1. 16. 

Isa. CO. 14. 
1 hard things 

with them. 

years, which were in the land of E'gypt, and laid 
up the food in the cities : the food of the field, 
which was round about every city, laid he up in 
the same. 

49 And Jo'geph gathered corn *as the sand of the 
sea, very much, until he left numbering ; for it was 
without number. 

50 And "unto Jo'geph were born two sons before 
the years of famine came, which As'e-nath the 
daughter of P6-ti'-phe-rah 15 priest of On bare unto 

51 And Jo'geph called the name of the firstborn 
^Ma-nas'seh : For God, said he, hath made me for- 
get all my toil, and all my father's house. 

52 And the name of the second called he "E'phra- 
Im : For God hath caused me to be fruitful in the 
land of my affliction. 

53 H And the seven years of plenteousness, that 
was in the land of E'gypt, were ended. 

54 And Hhe seven years of dearth began to come, 
according as Jo'geph had said : and the dearth was 
in all lands ; but in all the land of E'gypt there 
was bread. 

55 And when all the land of E'gypt was famished, 
the people cried to Pha'raoh for bread : and Pha'- 
raoh said unto all the E-gyp'tiang," Go unto Jo'geph ; 
what he saith to you, do. 

56 And the famine was over all the face of the 
earth : And Jo'geph opened I8 all the storehouses, 
and sold c unto the E-gyp|tian§ ; and the famine 
waxed sore in the land of E'gypt. _ 

57 And d all countries came into E'gypt to Jo'geph 
for to buy corn; because that the famine was e so 
sore in all lands. 


1 Jacob's sons sent lo Egypt for corn. 16 Imprisoned as spies. 18 Joseph's treatment of 
them. 24 Simeon kept for a pledge.. 

NOW when "Ja'cob saw that there was corn in 
E'gypt, Ja'cob said unto his sons, Why do ye 
look one upon another ? 

2 And he said, Behold, I have heard that there is 
corn in E'gypt : get you down thither, and buy for 
us from thence ; that we may b live, and not die. 

3 H And Jo'geph's ten brethren went down to buy 
corn in E'gypt. 

4 But Ben'ja-min, Jo'geph's brother, Ja'cob sent 
not with his brethren ; for he said, c Lest peradven- 
ture mischief befall him. 

5 And the sons of Ig'ra-el came to buy corn among 
those that came : for the famine was d in the land 
of Ca'naan. 

6 And Jo'geph was the governor e over the land, 
and he it ivas that sold to all the people of the land : 
and Jo'geph's brethren came, and -'bowed down them- 
selves before him with their faces to the earth. 

7 And Jo'geph saw his brethren, and he knew them, 
but made himself strange unto them, and spake 
1 roughly unto them ; and he said unto them, Whence 
come ye ? And they said, From the land of Ca'naan 
to buy food. 

8 And Jo'geph knew his brethren, but they knew 
not him. 


Joseph's brethren imprisoned. 


Their report to Jacob. 

9 And Jo'seph g remembered the dreams which he 
dreamed of them, and said unto them, Ye are spies ; 
to see the nakedness of the land ye are come. 

10 And they said unto him, Nay, my lord, but to 
buy food are thy servants come. 

11 We are all one man's sons ; we are true men, 
thy servants are no spies. 

12 And he said unto them, Nay, but to see the 
nakedness of the land ye are come. 

13 And they said, Thy servants are twelve breth- 
ren, the sons of one man in the land of Ca'naan ; 
and, behold, the youngest is this day with our father, 
and one h is not. 

14 And Jo'seph said unto them, That is it that I 
spake unto you, saying, Ye are spies : 

15 Hereby ye shall be proved: *By the life of 
Pha'raoh ye shall not go forth hence, except your 
youngest brother come hither. 

16 Send one of you, and let him fetch your brother, 
and ye shall be 2 kept in prison, that your words 
may be proved, whether there be any truth in you : 
or else by the life of Pha'raoh surely ye are spies. 

17 And he 3 put them all together into ward three 

18 And Jo'seph said unto them the third day, 
This do, and live ; for j l fear God : 

19 If ye be true men, let one of your brethren be 
bound in the house of your prison : go ye, carry 
corn for the famine of your houses : 

20 But k bring your youngest brother unto me ; so 
shall your words be verified, and ye shall not die. 
And they did so. 

21 II And they said one to another, l We are verily 
guilty concerning our brother, in that we saw the 
anguish of his soul, when he besought us, and we 
would not hear; m therefore is this distress come 
upon us. 

22 And Reu'ben answered them, saying, "Spake I 
not unto you, saying, Do not sin against the child ; 
and ye would not hear ? therefore, behold, also his 
blood is "required. 

23 And they knew not that Jo'seph understood 
them; for 4 he spake unto them by an interpreter. 

24 And he turned himself about from them, and 
wept ; and returned to them again, and communed 
with them, and took from them Sim'e-on, and bound 
him before their eyes. 

25 Tf Then Jo'seph commanded to fill their sacks 
with corn, and to restore every man's money into 
his sack, and to give them provision for the way : 
and p thus did he unto them. 

26 And they laded their asses with the corn, and 
departed thence. 

27 And as 9 one of them opened his sack to give 
his ass provender in the inn, he espied his money ; 
for, behold, it was in his sack's mouth. 

28 And he said unto his brethren, My money is 
restored ; and, lo, it is even in my sack : and their 
heart 5 failed them, and they were afraid, saying one 
to another, What is this that God hath done unto 

29 II And they came unto Ja'cob their father unto 


B. C. 1707. 

g eh. 37. 5, 9. 

h ch. 37. 30. 
ch. 44. 20. 
Lam. 5. 7. 

i 1 Sam. 1. 2G. 
1 Sam. 17. 5. 

: bound. 

3 gathered. 

/ Lev. 25. 43. 
Neh. 5. 15. 

/■ verse 34. 
ch. 43. 5. 
ch. 44. 23. 

I Job 3G. 8, 9. 
Hos. 5. 15. 

m Ps. 107. 17. 

Prov. 5. 22. 

Prov. 11. 21. 

Prov. 21. 13. 

Matt. 7. 2. 
n ch. 37. 21. 

ch. 9. 5. 

1 Ki. 2. 32. 

2 Chr. 24. 22. 
Ps. 9. 12. 
Luke 11. 

50, 51. 

4 an interpreter 
was between 

p Matt. 5. 44. 

Rom. 12. 17, 

20, 21. 

1 Pet. 3. 9. 
q ch. 43. 21. 

5 went forth. 
r verse 7. 

6 with us hard 

s verses 15, 19, 

1 ch. 34. 10. 
u ch. 43. 21. 
V ch. 43. 14. 
w verse 13. 

ch. 37. 33. 

ch. 44. 28. 
x verse 4. 

ch. 44. 29. 
y ch. 37. 35. 

ch. 44. 31. 

« ch. 12. 10. 
ch. 26. 1. 
ch. 41. 57. 
1 Ki. 18. 2. 
2Ki. 8.1. 
Jer. 52. 6. 
Lam. 5. 10. 

1 protesting 

b ch. 42. 20. 
ch.44. 23. 

2 asking 
asked us. 

3 mouth. 

4 knowing could 
we know. 

the land of Ca'naan, and told him all that befell 
unto them ; saying, 

30 The man, who is the lord of the land, r spake 
6 roughly to us, and took us for spies of the country. 

31 And we said unto him, We are true men; we 
are no spies : 

32 We be twelve brethren, sons of our father ; one 
is not, and the youngest is this day with our father 
in the land of Ca'naan. 

33 And the man, the lord of the country, said unto 
us, s Hereby shall I know that ye are true men ; 
leave one of your brethren here with me, and take 
food for the famine of your households, and be gone : 

34 And bring your youngest brother unto me : 
then shall I know that ye are no spies, but that ye 
are true men : so will I deliver you your brother, 
and ye shall Hraffick in the land. 

35 If And it came to pass as they emptied their 
sacks, that, behold, w every man's bundle of money 
ivas in his sack : and when both they and their fa- 
ther saw the bundles of money, they were afraid. 

36 And Ja'cob their father said unto them, Me have 
ye " bereaved of my children : Jo'seph is not, and 
SIm'e-on is not, and ye will take Ben'ja-min away : 
all these things are against me. 

37 And Reu'ben spake unto his father, saying, 
Slay my two sons, if I bring him not to thee : de- 
liver him into my hand, and I will bring him to thee 

38 And he said, My son shall not go down with 
you ; for his w brother is dead, and he is left alone : 
x if mischief befall him by the way in the which ye 
go, then shall ye '-'bring down my gray hairs with 
sorrow to the grave. 


1 Benjamin sent to Egypt. 31 Joseph feasts Ins brethren. 

AND the famine was a sore in the land. 
- 2 And it came to pass, when they had eaten up 
the corn which they had brought out of E'gypt, their 
father said unto them, Go again, buy us a little food. 

3 And Ju'dah spake unto him, saying, The man Mid 
solemnly protest unto us, saying, Ye shall not see my 
face, except 6 your brother be with you. 

4 If thou wilt send our brother with us, we will go 
down and buy thee food : 

5 But if thou wilt not send him, we will not go 
down : for the man said unto us, Ye shall not see 
my face, except your brother be with you. 

6 And Ig'ra-el said, Wherefore dealt ye so ill with 
me, as to tell the man whether ye had yet a brother ? 

7 And they said, The man 2 asked us straitly of our 
state, and of our kindred, saying, Is your father yet 
alive ? have ye another brother ? and we told him 
according to the 3 tenor of these words : 4 could we 
certainly know that he would say, Bring your bro- 
ther down ? 

8 And Ju'dah said unto Ig'ra-el his father, Send 
the lad with me, and we will arise and go ; that we 
may live, and not die, both we, and thou, and also 
our little ones. 

9 I will be surety for him ; of my hand shalt thou 

Benjamin sent to Egypt. 


Joseph's brethren stayed. 

require him : c if I bring him not unto thee, and set 
him before thee, then let me bear the blame for ever : 

10 For except we had lingered, surely now we had 
returned 5 this second time. 

11 And their father Ig'ra-el said unto them, If it 
must be so now, do this ; take of the best fruits in 
the land in your vessels, and d carry down the man 
a present, a e little balm, and a little honey, spices, 
and myrrh, nuts, and almonds : 

12 And take double money in your hand ; and the 
money / that was brought again in the mouth of 
your sacks, carry it again in your hand ; peradven- 
ture it was an oversight : 

13 Take also your brother, and arise, go again 
unto the man : 

14 And ° God Almighty give you mercy before the 
man, that he may send away your other brother, 
and Ben'ja-min. 6 If I be bereaved of my children, 
I am bereaved. 

15 If And the men took that present, and they took 
double money in their hand, and Ben'ja-min ; and 
rose up, and went down to E'gypt, and stood before 

16 And when Jo'seph saw Ben'ja-min with them, 
he said to h the ruler of his house, Bring these men 
home, and 7 slay, and make ready ; for these men 
shall Mine with me at noon. 

17 And the man did as Jo'geph bade ; and the man 
brought the men into Jo'seph's house. 

18 And the men were afraid, because they were 
brought into Jo'seph's house ; and they said, Be- 
cause of the money that was returned in our sacks 
at the first time are we brought in ; that he may 
9 seek occasion against us, and fall upon us, and take 
us for bondmen, and our asses. 

19 And they came near to the steward of Joseph's 
house, and they communed with him at the door of 
the house, 

20 And said, sir, 10 we came indeed down at the 
first time to buy food : 

21 And 'it came to pass, when we came to the inn, 
that we opened our sacks, and, behold, every man's 
money was in the mouth of his sack, our money in 
full weight : and we have brought it again in our 

22 And other money have we brought down in our 
hands to buy food : we cannot tell who put our 
money in our sacks. 

23 And he said, Peace be to you, fear not : your 
God, and the God of your father, hath given you 
treasure in your sacks : n I had your money. And 
he brought Sim'e-on out unto them. 

24 And the man brought the men into Jo'seph's 
house, and J 'gave them water, and they washed their 
feet ; and he gave their asses provender. 

25 And they made ready the present against Jo'- 
seph came at noon : for they heard that they should 
eat bread there. 

26 H And when Jo'geph came home, they brought 
him the present which was in their hand into the 
house, and k bowed themselves to him to the earth. 

27 And he asked them of their 12 welfare, and said, 

B. C. 1707. 

cell. 44. 3'.'. 
Pliilem. IS, 19. 

5 Or, twice 
by this. 

d ch. 32. 20. 

Prov. 18. 1C. 
e ch. 37. 25. 

Jer. 8. 22. 

Ezek. 27. 17. 

/cb.42. 25,35. 

g 1 Sam. 14. 6. 

2 Sam. 22. 

3 13. 

Job 13. 15. 
Ps. 22. 4. 
Ps. 34. 8, 22. 
Ps. 40. 4. 
Ps. 52. 8. 
Ps. 61. 4. 
Ps. 71. 5. 
Ps. 141. 8. 
Prov. 28. 5. 
Isa. 57. 13. 
Nah. 1.7. 

6 Or, and I, 
as I have 
been, etc. 
Esth. 4. 16. 

h ch. 24. 2. 
ch. 39. 4. 
ch. 44. 1. 

7 kill a killing. 
1 Sam. 25. 11. 

8 eat. 

9 roll himself 
upon us. 
Job 30. 14. 

10 coming down 
we came down, 
ch. 42. 3, 10. 

i ch. 42. 27, 35. 

11 your money 
came to me. 

j ch. 18. 4. 
ch. 24. 32. 
Luke 7. 44. 
John 13. 5. 

1 Tim. 5. 10. 
k ch. 27. 29. 

ch. 33. 6. 
ch. 37. 7, 10. 
Ruth 2. 10. 

12 peace, 
ch. 37. 14. 

13 Is there peace 
to your father ? 

/ ch. 42. 11, 13. 

;?i ch. 37. 7, 10. 

Prov. 14. 19. 

n ch. 35. 17, IS. 

ch. 42. 13. 
p 1 Ki. 3. 26. 

Jer. 31. 20. 
g ch. 42. 24. 

2 Sam. 18. 33. 
r verse 25. 

s ch. 46. 34. 
Ex. 8. 26. 

1 ch. 45. 22. 

14 drank largely. 
Hag. 1.6. 
John 2. 10. 

1 him that was 
over his house. 

2 Or, maketh 

ach. 43. 21. 
b ch. 31. 32. 

13 Is your father well, the old man of 'whom ye 
spake ? 7s he yet alive ? 

28 And they answered, Thy servant our father is 
in good health, he is yet alive. m And they bowed 
down their heads, and made obeisance. 

29 And he lifted up his eyes, and saw his brother 
Ben'ja-min, "his mother's son, and said, Is this your 
younger brother, °of whom ye spake unto me? And 
he said, God be gracious unto thee, my son. 

30 And Jo'geph made haste ; p for his bowels did 
yearn upon his brother : and he sought where to 
weep ; and he entered into his chamber, and "wept 

31 And he washed his face, and went out, and re- 
frained himself, and said, Set on 'bread. 

32 And they set on for him by himself, and for them 
by themselves, and for the E-gyp'tiang, which did 
eat with him, by themselves : because the E-gyp'- 
tiang might not eat bread with the He'brewg ; for 
that is an s abomination unto the E-gyp'tiang. 

33 And they sat before him, the firstborn accord- 
ing to his birthright, and the youngest according to 
his youth : and the men marvelled one at another. 

34 And he took and sent messes unto them from 
before him : but Ben'ja-min's mess was 'five times 
so much as any of theirs. And they drank, and 
14 were merry with him. 


1 Joseph slays Ms brethren. 14 Judah's plea for Benjamin. 

AND he commanded Uhe steward of his house, 
-^*- saying, Fill the men's sacks with food, as much 
as they can carry, and put every man's money in his 
sack's mouth. 

2 And put my cup, the silver cup, in the sack's 
mouth of the youngest, and his corn money. And he 
did according to the word that Jo'geph had spoken. 

3 As soon as the morning was light, the men were 
sent away, they and their asses. 

4 And when they were gone out of the city, and 
not yet far off, Jo'geph said unto his steward, Up, 
follow after the men ; and when thou dost overtake 
them, say unto them, Wherefore have ye rewarded 
evil for good ? 

5 Is not this it in which my lord drinketh, and 
whereby indeed he 2 divineth? ye have done evil in 
so doing. 

6 H And he overtook them, and he spake unto 
them these same words. 

7 And they said unto him, Wherefore saith my 
lord these words? God forbid that thy servants 
should do according to this thing : 

8 Behold, "the money, which we found in our sacks' 
mouths, we brought again unto thee out of the land 
of Ca'naan : how then should we steal out of thy 
lord's house silver or gold ? 

9 With whomsoever of thy servants it be found, 
6 both let him die, and we also will be my lord's 

10 And he said, Now also let it be according unto 
your words : he with whom it is found shall be my 
servant ; and ye shall be blameless. 


Judah's plea. 


11 Then they speedily took down every man his 
sack to the ground, and opened every man his sack. 

12 And he searched, and began at the eldest, and 
left at the youngest : and the cup was found in 
Ben'ja-min's sack. 

13 Then they c rent their clothes, and laded every 
man his ass, and returned to the city. 

14 1 And Ju'dah and his brethren came to Jo'- 
seph's house ; for he was yet there : and they rf fell 
before him on the ground. 

15 And Jo'geph said unto them, What deed is this 
that ye have done ? wot ye not that such a man as 
I can certainly 3 divine? 

16 And Ju'dah said, e What shall we say unto my 
lord? what shall we speak ? or how shall we clear 
ourselves ? God hath found out the iniquity of thy 
servants : behold, -^we are my lord's servants, both 
we, and he also with whom the cup is found. 

17 And he said, 3 God forbid that I should do so : 
but the man in whose hand the cup is found, he 
shall be my servant ; and as for you, get you up in 
peace unto your father. 

18 If Then Ju'dah came near unto him, and said, 
Oh my lord, let thy servant, I pray thee, speak a 
word in my lord's ears, and Met not thine anger 
burn against thy servant : for thou art J even as 

19 My lord asked his servants, saying, Have ye a 
father, or a brother ? 

20 And we said unto my lord, We have a father, 
an old man, and J a child of his old age, a little one ; 
and his brother is dead, and he alone is left of his 
mother, and his father loveth him. 

21 And thou saidst unto thy servants, k Bring him 
down unto me, that I may set mine eyes upon him. 

22 And we said unto my lord, The lad cannot leave 
his, father : for if he should leave his father, his 
father would die. 

23 And thou saidst unto thy servants, 'Except your 
youngest brother come down with you, ye shall see 
my face no more. 

24 And it came to pass when we came up unto thy 
servant my father, we told him the words of my 

25 And " l our father said, Go again, and buy us a 
little food. 

26 And we said, We cannot go down : if our young- 
est with us, then will we go down: for 
we may not see the man's face, except our young- 
est brother be with us. 

27 And thy servant my father said unto us, Ye 
know that "my wife bare me two sons: 

28 And the one went out from me, and I said, 
"Surely he is torn in pieces; and I saw him not 
since : 

29 And if ye p take this also from me, and mis- 
chief befall him, ye shall bring down my gray hairs 
with sorrow to the grave. 

30 Now therefore when I come to thy servant my 
father, and the lad be not with us ; seeing q that his 
life is bound up in the lad's life ; 

31 It shall come to pass, when he seeth that the 

B. C. 1707. 

cli. 37. 29, 34. 
Num. 14. 6. 
'_' Sam. 1. 11. 

d ch. 37. 7. 

3 Or. make 


verse 5. 
e Job 40. 4. 

f verse 9. 

g Josh. 22. 29. 

Josh. 24. 1G. 

1 Sam. 12. 23. 

1 Sam. 14. 45. 

1 Sam. 20. 2. 

Job 27. 5. 

Prov. 17. 15. 

Luke 20. 16. 

Rom. 3. 4, G, 


Rom. 6. 2, 15. 

Rom. 7. 7, 13. 

Rom. 9. 14. 

Rom. 11.1,11 

1 Cor. 6. 15. 

Gal. 2. 17. 

Gal. 3. 21. 

Gal. 6. 14. 

h ch. 18. 30. 32. 

Ex. 32. 22. 

ich. 41.40. 

Prov. 19. 12. 

j ch. 37. 3. 

k ch. 42. 15, 20. 
/ch. 43. 3,5. 
m ch. 43. 2. 
v ch. 4G. 19. 
o ch. 37. 33. 
p ch. 42. 3G, 38. 
q 1 Sam. IS. 1. 
r ch. 43. 9. 
.s Ex. 32. 32. 
4 find my father. 

Ex. 18.8. 

Job 31. 29. 

Ps. 11G. 3. 

Ps. 119. 143. 

1 gave forth 
his voice in 
Num. 14. 1. 

ii Acts 7. 13. 

2 Or, terrified. 
Job 4. 5. 
Job 23. 15. 
Ps. 77. 4. 
Zech. 12. 10. 
Matt. 14. 26. 
Mark 6. 50. 

b ch. 37. 28. 
c Isa. 40. 2. 
2 Cor. 2. 7. 

3 neither let 
there be anger 
in your eyes. 

d ch. 50. 20. 
Deut. 23. 14. 
2 Sam. 16. 
10, 11. 

Job 5. 19, 20, 

Job 38. 41. 
Ps. 33. 18, 19. 
Ps. 37. 18, 19. 
Ps. 62. 11. 
Ps. 73. 1. 
Ps. 105. 16, 17. 
Acts 4. 24. 
2 Pet. 2. 9. 

4 to put for you 
a remnant. 

e ch. 41. 43. 

Judg. 17. 10. 

Job 29. 16. 
/ch. 47. 1. 
g 1 Tim. 5. 4. 
h ch. 42. 23. 
i Acts 7. 14. 

Joseph sends for Jacob. 

lad is not with us, that he will die : and thy ser- 
vants shall bring dov/n the gray hairs of thy ser- 
vant our father with sorrow to the grave. 

32 For thy servant became surety for the lad unto 
my father, saying, If r I bring him not unto thee, 
then I shall bear the blame to my father for ever. 

33 Now therefore, I pray thee, & let thy servant 
abide instead of the lad a bondman to my lord ; and 
let the lad go up with his brethren. 

34 For how shall I go up to my father, and the 
lad be not with me ? lest peradventure I see the evil 
that shall 4 come on my father. 


1 Joseph makes himself known. 9 Sauls for Jacob. 21 Provides for their journey. 

rpHEN Jo'seph could not refrain himself before 
■*- all them that stood by him ; and he cried, Cause 
every man to go out from me. And there stood no 
man with him, while Jo'seph made himself known 
unto his brethren. 

2 And he 1 wept aloud : and the E-gyp'tian§ and the 
house of Pha'raoh heard. 

3 And Jo'geph said unto his brethren, a I am Jo'- 
seph ; doth my father yet live ? And his brethren 
could not answer him ; for they were 2 troubled at 
his presence. 

4 And Jo'seph said unto his brethren, Come near 
to me, I pray you. And they came near. And he 
said, I am Jo'seph your brother, b whom ye sold into 

5 Now therefore c be not grieved, 3 nor angry with 
yourselves, that ye sold me hither : for d God did 
send me before you to preserve life. 

6 For these two years hath the famine been in the 
land : and yet there are five years, in the which there 
shall neither be earing nor harvest. 

7 And God sent me before you 4 to preserve you a 
posterity in the earth, and to save your lives by a 
great deliverance. 

8 So now it was not you that sent me hither, but 
God : and he hath made me a e father to Pha'raoh, 
and lord of all his house, and a ruler throughout all 
the land of E'gypt. 

9 Haste ye, and go up to my father, and say unto 
him, Thus saith thy son Jo'seph, God hath made me 
lord of all E'gypt : come down unto me, tarry not : 

10 And •'thou shalt dwell in the land of Go'shen, 
and th'ou shalt be near unto me, thou, and thy chil- 
dren, and thy children's children, and thy flocks, 
and thy herds, and all that thou hast : 

11 And there will I nourish thee ; for "yet there 
are five years of famine ; lest thou, and thy house- 
hold, and all that thou hast, come to poverty. 

12 And, behold, your eyes see, and the eyes of my 
brother Ben' ja-min, that it is h my mouth that speak- 
eth unto you. 

13 And ye shall tell my father of all my glory in 
E'gypt, and of all that ye have seen ; and ye shall 
haste and S bring down my father hither. 

14 And he fell upon his brother Ben'ja-min's neck, 
and wept ; and Ben 'ja-min wept upon his neck. 

15 Moreover he kissed all his brethren, and wept 


Joseph's gifts. 


Jacob's family. 

upon them : and after that his brethren talked with 

16 If And the fame thereof was heard in Pha'raoh's 
house, saying, Joseph's brethren are come : and it 
5 pleased Pha'raoh well, and his servants. 

17 And Pha'raoh said unto Jo'seph, Say unto thy 
brethren, This do ye ; lade your beasts, and go, get 
you unto the land of Ca'naan ; 

18 And take your father and your households, and 
come unto me : and I will give you the good of the 
land of E'gypt, and ye shall eat j the fat of the land. 

19 Now thou art commanded, this do ye ; take you 
wagons out of the land of E'gypt for your little 
ones, and for your wives, and bring your father, and 

20 Also G regard not your stuff; for the good of all 
the land of E'gypt is yours. 

21 And the children of I§'ra-el did so : and Jo'- 
seph gave them wagons, according to the Com- 
mandment of Pha'raoh, and gave them provision 
for the way. 

22 To all of them he gave each man changes of 
raiment ; but to Ben'ja-min he gave three hundred 
pieces of silver, and five changes of raiment. 

23 And to his father he sent after this manner ; 
ten asses 8 laden with the good things of E'gypt, and 
ten she asses laden with corn and bread and meat 
for his father by the way. 

24 So he sent his brethren away, and they de- 
parted : and he said unto them, See that ye fall 
not out by the way. 

25 If And they went up out of E'gypt, and came 
into the land of Ca'naan unto Ja'cob their father, 

26 And told him, saying, Jo'seph isjyet alive, and 
he is governor over all the land of E'gypt. /c And 
9 Ja'cob's heart fainted, for he believed them not. 

27 And they told him all the words of Jo'seph, 
which he had said unto them : and when he saw 
the wagons which Jo'seph had sent to carry him, 
the spirit of Ja'cob their father revived : 

28 And I§'ra-el said, It is enough ; Jo'seph my son 
is yet alive : I will go and see him before I die. 


1 Jacob moves to Egypt. 8 His family. 29 Josepli meets him. 

AND I§'ra-el took his journey with all that he 
- had, and came "to Be'er-she'ba^ and offered 
sacrifices unto 6 the God of his father I'saac. 

2 And God spake unto I§'ra-el c in the visions of 
the night, and said, Ja'cob, Ja'cob. And he said, 
Here am I. 

3 And he said, I am God, ' the God of thy father : 
fear not to go down into E'gypt ; for I will there 
make e of thee a great nation : 

4 -T will go down with thee into E'gypt ; and I 
will also surely ° bring thee up again : and h Joseph 
shall put his hand upon thine eyes. 

5 And 'Ja'cob rose up from Be'er-she'ba : and the 
sons of Ig'ra-el carried Ja'cob their father, and their 
little ones, and their wives, in the wagons which 
Pha'raoh had sent to carry him. 

6 And they took their cattle, and their goods, 

E. C. 1707. 

5 was Rood in 
the eyes of 
ch. 41.37. 

/ ch. 27. 28. 
Num. 18. 
12, 29. 

lpt not your 
eye spare, etc. 


S carrying. 
k Job 29. 24. 

Ps. 12G. 1. 

Luke 24. 

11, 41. 
9 his. 

"ch. 21.31. 
b ch. 2G. 24. 

ch. 28. 13. 

ch. 31.42. 
ech. 15. 1. 

Job 33. 14, 15. 
d ch. 28. 13. 
e ch. 12. 2. 

Deut. 2G. 5. 

Ex.1. 9. 
f ch. 28. 15. 

ch. 48. 21. 
g ch. 15. 16. 

ch. 50. 13. 

Ex. 3. 8. 
h ch. 50. 1. 
i ch. 15. 13. 

Acts 7. 15. 
/ Deut. 20. 5. 

Josh. 24. 4. 

Ps. 105. 2o. 

Isa. 52. 4. 
k Ex. 1.1. 

Ex. 0. 14. 
/Num. 20. 5. 

1 Chr. 5. 1. 
m Ex. 0. 1.".. 

1 Chr. 4. 24. 

1 Or, Nemuel. 

2 Or, Jarib. 

3 Or, Zerah, 

1 Chr. 4. 24. 

4 Or, Gershom. 
n ch. 38. 3. 

o ch. 38. 29. 
1 Chr. 2. 5. 

5 Or. Puah, and 

p Num. 26. 15, 

Or, Ozni. 
7 Or, Arod. 
q 1 Chr. 7. 30. 
)■ ch. 30. 10. 
sch. 41. 50. 

5 Or, prince. 
1 1 Chr. 7. 6. 

u Num. 26. 38, 

v Num. 26. 39, 


1 Chr. 7. 12, 


9 Hupham. 

w 1 Cor. 7. 12. 

10 Or, Sliuham. 
r 1 Chr. 7. 13. 

// ch. 30. 5, 7. 
z ch. 29. 29. 
»Ex. 1.5. 

11 thigh. 

6 Deut. 10. 22. 
Acts 7. 14. 

c ch. 31. 21. 

which they had gotten in the land of Ca'naan, and 
came into E'gypt, -'Ja'cob, and all his seed with him : 

7 His sons, and his sons' sons with him, his daugh- 
ters, and his sons' daughters, and all his seed brought 
he with him into E'gypt. 

8 If And k these are the names of the children 
of I§'ra-el, which came into E'gypt, Ja'cob and his 
sons : 'Reu'ben, Ja'cob's firstborn. 

9 And the sons of Reu'ben ; Ha'noch, and Phal'lu, 
and Hez'ron, and Car 'ml. 

10 If And "Mthe sons of Sim'e-on ; 'Jg-mu'el, and 
Ja'min, and O'had, and 2 Ja'chin, and 3 Zo'har, and 
Sha'ul the son of a Ca'naan-It-ish woman. 

11 If And the sons of Le'vT ; 4 Ger'shon, Ko'hath, 
and Me-ra'rI. 

12 If And the sons of Ju'dah ; Er, and O'nan, and 
She'lah, and Pha'rez, and Za'rah : but *Er and 
O'nan died in the land of Ca'naan. And "the sons 
of Pha'rez were Hez'ron and Ha'mul. 

13 If And the sons of Is'sa-char ; To 'la, and 5 Phu'- 
vah, and Job, and Shim'ron. 

14 If And the sons of Zeb'u-lun ; Se'red, and E'lon, 
and Jah'le-el. 

15 These be the sons of Le'ah, which she bare unto 
Ja'cob in Pa'dan-a'ram, with his daughter Dl'nah : 
all the souls of his sons and his daughters were 
thirty and three. 

16 If And the sons of^Gad ; 7J Ziph'i-on, and Hag'gl, 
Shu'nl, and "Ez'bon, E'rl, and 7 Ar'o-dI, and A-re'lT. 

17 If And Hhe sons of Ash'er ; Jim'nah, and Ish'- 
u-ah, and Is'u-I, and Be-rl'ah, and Se'rah their sister : 
and the sons of Be-ri'ah ; He'ber, and Mal'chi-el. 

18 These are 'the sons of Zil'pah, whom La 'ban 
gave to Le'ah his daughter, and these she bare 
unto Ja'cob, even sixteen souls. 

19 The sons of Ra'chel Ja'cob's wife ; Jo'seph, 
and Ben'ja-min. 

20 Tf And s unto Jo'seph in the land of E'gypt were 
born Ma-nas'seh and E'phra-Im, which As'e-nath 
the daughter of Po-ti'-phe-rah 8 priest of On bare 
unto him. 

21 Tf And 'the sons of Ben'ja-min were Be'lah,_and 
Be'cher, and Ash'bel, Ge'ra, and Na'a-man, "E'hi, 
and Rosh, ''Mup'pim, and 9 Hup'pim, and Ard. 

22 These are the sons of Ra'chel, which were born 
to Ja'cob : all the souls were fourteen. 

23 Tf And w the sons of Dan ; K 'Hu'shim. 

24 Tf And Hhe sons of Naph'ta-ll ; Jah'ze-el, and 
Gu'nl, and Je'zer, and Shll'lem. 

25 These v are the sons of Bil'hah, which 2 La'ban 
gave unto Ra'chel his daughter, and she bare these 
unto Ja'cob : all the souls were seven. 

26 "All the souls that came with Ja'cob into E'gypt, 
which came out of his n loins, besides Ja'cob's sons' 
wives, all the souls were threescore and six ; 

27 And the sons of Jo'seph, which were born him 
in E'gypt, were two souls : fe all_the souls of the 
house of Ja'cob, which came into E'gypt, ivere three- 
score and ten. 

28 Tf And he sent Ju'dah before him unto Jo'seph, 
c to direct his face unto Go'shen ; and they came 
into the land of Go'shen. 


Jacob before Pharaoh. 


He settles in Goshen, 

29 And Jo'seph made ready his chariot, and went 
up to meet Ig'ra-el his father, to Go'shen, and pre- 
sented himself unto him ; and he fell on his neck, 
and wept on his neck a good while. 

30 And Ig'ra-el said unto Jo'seph, Now d let me 
die, since I have seen thy face, because thou art yet 

31 And Jo'seph said unto his brethren, and unto 
his father's house, I will go up, and shew Pha'raoh, 
and say unto him, My brethren, and my father's 
house, which were in the land of Ca'naan, are come 
unto me ; 

32 And the men are shepherds, for n their trade 
hath been to feed cattle ; and they have brought 
their flocks, and their herds, and all that they have. 

33 And it shall come to pass, when Pha'raoh shall 
call you, and shall say, c What is your occupation ? 

34 That ye shall say, Thy servants' trade hath 
been about cattle •''from our youth even until now, 
both we, and also our fathers : that ye may dwell 
in the land of Go'shen ; for every shepherd is a an 
abomination unto the E-gyp'tian§. 


1 Jacob presented to Phnraoli. II I fe settles in Goshen. 28 Jacob' s age. 

rpHEN Jo'seph "came and told Pha'raoh, and said, 
-*- My father and my brethren, and their flocks, 
and their herds, and all that they have, are come 
out of the land of Ca'naan ; and, behold, they are 
in the 6 land of Go'shen. 

2 And he took some of his brethren, even five men, 
and presented them unto Pha'raoh. 

3 And Pha'raoh said unto his brethren, rf What is 
your occupation ? And they said unto Pha'raoh, 
c Thy servants are shepherds, both we, and also our 

4 They said moreover unto Pha'raoh, -Tor to 
sojourn in the land are we come ; for thy servants 
have no pasture for their flocks ; 9 for the famine is 
sore in the land of Ca'naan : now therefore, we pray 
thee, let thy servants ''dwell in the land of Go'shen. 

5 And Pha'raoh spake unto Jo'geph, saying, Thy 
father and thy brethren are come unto thee : 

6 The 'land of E'gypt is before thee ; in the best 
of the land make thy father and brethren to dwell ; 
in J 'the land of Go'shen let them dwell : and if thou 
knowest any men of activity among them, then 
make them k rulers over my cattle. 

7 And Jo'geph brought in Ja'cob his father, and 
set him before Pha'raoh : and Ja'cob blessed Pha'- 

8 And Pha'raoh said unto Ja'cob, 'How old art 

9 And Ja'cob said unto Pha'raoh, The 'days of the 
years of my pilgrimage are an hundred and thirty 
years : '"few and evil have the days of the years of 
my life been, and have "not attained unto the days 
of the years of the life of my fathers in the days of 
their pilgrimage. 

10 And Ja'cob "blessed Pha'raoh, and went out 
from before Pha'raoh. 

11 If And Jo'seph placed his father and his broth- 

lS. c. 1707. 

</ Luke 2. 29. 

12 they are men 
of cattle. 

e ch. 47. 2, 3. 

/eh. 30. 35. 
ch. 34. 5. 
ch. 37. 12. 

g Ex. 8. 26. 

a ch. 4C. 31. 

b ch. 45. 10. 
ch. -W. 28. 

c Acts 7. 13. 
d ch. 4G. 33. 

e ch. 4G. 34. 

/ch. 15. 13. 

Deut. 2G. 5. 

Ps. 105. 23. 

Isa. 52. 4. 
g ch. 43. 1. 

Acts 7. 11. 
h ch. 40. 34. 
i ch. 20. 15. 
j verse 4. 
k\ Ki. 11.28. 

Prov. 12. 24. 

Prov. 22. 29. 
1 How many 

are the days 

of the years 

of thy life ? 

1 Ps. 39. 12. 

Ps. 119. 19. 
2 Cor. 5. 6, 7. 
Heb. 11. 9, 13. 
1 Pet. 2. 11. 
m Job 7. 7. 
Job 14. 1. 
Ps. 102. 3. 
Eccl. 2. 23. 
Jas. 4. 14. 

1 Pet: 1.24. 
n ch. 25. 7. 

ch. 35. 28. 
o verse 7. 
pEx. 1. 11. 

Kx. 12. 37. 
g verse 6. 
r Ex. 20. 12. 

Prov. 10. 1. 

2 Or, as a little 
child is nour- 
ished ; ac- 
cording to the 
little ones, 
ch. 50. 21. 

.U'h. 41.30. 
Acts 7. 11. 5G. 
u verse 19. 

3 led them. 
v Ezra 7. 24. 

4 Or, princes, 
ch. 41.45. 

2 Sam. 8. 18. 
w ch. 33. 15. 

ren, and gave them a possession in the land of 
E'gypt, in the best of the land, in the land of p Ra- 
me'seg, as Q Pha'raoh had commanded. 

12 And Jo'geph nourished his father, and his breth- 
ren, and all his r father's household, with bread, 2 ac- 
cording to their families. 

13 If And there was no bread in all the land ; for 
the famine ivas very sore, s so that the land of 
E'gypt and all the land of Ca'naan fainted by rea- 
son of the famine. 

14 And 'Jo'seph gathered up all the money that 
was found in the land of E'gypt, and in the land of 
Ca'naan, for the corn which they bought : and Jo'- 
seph brought the money into Pha'raoh's house. 

15 And when money failed in the land of E'gypt, 
and in the land of Ca'naan, all the E-gyp'tian§ came 
unto Jo'seph, and said, Give us bread : for w why 
should we die in thy presence ? for the money fail- 

16 And Jo'geph said, Give your cattle ; and I will 
give you for your cattle, if money fail. 

17 And they brought their cattle unto Jo'seph : 
and Jo'geph gave them bread in exchange for horses, 
and for the flocks, and for the cattle of the herds, 
and for the asses : and he 3 fed them with bread for 
all their cattle for that year. 

18 When that year was ended, they came unto him 
the second year, and said unto him, We will not hide 
it from my lord, how that our money is spent ; my 
lord also hath our herds of cattle ; there is not ought 
left in the sight of my lord, but our bodies, and our 
lands : 

19 Wherefore shall we die before thine eyes, both 
we and our land ? buy us and our land for bread, 
and we and our land will be servants unto Pha'raoh : 
and give us seed, that we may live, and not die, 
that the land be not desolate. 

20 And Jo'geph bought all the land of E'gypt for 
Pha'raoh ; for the E-gyp'tian§ sold every man his 
field, because the famine prevailed over them : so 
the land became Pha'raoh's. 

21 And as for the people, he removed them to cities 
from one end of the borders of E'gypt even to the 
other end thereof. 

22 Only "the land of the 4 priests bought he not ; 
for the priests had a portion assigned them of Pha'- 
raoh, and did eat their portion which Pha'raoh gave 
them : wherefore they sold not their lands. 

23 Then Jo'geph said unto the people, Behold, I 
have bought you this day and your land for Pha'- 
raoh : lo, here is seed for you, and ye shall sow the 

24 And it shall come to pass in the increase, that 
ye shall give the fifth part unto Pha'raoh, and four 
parts shall be your own, for seed of the field, and 
for your food, and for them of your households, and 
for food for your little ones. 

25 And they said, Thou hast saved our lives : w let 
us find grace in the sight of my lord, and we will 
be Pha'raoh's servants. 

_26 And Jo'seph made it a law over the land of 
E'gypt unto this day, that Pha'raoh should have the 

Joseph visits Jacob. 

GENESIS, 48, 49. 

Joseph's children blessed. 

fifth part ; * except the land of the 5 priests only, 
which became not Pha'raoh's. 

27 f And Ig'ra-el v dwelt in the land of E'gypt, in 
the country of Go'shen ; and they had possessions 
therein, and z grew, and multiplied exceedingly. 

28 And Ja'cob lived in the land of E'gypt seven- 
teen years : so 6 the whole age of Ja'cob was an hun- 
dred forty and seven years. 

29 And the time a drew nigh that Ig'ra-el must die : 
and he called his son Jo'seph, and said unto him, If 
now I have found grace in thy sight, 6 put, I pray 
thee, thy hand under my thigh, and c deal kindly 
and truly with me ; d bury me not, I pray thee, in 

30 But e l will lie with my fathers, and thou shalt 
carry me out of E'gypt, and r bury me in their bury- 
ingplace. And he said, I will do as thou hast said. 

31 And he said, Swear unto me. And he sware 
unto him. And "Ig'ra-el bowed himself upon the 
bed's head. 


1 Joseph visits Jacob. Jacob's blessing. 21 Me foretells a return to Canaan. 

AND it came to pass after these things, that one 
- told Jo'geph, Behold, thy father is sick : and 
he took with him his two sons, Ma-nas'seh and 

2 And one told Ja'cob, and said, Behold, thy son 
Jo'seph cometh unto thee : and Ig'ra-el strengthened 
himself, and sat upon the bed. 

3 And Ja'cob said unto Jo'geph, God Almighty ap- 
peared unto me at a Luz in the land of Ca'naan, and 
blessed me, 

4 And said unto me, Behold, I will make thee fruit- 
ful, and multiply thee, and I will make of thee a 
multitude of people ; and will give this land to thy 
seed after thee b for an everlasting possession. 

5 H And now thy c two sons, E'phra-im and Ma-nas'- 
seh, which were born unto theejn the land of E'gypt 
before I came unto thee into E'gypt, are mine ; as 
Reu'ben and Sim'e-on, they shall be mine. 

6 And thy issue, which thou begettest after them, 
shall be thine, and shall be called after the name of 
their brethren in their inheritance. 

7 And as for me, when I came from Pa'dan, d Ra'- 
chel died by me in the land of Ca'naan in the way, 
when yet there was but a little way to come unto 
Eph'rath : and I buried her there in the way of 
Eph'rath ; the same is Beth'-le-hem. 

8 And I§'ra-el beheld Joseph's sons, and said, Who 
are these ? 

9 And Jo'seph said unto his father, 6 They are my 
sons, whom God hath given me in this place. And 
he said, Bring them, I pray thee, unto me, and / I 
will bless them. 

10 Now 5 the eyes of I§'ra-el were Mini for age, 
so that he could not see. And he brought them 
near unto him ; and he '' kissed them, and embraced 

11 And Is'ra-el said unto Jo'seph, *I had not 
thought to see thy face : and, lo, God hath shewed 
me also thy seed. 

12 And Jo'seph brought them out from between 

B. C. 1689. 

x verse 22. 
5 Or, princes. 
y verse 11. 

zch. 12. 2. 

ch. 15. 13, 14. 

ch. 17. G. 

ch. 18. 18. 

ch. 26. 4. 

ch. 4G. 3. 

Ex. 1. 7. 

Deut. 2G. 5. 

Ps. 105. 24. 

Acts 7. 17. 
G the days of 

the years of 

his life. 
a Deut. 31. 14. 

1 Ki. 2. 1. 
b ch. 24. 2. 
c ch. 24. 49. 
d ch. 50. 25. 

e 2 Sam. 19. 37. 

/ch. 23. 2,17- 


ch. 25. 9, 10. 

ch. 35. 29. 

ch. 49. 29. 

ch. 50. 5, 13. 

Acts 7. 16. 

Heb. 11. 22. 
g ch. 48. 2. 

1 Ki. 1.47. 

Heb. 11.21. 

a ch. 28. 13. 19. 
ch. 35. G, 9, 

b ch. 17. 8. 
c ch.41. 50. 

ch. 46. 20. 

Josh. 13. 7. 

Josh. 14. 4. 
d ch. 35. 19. 
e ch. 33. 5. 
/ ch. 27. 4. 
g ch. 27. 1. 
1 heavy. 

Isa. 6. 10. 

Isa. 59. 1. 
// ch. 27. 27. 
i ch. 45. 26. 
jHeb. 11. 21. 
k ch. 28. 15. 

1 Amos 9. 12. 

Acts 15. 17. 

2 as fishes do 

m verse 14. 

3 was evil in 
his eyes. 

n Num. 2. 19. 
Deut. 33. 17. 

4 fulness. 

o Ruth 4. 11. 
p ch. 50. 24. 
q Josh. 24. 32. 

1 Chr. 5. 2. 

John 4. 5. 
r eh. 34. 28. 

Josh. 17. 14. 

a Deut. 33. 1. 

Amos 3. 7. 
6 Num. 24. 14. 

Deut. 4. 30. 
cPs. 34. 11. 
</ Deut. 21. 17. 

1 do not thou 

<• Deut. 'J7. '_'(). 
1 Chr. 5. 1 . 

2 Or, my couch" 
is gone. 

/Prov. IS. 9. 

3 Or. their 
swords are 
weapons of 

g ch. 34. 25. 
h Prov. 1. 15. 
i Ps. 26. 9. 

4 Or, houghed 

his knees, and he bowed himself with his face to 
the earth. 

13 And Jo'seph took them both, E'phra-im in his 
right hand toward Ig'ra-el's left hand, and Ma-nas'- 
seh in his left hand toward Ig'ra-el's right hand, and 
brought them near unto him. 

14 And I§'ra-el stretched out his right hand, and 
laid it upon E'phra-im's head, who was the younger, 
and his left hand upon Ma-nas'seh's head, guiding 
his hands wittingly ; for Ma-nas'seh was the first- 

15 IT And j he blessed Jo'seph, and said t God, be- 
fore whom my fathers A'bra-ham and I'saac did 
walk, the God which fed me all my life long unto 
this day, 

16 The Angel k which redeemed me from all evil, 
bless the lads ; and let 'my name be named on them, 
and the name of my fathers A'bra-ham and I'saac ; 
and let them 2 grow into a multitude in the midst 
of the earth. 

17 And when Jo'seph saw that his father '"laid his 
right hand upon the head of E'phra-im, it 3 displeased 
him : and he held up his father's hand, to remove 
it from E'phra-im's head unto Ma-nas'seh's head. 

18 And Jo'seph said unto his father, Not so, my 
father : for this is the firstborn ; put thy right 
hand upon his head. 

19 And his father refused, and said, I know it, my 
son, I know it : he also shall become a people, and 
he also shall be great : but truly his "younger bro- 
ther shall be greater than he, and his seed shall be- 
come a i multitude of nations. 

20 And he blessed them that day, saying, "In thee 
shall I§'ra-el bless, saying, God make _ thee as 
E'phra-im and as Ma-nas'seh : and he set E'phra-im 
before Ma-nas'seh. 

21 And I§'ra-el said unto Jo'seph, Behold, I die : 
but p God shall be with you, and bring you again 
unto the land of your fathers. 

22 Moreover "l have given to thee one portion 
above thy brethren, which I took out of the hand 
of the r Am'6r-Ite with my sword and with my bow. 


1 Jacob's dying blessing. 29 Charge as to his burial. 33 His death. 

AND Ja'cob called unto his sons, and said, Gather 
- yoursefves together, that I may "tell you that 
which shall befall you 6 in the last days. 

2 Gather yourselves together, and hear, ye sons of 
Ja'cob ; and c hearken unto Ig'ra-el your father. 

3 If Reu'ben, thou art my firstborn, my might, d and 
the beginning of my strength, the excellency of 
dignity, and the excellency of power : 

4 Unstable as water, 1 e thou shalt not excel ; be- 
cause thou wentest up to thy father's bed ; then 
defiledst thou it: 2 he went up to my couch. 

5 f Sim'e-on and Le'vi are •'brethren ; ^instru- 
ments of cruelty are in their habitations. 

6 O my soul, h come not thou into their secret ; 
'unto their assembly, mine honour, be not thou 
united : for in their anger they slew a man, and in 
their self will they 4 digged down a wall. 


Jacob's dying blessi?ig. 


Burial of Jacob. 

7 Cursed be their anger, for it was fierce ; and 
their wrath, for it was cruel : j l will divide them 
in Ja'cob, and scatter them in Ig'ra-el. 

8 U Ju'dah, thou art he whom thy brethren shall 
praise : thy hand shall be in the neck of thine ene- 
mies ; thy father's children shall bow down before 

9 Ju'dah is a lion's whelp : from the prey, my son, 
thou art gone up : k he stooped down, he couched 
as a lion, and as an old lion ; who shall rouse him 

10 The 'sceptre shall not depart from Ju'dah, nor 
a m lawgiver from between his feet, "until Shi'loh 
come ; "and unto him shall the gathering of the 
people be. 

11 Binding his foal unto the vine, and his ass's 
colt unto the choice vine ; he washed his garments 
in wine, and his clothes in the blood of grapes : 

12 His eyes shall be red with wine, and his teeth 
white with milk. 

13 If p Zeb'u-lun shall dwell at the haven of the 
sea ; and he shall be for an haven of ships ; and his 
border shall be unto Zi'don. 

14 Tf Is'sa-char is a strong ass couching down be- 
tween two burdens : 

15 And he saw that rest was good, and the land 
that it was pleasant ; and bowed his shoulder to 
bear, and became a servant unto tribute. 

16 If Q Dan shall judge his people, as one of the 
tribes of Ig'ra-el. 

17 r Dan shall be a serpent by the way, 5 an adder 
in the path, that biteth the horse heels, so that his 
rider shall fall backward. 

18 s I have waited for thy salvation, Lord. 

19 If 'Gad, a troop shall overcome him : but he shall 
overcome at the last. 

20 I Out of Ash'er his bread shall be fat, and he 
shall yield royal dainties. 

21 If Naph'ta-lT is a hind let loose : he giveth goodly 

22 If Jo'geph is a fruitful bough, even a fruitful 
bough by a well; whose 6 branches run over the 
wall : 

23 The archers have "sorely grieved him, and shot 
at him, and hated him : 

24 But his ""bow abode in strength, and the arms 
of his hands were made strong by the hands of the 
'"mighty God of Ja'cob; (from thence x is the shep- 
herd, ^the stone of Ig'ra-el':) 

25 Even by the God of thy father, who shall help 
thee; and by the Almighty, *who shall bless thee 
with blessings of heaven above, blessings of the deep 
that lieth under, blessings of the breasts, and of the 

26 The blessings of thy father have prevailed above 
the blessings of my progenitors unto the utmost 
bound of the everlasting hills : they shall be on the 
head of Jo'geph, and on the crown of the head of 
him that was separate from his brethren. 

27 If Ben'ja-min shall "ravin as a wolf: in the 
morning he shall devour the prey, 6 and at night he 
shall divide the spoil. 


B. C. 1689. 

j Josh. 21. 1. 
1 Chr. 4. 24. 

k Num. 24. 9. 

I Num. 24. 17. 

m Ps. CO. 7. 
n 1 Chr. 5. 2. 

Isa. 11. 1. 

Ezek. 21.27. 

Dan. 9. 25. 

Matt. 21. 9. 

Luke 1. 32. 
o Isa. 2. 2. 

Isa. 11. 10. 

Isa. 42. 1,4. 

Isa. 49. 6. 

Isa. 55. 4, 5. 

Isa. 00. 1-5. 

Hag. 2. 7. 

Luke 2. 30. 

p Deut. 33. 18. 

q Judg. 15. 20. 
Judg. 18. 2. 

r Judg. 18. 27. 

5 an arrow- 

s Ps. 25. 3, 5. 
Ps. 62. 5. 
Ps. 119. 
166, 174. 
Ps. 130. 5. 
Isa. 25. 9. 
Isa. 40. 31. 
Lam. 3. 26. 
Rom. 2. 7. 

1 Cor. 1. 7. 
Phil. 3. 20. 
Tit. 2. 13. 

t Deut. 33. 20. 

6 daughters. 
u ch. 37. 24. 
v Job 29. 20. 

w Ps. 132. 2. 5. 
X Ps. 80. 1. 
y Isa. 28. 16. 
z Deut. 33. 13. 
a Judg. 20. 

21, 25. 
b Num. 23. 24. 

Esth. 8. 11. 

Ezek. 39. 10. 

Zech. 14. 1, 7 
c ch. 15. 15. 

ch. 25. 8. 
d ch. 47. 30. 

2 Sam. 19. 37 
e ch. 50. 13. 

/ ch. 23. 16. 

g ch. 23. 19. 

ch. 25. 9. 

h ch. 35. 29. 

a ch. 46. 4. 
b 2 Ki. 13. 14. 
c 2 Chr. 16. 14. 

Matt. 26. 12. 

Mark 14. 8. 

Mark 16. 1. 

Luke 24. 1. 

John 19. 39, 40. 

1 wept. - 

d Num. 20. 29. 

Deut. 34. 8. 
e Esth. 4. 2. 
f> Chr. 16. 14. 

Isa. 22. 16. 

Matt. 27. 60. 
q Acts 8. 2. 
h 1 Sam. 31.13. 

Job 2. 13. 

2 That is, The 
mourning of 
the Egyptians. 

28 If All these are the twelve tribes of Ig'ra-el : 
and this is it that their father spake unto them, and 
blessed them ; every one according to his blessing he 
blessed them. 

29 And he charged them, and said unto them, I 
'am to be gathered unto my people : d bury me with 
my fathers e in the cave that is in the field of E'phron 
the Hit'tlte, 

30 In the cave that is in the field of Mach-pe'lah, 
which is b